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vessel of the Coast Guard anchored in about 7 fathoms (12.8 m), hard sand bottom, with Cape Chiniak bearing 205° true, Shakun Rock 86° true, and the settlement rock 346° true. Between Cape Chiniak and Shakun Rock the bottom was found to be uneven, depths 10 to 20 fathoms (18.3 to 37 m), mud and hard sand at intervals.

Cape Chiniak, the north point of Hallo Bay, lies 71,2 miles northward of Cape Nukshak. There is a high hill near its end.

Hallo Bay has not been examined except near Cape Nukshak.

Ninagiak Island, in Hallo Bay, has a knob with an estimated height of 200 feet (61. m). A rock bare at low water lies approximately 34 mile eastward of the island.

A reef, about 114 miles long east and west, lies in Hallo Bay approximately midway between Ninagiak Island and Cape Nukshak. The reef is bare in places at low water, is covered at high water, and has no kelp.

CAPE NUKSHAK, 171,2 miles northward of Cape Kuliak, terminates in an island 1/2 mile long and 133 feet (40 m) high, with two knolls. The cape is flat and grass covered to the foot of a sharp, prominent peak, but there is a break through the flat part of the cape forming a second island at high water.

Anchorage, sheltered from southerly and westerly winds, may be had about 400 yards off the north side of Cape Nukshak, with the foot of the eastern slope of the peak on the cape bearing 203° true, in 22 fathoms (40 m), muddy bottom.

From Cape Nukshak to the entrance of Kukak Bay the coast is irregular cliffs, with detached rocks showing some distance off. A

A reef, partly bare at low water and marked by kelp, extends nearly 1 mile from shore 112 miles southward of Cape Nukshak.

Kukak Bay (chart 8851) is not surveyed, but a fair general idea of it is shown on chart 8851 taken from Russian charts. It is clear in mid-channel and easily entered. There is a stream in the valley on the west side about halfway up the bay, and a flat makes out possibly 300 yards from its mouth. From the valley at the southwest end of the head of the bay a flat makes out to an estimated distance of 12 mile, with deep water close-to. The bay has great depth, there are numerous pinnacle rocks near the steep shores, and the anchorage area is limited.

On the east side of the bay are two islands, Aguligik in its northern part and Aguchik in its southern part. The best anchorage in the bay is apparently in the bight south of Aguchik Island, where the depth is 30 fathoms (55 m) in the middle, shoaling gradually northeastward toward its head. No dangers were noted in the bight, but it was observed at high water only.

There was a clam cannery located in Kukak Bay. It was destroyed by fire in 1936 and will be rebuilt. The wharf had a face of 65 feet and a least depth of about 20 feet (6.1 m). The piles of the wharf rest on rock bottom and will not stand much warping. Fresh water is obtainable in limited amounts. Care should be exercised in backing away from this wharf with an ebb current, as a vessel will be carried into the bight to the northward and find difficulty in keeping off the beach in turning around.

The Steamer Starr calls at Kukak Bay during the summer season.

Devils Desk, Kukak Volcano, Mount Stellar, and Mount Denison are a group of high snow-covered peaks on a ridge lying about 10 miles northwestward from Kukak Bay.

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CAPE UGYAK lies 934 miles northward of Cape Kuliak. It is the east end of the mountainous peninsula south and east of Kukak Bay. There are some bare rocks close to the cape, and a breaker was seen at low water about in the position of the sunken rocks on the chart, 134 miles northwestward of the cape.

Kaflia Bay, between Capes Ugyak and Gull, has a narrow entrance, reported to be bare at low water. In the narrow entrance is an islet. The channel is south of the islet, apparently on either side of a rock bare at low water. The bay has two small basins, with 20 to 35 fathoms (37 to 64 m) in the middle of each, joined by a very narrow channel. It is used by the small boats of the canneries.

Cape Gull is a bold headland, terminating in a cliff 503 feet (153 m) high. Temporary anchorage can be had in the middle of the entrance to the cove on the south side of the cape, in 9 fathoms (16.5 m), sandy bottom. The south point of the cove is marked by a rocky islet about 15 feet (4.6 m) high.

CAPE KULIAK (chart 8556) is the outermost of the headlands on the mid section of the western shore of Shelikof Strait. The cape rises gradually from a crumbling bluff at the end to high mountains inland.

Between Capes Kuliak and Atushagvik is Missak Bay, nearly 4 miles long, which has not been sounded. A bare rock lies 300 yards off a prominent point on the north shore. A rock bare at low water lies 600 yards southeastward from the point, and another lies 1/2 mile westward from the point and 14 mile from the northern shore.

CAPE ATUSHAGVIK lies 414 miles 225o true from Cape Kuliak. It has a low bluff at the water, and rises in a gentle slope to a prominent knoll, 904 feet (276 m) high, with a decided saddle between it and the higher land farther back. There is a kelp patch nearly 38 mile southeastward from the southern end of the cape.

