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many years ago. Extreme caution must be used in approaching these shores.
Currents in Bristol Bay are discussed in connection with those of Bering Sea, page 382.
Cape Sarichef (p. 310), the western end of the south coast of Bristol Bay, is low, with detached rocks close inshore, around which strong tidal currents sweep. The land falls away eastward in a gentle curve, forming an open bay, called Dublin Bay, about 4 miles in depth between the cape and Cave Point, which lies 16 miles from the former. This bay may be used as a temporary anchorage by vessels of any size. The holding ground is said to be good. Cave Point is a vertical, rocky cliff, about 150 feet (46 m) in height, and takes its name from a cave on its face, inhabited by sea birds, which in summer hover about it in thousands, making it conspicuous in clear weather by their numbers, and in fog by their constant cries. The snow-clad peak Pogromni Volcano (p. 307) rising to an altitude of 6,500 feet (1,981 m) above the sea, forms a striking background to the low, monotonous coast.
Passing Cape Mordvinof, a low, bluff point about 13 miles from Cave Point, the coast falls away slightly for 6 miles, when it turns abruptly eastward for 5 miles, and then takes a northerly direction forming Urilia Bay. This bay is open northward, but affords protection from all winds from southward of east or west. The approaches are clear, and the water shoals gradually to 6 fathoms (in m), black sand, about 34 mile from shore.
Note.—It is reported that Cape Mordvinof lies about 1 mile north of its charted position (1937)." Navigators are cautioned to make ample allowance when laying courses northward of this cape especially from Bristol Bay.
From Urilia Bay to Isanotski Strait the coast trends in a northeasterly direction, is very low, and has several rocky patches extending 12 to 1 mile from shore, making navigation unsafe inside the 12fathom (21.9 m) line. The volcano of Shishaldin rises 9,387 feet (2,861 m) about midway between the above points and 7 or 8 miles inland. Ísanotski Strait is available only for small vessels.
Swanson Lagoon is a shallow lagoon on the north side of Unimak Island 7 miles westward from Chunak Point. It has a narrow entrance and during some years can be entered by light-draft launches, but at other times only pulling boats can enter. Inside is for the most part of mud flat at low water with crooked channels with from 1 to 3 feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) of water flowing between tidal flats. The lakes draining into the lagoon are spawning places for salmon, and the lagoon is important only as a fishery. About 34 mile eastward of the entrance is a cone-shaped hill 85 feet (25.9 m) high.
Isanotski Strait (False Pass).—Chunał Point Beacon is established on a sand dune about 173 miles westward from Chunak Point. The beacon is useful to small craft making the entrance of the strait from Bering Sea. For directions, Isanotski Strait, see page 294. The strait is shown on chart 8701.
From Isanotski Strait to Cape Glazenap, about 19 miles, the coast retains the same general direction. It is low with grassy bluffs in places 50 to 100 feet (15.2 to 30 m) high.
Cape Glazenap, at the entrance to Izembek Bay, is oval in form and is about 100 feet (30 m) high.
Izembek Bay covers a large area at high tide, but much of it is bare at low water. Reports have indicated a channel into the bay with 10 to 12 feet on the bar, but in 1924, launches were unable to find any consistent channels through the entrance. The bay is navigated with power dories by the local trappers and guides who often take_bear-hunting parties into the bay. There is a trail from Izembek Bay to the headwaters of Cold Bay.
AMAK ISLAND is of volcanic origin, about 272 miles in length, 112 miles in width, and 1,682 feet (513 m) in height. It lies 12 miles northwest from Cape Glazenap. The beaches are mostly huge boulders and bluffs 30 to 150 feet (9 to 46 m) high. The central peak is a dark-brown rock, bare, rugged, and precipitous. The southeast point is in latitude 55°25' N. and longitude 163008' W. The island was determined by triangulation in 1924 and the charted position was found to be correct. There is foul ground off the northwest end of the island, several rocks awash or under water, and Sealion Rock between 2 and 3 miles distant. The latter is several hundred yards in extent and about 150 feet (46 m) high, its slopes being occupied by an extensive rookery of sea lions.
A reef about 14 mile long lies off the southeast end of Amak Island; about 250 yards of this reef shows bare. A reef, which breaks in a moderate swell, has been reported 3 miles about 63° true from the summit of the island.
It is reported that a fair lee and anchorage with hard bottom can be found on the southeast side of Amak Island, and one not so good on the southwest side, but the foul south point of the island must be given a wide berth.
The Khudiakof Islands extend about 19 miles between Cape Glazenap and Moffet Point. They are but little above high water, and some of them are connected by narrow spits at low water.
