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In the fall of 1864, he received and accepted an invitation to return to his old preparatory school, Williston Seminary, Easthampton, as teacher of modern languages and instructor in gymnastics. For this work he was well equipped, and had time to devote to favorite studies, for he was beginning to have something like a passion for books.

While teaching at Easthampton he was associated with such men as General Francis A. Walker, M. F. Dickinson, Charles M. Lamson, Judson Smith, and Charles H. Parkhurst. It was indeed a brilliant and inspiring corps of teachers, such as any institution has a right to be proud of. Goodell seems oftener than occasionally to have disturbed the gravity and decorum of the faculty meetings by his remarks, although Dr. Henshaw, the principal, did not always perceive the suggestiveness of Goodell's suggestions. There was once a proposition made to appoint some member of the Faculty to do some particular duty, and Goodell said, with that peculiar innocence of which he was consummate master: "Dr. Henshaw, if you want a man who possesses both the suaviter in modo and the fortiter in re, I would suggest the name of

III

EDUCATOR

DURING the last decade of the eighteenth century the attention of many thoughtful and far-seeing men was directed to creating a more intelligent culture of the soil. This resulted in the formation of the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, in 1796. Through the influence of this organization, societies of a similar purpose were organized in the various counties of the Commonwealth, and cattle-shows and horse-shows became a feature of the industrial life of the people. Public-spirited and wealthy men offered prizes for the best products of the farm, and subscribed money to collect and diffuse information on matters pertaining to agriculture.

The printing-press was called into requisition, and on the 2nd of August, 1818, "The American Farmer" was published at Baltimore; three years later came "The Plough Boy" (spelled Plow Boy), published at Albany; the following year "The New England Farmer" appeared in Boston; and soon papers devoted to this subject appeared in many localities. As the nineteenth century advanced men began to talk of schools of agriculture. Prominent educators, like Edward Hitchcock of Amherst, a man of great practical wisdom, advocated the teaching of this great branch of industry in academies and colleges, and as early as 1843 the Trustees of Amherst College appointed Charles U. Shepard, Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Mineralogy.

The governors of states recommended to the legislatures to take such action as would advance this great utility. Our presidents have recommended the subject to the consideration of Congress. Washington, who, whatever he was besides, was a farmer by nature, took a deep interest in this subject, and in his last annual message recommended to Congress that appropriations should be made, to encourage an interest in it. President Jefferson in his first inaugural, when enumerating the objects of government, puts the encouragement of agriculture among them. But so negligent had Congress been in fostering the interests of this great phase of the national life, that President Lincoln, in his first annual message December 3, 1861, said that "Agriculture, confessedly the largest interest of the nation, has not a department, nor even a bureau, but a clerkship only, assigned to it in the government. While I make no suggestions as to details, I venture the opinion that an agricultural and statistical bureau might profitably be organized." In pursuance of this suggestion Congress passed an act May 4, 1862, creating a Bureau of Agriculture. The President immediately set about organizing it and refers to it in all his annual messages; and in the very last one he speaks of it as "peculiarly the people's department, in which they feel more directly concerned than in any other. I commend it to the continued attention and fostering care of Congress."

The next step in the national recognition of the importance of agriculture was an act of Congress, February 11, 1889, making the bureau a department, and the commissioner a secretary, with a seat in the President's cabinet.

While these steps were being taken by the national

government, thoughtful and progressive men of high standing and character were urging with eloquent earnestness that education in agriculture was as important as education in the so-called liberal professions. But as Walter Bagehot has said, "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea. It is, as common people say, 'so upsetting, it makes you think that, after all, your favorite notions may be wrong, your firmest beliefs unfounded.""1 But the whole subject was put in a new light by the Hon. Justin S. Morrill, then a representative in Congress from Vermont, himself a farmer's boy, then a merchant, and afterwards a farmer. He brought in, December 14, 1857, a bill devoting large areas of the public lands to the states which should within a given time establish colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The bill passed the House by a vote of 105 to 100. Some thirteen months afterward, on February 7, 1859, it passed the Senate by a vote of 25 to 22. President Buchanan returned it to the House with a long veto message, the sum and substance of which was stated in the first sentence: "I deem it to be both inexpedient and unconstitutional.”

The fact that such a bill had passed both houses of Congress gave new inspiration to the friends of the movement, and it is said that in the next contest for the presidency two of the leading candidates, Mr. Lincoln and Judge Douglas, were pledged to favor the bill. The people now began to talk of agricultural colleges, and two of the states went forward and established them.

Mr. Morrill, on December 13, 1861, again presented his bill. It passed both houses, and on July 2, 1862, received

1 Physics and Politics, 163.

the sanction of President Lincoln and became a law. This bill, known as the Morrill Act, had a tremendous influence upon agricultural education. Mr. Morrill lived to see institutions of this kind established and sustained by this act in every state of the Union.

This law was strengthened by the "Hatch Bill" approved by President Cleveland, March 2, 1886, creating experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges; and four years later, Senator Morrill brought in a bill, approved by President Harrison, August 30, 1890, for a more complete endowment of the land-grant colleges. All the bills for the advancement of industrial education were championed by the practical wisdom and consummate tact of Mr. Morrill; and he will stand at the bar of history as one of our greatest national benefactors.

A gentleman was once introduced to Mr. Morrill as a friend of President Goodell, and the Senator, taking his hand in both his own, said, with an earnestness not to be mistaken, "I congratulate you sir, most heartily, on having such a man for your friend." When George F. Hoar published his "Autobiography of Seventy Years," the attention of President Goodell was called to the chapter on some of the Senators with whom Mr. Hoar had served. After reading it he wrote: "All this is very beautiful, but as I went on from one splendid characterization to another, I began to fear that he would get exhausted and break down before he got to Senator Morrill. But he rose to the occasion. It was the last, and fine as the others were, this was the best of all. It was beautiful beyond any words of mine to describe, and it is as true as it is beautiful. It is a mystery to me how a man could write such a chapter as that."

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