Between Capes Atushagvik and Ilktugitak there are two bays, the southwestern one of which is Amalik Bay. Kinak Bay, the northeastern one, is 8 miles or more long in a direction NW. 12 N. (mag.) and nearly 3 miles wide at the entrance. It is clear of islands, except those off Amalik Bay on the southwest side of the entrance. On the northeast side of the bay, 11/2 miles inside Cape Atushagvik, is a low peninsula 5/9 mile long, with a bluff 150 feet (46 m) high near its end. Russian Anchorage, the cove on the northwest side of the peninsula, is a good anchorage, 300 to 500 yards from shore, in 10 to 18 fathoms (18.3 to 33 m), muddy bottom. Freshwater may be obtained by boat. The bay from the entrance to the anchorage has been sounded, and the only directions necessary are to give Cape Atushagvik and the islands on the southwest side of the entrance a berth of about 1 mile.

Amalik Bay lies on the north side of Cape Ilktugitak, and is separated from Kinak Bay by a high peninsula. No sounding has been done, but there is secure anchorage at its head. Takli Island lies in the entrance. About 5 mile north westward of Takli Island there is an inner chain of islands which extends 11/2 miles southwestward from the high peninsula. On the north and west sides of this chain of islands is a basin 35 to 1,2 mile wide. The anchorage is at

38 the north end of the basin. An inlet not surveyed makes inland from the western side of the basin.


The entrance to Amalik Bay on the southwest side of Takli Island is 58 mile wide and apparently clear. Thence the channel follows the western shore, and then northward through the basin along the western side of the inner chain of islands.

From Kinak Bay there is a channel along the shore of the high peninsula, passing northward of all the outlying islands, and then between Takli Island and the inner chain of islands.

Takli Island is nearly 2 miles long, its eastern part being low, broken, and rocky. At its extreme western end is a hill 455 feet (139 m) high, from which there is a sheer cliff to the water. A chain of rocky islands extends 112 miles eastward from Takli Island. Reefs extend about 12 mile eastward and southward from these islands, and the passage between them and the group of islands 1 mile northward has dangers and should be avoided.

A fox rancher lives on the island.

Note.The coast from Amalik Bay to Chignik Bay is unsurveyed, with the exception of Jute, Portage, and Wide Bays. The following notes on the unsurveyed portion are from the most reliable sources available, but should be used with caution.

This section of the coast is still covered with the yellow volcanic ash from the Katmai eruption of 1912, and is almost devoid of vegetation. It has the appearance of a desert country.

CAPE ILKTUGITAK, lying just southward of Takli Island, is fairly low, but rises rapidly to the high land back of it. There is an island just off the tip of the cape. The chart shows a group of sunken rocks 2 miles southeastward from the cape, but the survey steamer Surveyor saw no indication of the rocks when in the vicinity in 1929.

The steamer Golden Forest was lost on the south side of Cape Ilktugitak in 1929.

Dakavak Bay is a large open bay lying between Cape Ilktugitak and Katmai Bay. It is unsurveyed, and no information is available.

Katmai Bay is an exposed and rocky roadstead which can only be used in northerly and northwesterly weather. The north part is foul, as represented on the chart. A shoal, showing kelp, on which a depth of 6 fathoms (11 m) was obtained, is reported to lie about 3 miles off the coast and 9 miles eastward of 'Katmai.

The country back of Katmai Bay is covered with ashes and has a very desolate and desertlike appearance.

Katmai River, previous to the eruption of Katmai Volcano in 1912, could be navigated by launches at high tide as far as the village. The bar at the entrance is bad and has heavy rips, except at slack water; high-water slack is the time to enter. The inhabitants of the village and of the neighboring villages were moved from their ashcovered homes to Perryville, on the peninsula north of Chiachi Island. From last reports, the river was choked with pumice, which washes down from the higher slopes faster than the stream can dispose of it. Steam and smoke from Katmai Volcano generally hang over the vicinity, obscuring the higher ground in a murky haze.

The area in the vicinity of Katmai Volcano is now set aside as the Katmai National Monument. Part of this area is known as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.

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The upper part of Kashvik Bay is foul; there is no shelter in the outer part.

Katmai Volcano, 7,500 feet (2,280 m) high, is often seen smoking. It is part of a high ridge and is not easily distinguishable from

a the strait unless smoking.

Mageik Volcano, 7,250 feet (2,210 m) high, lies about 10 miles southwestward from Katmai Volcano. It has a more definite summit and can be identified from the strait.

Cape Kubugakli is bold and rises rapidly to Mount Kubugakli, a prominent mountain with two summits. The southerly peak is the highest, 2,920 feet (890 m) high. The southern and open part of

Alinchak Bay is foul to the head. Although there are many reefs and probably pinnacles around the entrance to the north arm, this arm is reported to offer good anchorage and protection, after it has been entered; but it should not be attempted without local knowledge.