From Moffet Point the low coast extends 15 miles to Gerstle Bay, then northward and eastward about 55 miles to Wolf Point, on the western side of the entrance to Port Moller.
A depth of 12 fathoms (22 m) was reported 20 miles off the coast, northward of Black Hill.
The Kudobin Islands occupy the last 23 miles of this distance. They are very low, and it is difficult to distinguish them from the mainland, the only distinctive feature being a knob about 25 feet (7.6 m) high on the east end of Kritskoi.
Nelson Lagoon lies back of Lagoon Point and the Kudobin Islands.. The Pacific American Fisheries, Inc., maintain radio station KMU.
The land between Herendeen Bay and Nelson Lagoon is very low. The cannery in Nelson Lagoon has not been in operation for several years. Fish caught in the lagoon are taken to the cannery at Port Moller.
PORT MOLLER (chart 8833).—The survey of this port is incomplete. A party of the Coast and Geodetic Survey made a partial examination in 1910, the work being confined to the vicinity of Entrance
Point. The following information is from the report and examination by that party supplemented by later information furnished by the Pacific American Fisheries, which company operates a cannery in
Port Moller is surrounded by high mountains, and there is a high ridge across its head. The shore is steep and rocky except at the spits. Kudobin Islands are low and afford no definite features on which a bearing can be taken.
Walrus Island, the most easterly of the Kudobin Islands, lies on the west side of the entrance.
Doe Point and Point Divide are bluffs and can be seen from some distance outside of Entrance Point. Harbor Point is a low, narrow, grassy sand and shingle spit, which cannot be made out distinctly until nearly up with Entrance Point.
Port Moller and Herendeen Bay are indicated from seaward by a valley receding into the mountains. The land at the entrance is low and the chart indicates extensive shoals in the approach, so that access would be somewhat difficult in bad weather even if the charts were based on an accurate survey. The only channel of which we have any knowledge lies on the eastern side of the entrance, and Entrance Point, a low grassy spit, is the leading mark for entering. It is marked near the end by sand knolls, some noticeably eroded on the offshore side. There is reported a least depth of 8 feet (2.4 m) at low water in this channel, but local knowledge is required for its use, as the ice changes the channel each year.
A 2-fathom (3.7 m) shoal of small extent has been reported to exist 12 mile WNW. mag. from Entrance Point.
The cannery buildings and wharf of the Pacific American Fisheries are located just inside Entrance Point.
Northwestward from Entrance Point is a large shoal with depths of 9 feet (2.7 m) and less over it. There is a channel suitable for fishing boats between this shoal and the shore.
A shoal with little water over it and on which the sea generally breaks at low water lies about 34 mile westward (true) from the end of Harbor Point and extends in a 354° true direction for a distance of about 4 miles, where it forms the southeastern side of the channel which leads to Entrance Point. The Pacific American Fisheries report that there has been considerable change in the flats off Port Moller during the past few years, but that the entering channel has remained about the same.
The cannery company maintains a radio station (call letters KJW) during the canning season, from April to August of each year. There is a store from which a limited amount of provisions may be obtained. During the salmon season a company steamer from Bellingham, Washington, makes regular calls at Port Moller. There is a trail leading overland from Port Moller to Balboa Bay on the Pacific side of the peninsula.
Anchorage.-A convenient anchorage can be had in the channel abreast the dolphin is 13 fathoms (23.8 m). A more protected anchorage may be found in the channel between Entrance Point and Harbor Point.
Directions.-A stranger approaching Port Moller should notify the cannery by radio and a pilot will be sent out, for which there will be no charge. The following directions are given by Captains Jackson and Knight of the Pacific American Fisheries:
From off the eastern end of Walrus Island steer about 120° true for the end of Entrance Point. When on the bearing, a white beacon on Entrance Point should be on range with another beacon on the high bluffs across the bay. This range passes close to the shoal to the northeastward, and for that reason the range should be held a little open to the southward. Each summer the cannery company drives a dolphin on the southwest extremity of the shoal with an arrow pointing toward the channel. The dolphin is usualy driven in about 5 fathoms (9.1 m) of water. When about 34 mile off Entrance Point haul up and round the point at a distance of not more than 14 mile and go to the dock. Special precaution should be taken when entering with a flood tide.
With a strong southeast wind, vessels are sometimes unable to get away from the dock at Port Moller. There are 18 feet (5.5 m) of water at the dock, and fresh water is piped to it.
To make the anchorage northward of Harbor Point, pass 14 mile southwestward of Entrance Point on a southeasterly course, and then bring the point astern on a 174° true course until 114 to 112 miles from it. Then steer 188° true, heading to pass 14 mile westward of the end of Harbor Point.