CAPE KEKURNOI, on the western shore of the southern end of Shelikof Strait, is fairly low, but rises to the high land back of it. It lies between Alinchak and Cold Bays. A long reef extends several miles southward of the cape. Cold Bay (chart 8502):

This bay is not surveyed and there is little reliable information concerning it. Anchorage with limited shelter is reported in the north end of the bay in 14 to 5 fathoms (25.6 to 9.1 m). There is an abandoned village just west of Cape Aklek.

The following courses were run by the Surveyor in 1919:

With Cape Karluk 1 mile distant, steer 275° true to a position with the northern tangent of Cape Aklek bearing 336° true, distant 4 miles. This course leads 2 miles southward of the outer end of the reef making southward from the northern entrance. Change to 0° true and continue until the north side of Cape Aklek is a little abaft the beam, then haul to the westward and take up anchorage as desired. There is no information available for reaching the northern anchorage.

There is a breaker off Cape Aklek and for that reason it should not be approached too closely.

Reefs and rocky islets extend 31/2 miles southward from the north point at the entrance of Cold Bay. There are bad tide rips off these reefs, which is frequently the case along the west side of Shelikof Strait. The shore northward of Cold Bay is generally foul. The bay is open southward and offers poor protection from the frequent heavy seas from that direction.

Small boats, in southeasterly weather, anchor off a small sand beach in a shallow bight just inside the north entrance point, and are partly sheltered by the reef.

Jute Bay (chart 8666).-The bay between Cape Unalishagvak and Cape Kanatak is known as Jute Bay, and that portion of the bay inside Jute Islands is called Island Bay. Reefs marked by kelp and breakers extend to the southeast from Jute Islands and tend to break the swells during easterly winds. A reef extends from the eastern entrance point of Island Bay (the point northeast of Jute Islands) about halfway to Jute Islands. The channel into Island Bay between the end of this reef and Jute Islands has depths ranging from 11 to 5 fathoms (20.1 to 9.1 m). The channel west of Juto Islands has depths of from 313 to 5 fathoms (6.1 to 9.1 m), but its


south end is obstructed by the rocks and reefs extending southwestward from Jute Islands, and its use is not recommended except by boats with local knowledge. Indifferent anchorage, sheltered except from southeast winds, may be obtained northward of Jute Islands in Island Bay.

Small boats can go behind the kelp-marked reef and anchor in 2 or 3 fathoms (3.7 to 5.5 m), but the holding ground is poor.

Like all of the bays in this vicinity, the williwaws are violent with westerly winds and are very disagreeable if not dangerous to small craft.

Directions, Jute Bay.-Head into the entrance on a 321° true course, passing 14 mile off the east end of the larger Jute Island. Anchor in 334 fathoms (6.8 m), hard bottom, with about half of the small Jute Island showing beyond the east end of the large island, and the south tangent of the eastern entrance point bearing 100°. true.

PORTAGE BAY (chart 8666) is an open bay lying between Cape Kanatak and Cape Igvak. The bay is clear except for a reef and a detached rock which makes out from the east side of the bay, 1 mile from its head. Portage Bay is open to southeasterly winds and is subject to northwest winds, which draw down from the mountains with great force.

Kanatak is a town and post office situated at the head of Portage Bay. Since the discontinuance of oil drilling in this vicinity, Kanatak has been practically abandoned and there are only a few people there at present. There is a fur trader who maintains a store. It is a point of call for the local mail steamer.

Dangers.—A kelp-covered reef extends 12 mile southwestward from Kelp Point. Just off the reef and separated from it by a narrow channel is a rock with 112 fathoms (2.7 m) over it and marked by a red buoy on its western side, leaving a clear channel 14 mile wide for entering the inner part of the bay. A lighted range marks this channel

Anchorage.-The best anchorage is in 10 to 12 fathoms (18.3 to 21.9 m) just southeastward of the buoy. Coasting vessels often go to the inner anchorage northwestward of the buoy. The anchorage is subjected to violent williwaws with westerly weather, and at such times the inner anchorage should not be used. The wind is apt to shift from northwest to southeast with but little warning. In such cases, launches run to Kanatak Lagoon for shelter.

Vessels with passengers or freight usually anchor as far in as their draft permits. With northwesterly winds there is but little swell.

Kanatak Lagoon on the west side of the bay about 5 miles from Kanatak has a narrow entrance carrying less than 6 feet (1.8 m) at low water, but there are depths of 6 to 12 fathoms (11 to 21.9 m) mud bottom inside. It affords excellent anchorage in easterly weather, but is a regular maelstrom with northwest winds. Under such conditions the williwaws blow with almost hurricane force, and the water level at the eastern end is higher than that at the western end.

Directions, Portage Bay.—In approaching from Shelikof Strait, careful track of the reckoning should be kept, as the various headlands are similar and the bay is difficult to recognize from a distance. Enter on a mid-channel course and if bound to the inner anchorage

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