Directions, Cape Sarichef to Port Moller are given on page 389.
Tides, Port Moller.-High and low water occur about 5 hours earlier than at Nushagak Bay. The mean range of the tide is about 71/2 feet (2.3 m) and the range between mean lower low water and mean higher high water 101/2 feet (3.2 m).
Herendeen Bay (chart 8833) is on the west side of Port Moller. There is information regarding this region other than that which may be taken from chart 8833. In using the chart it should be borne in mind that, except for the area already described, the surveys upon which it is based were made in 1890, and that all information available points to extensive changes since that time, particularly in those areas exposed to the action of the sea.
Mine Harbor is small but free from dangers, except Midway Keef, which extends 38 mile from its eastern shore and shows at half tide. Anchor northwestward of Midway Reef in 12 to 15 fathoms (21.9 to 27.4 m), and if intending to remain any time it is advisable to moor. A reef extends 600 yards westward from Crow Point, the south point of Mine Harbor. Crow Reef, bare at low water, lies 78 mile westward of Crow Point and 1/2 mile southward of Bluff Point.
Hague Channel is 1 mile wide at its northern entrance, and is contracted to less than 1/2 mile between Point Divide and Doe Point. The tidal currents are very strong, and near high water they sweep across the narrow channel and over the flats, making it impossible to steer a compass course. They are more regular near low tide, which is the best time to make the passage, as the channel is indicated by the flats showing above water on either hand.
Johnston Channel, Herendeen Bay, has 7 to 15 fathoms (12.8 to 27.4 m), but is very narrow with steep sides. It is difficult to find, but once in, the navigation is comparatively simple, as the tidal currents follow the general direction of deep water. The width of the
DIRECTIONS PORT MOLLER
channel at the northern entrance, 78 mile south of Point Divide, is 14 mile, with little variation until near the southern extremity, where it contracts to 250 yards.
A rock with 11 feet (3.3 m) of water over it has been reported on the eastern side of Johnston Channel, abreast Eagle Rock. Having passed through the Channel, Crow Reef off the south point of Mine Harbor, is the only outlying danger known.
Anchorages may be found anywhere between Walrus Island and Entrance Point in case of fog, and a vessel may anchor in Hague Channel, but the tidal currents are strong. There are fairly good anchorages under the northside of Point Divide and Doe Point, where near the bank, a vessel will be out of the strength of the current. The Albatross anchored in mid-channel, 1 mile inside of the above points, at the time of spring tides, and the flood came in with a bore between 2 and 3 feet (0.6 and 0.9 m) in height, the patent log registering a 9-knot current for some time, with a swell which occasionally splashed into the scuppers. There is a fair anchorage off the northern entrance to Johnston Channel, and an excellent one at its southern extremity, off Marble Point, just north of Shingle Point, or, in fact, almost anywhere in the upper bay. The last quarter of the flood tide is the best time to pass through this channel.
High land rises at the base of Harbor Point and extends northward and eastward near the middle of the peninsula. Point Divide is 50 feet (15.2 m) in height, and mountain ranges rise a few miles back. The coal measures are found between Mine Harbor and the head of Port Moller. Doe Point is 40 feet (12.2 m) in height, while the rest of Deer Island and the mainland south and west of it are generally lower. The southern shores of Herendeen Bay are mountainous, with intervening valleys, the whole face of the country being covered with rank grass and wild flowers during the summer months; but there is no timber except occasional small poplars, alder bushes, and willows. Fresh winds, with fog and mist, blow across the low divides from the Pacific, obscuring the sun and greatly increasing the rainfall in Port Moller and vicinity.
There are no large fresh-water streams entering the bay.
There are coal outcrops in Herendeen Bay, and at one time coal was mined here. The mines have long since been abandoned.
There is a frequently used portage from the head of Herendeen Bay to Balboa Bay, on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula.
Directions, Cape Sarichef to Port Moller.-From a position 31/2 miles west (true) from Cape Sarichef Lighthouse, steer 40° true for 291/2 miles to a point with Cape Mordvinof abeam, distant 3 miles. Then steer 51° true for 53 miles to a point with Amak Island on the starboard beam, distant 71/2 miles. From this point steer 60° true to a position 9 miles offshore, with Black Hill, near Cape Lieskof, abeam. Then steer 76° true for about 35 miles until the cannery buildings at Nelson Lagoon are abeam.
About 16 miles to the eastward of Black Hill and 2 miles inshore is a low prominent sandhill known locally as Last Knoll, as it is the last knoll on the coast to a vessel bound eastward. Local vessels use this hill extensively in checking their distance en route to Port Moller.