« PreviousContinue »
(1827) it is £150,000. There are subordinate and numbers of respectable families, come to offices in different parts of the city.
Edinburgh, as a settled residence, for a time, The Edinburgh Register Office was suggested with a view to the education of their children. by the earl of Morion, lord register of Scotland. There are various manufactures of paper in the The earl, therefore, obtained from his majesty a neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and printing is grant of £12,000 out of the forfeited estates, for carried on very extensively. There is also an building a register-nffice, or house for keeping extensive type foundry; and within these few the records, and disposing them in proper order. years the manufacture of silver plated goods, The foundation was laid on the 27th of June, particularly of the elegant ornaments for coaches 1774. The building, which is one of the most now so generally used, has been introduced and beautiful of Mr. Adams's designs, was executed carried on to a considerable extent. in a substantial manner, in about sixteen years, In order to contrast the different stages of at the expense of nearly £40,000, and is one of metropolitan society with effect, it is not the principal ornaments of the city. The lord here necessary to go back to Mr. Creech's register has the direction of the whole, and the well known account of the changes which principal clerks of session are his deputies. These took place in Edinburgh from 1763 to 1793. have a great number of clerks under them, for It is thirty-five years since Mr. Creech wrote, carrying on the business of the court of session. and it is not going too far to say, that the changes The lord register is a minister of state in this and improvements which have taken place in country. He formerly collected the votes of the this last period infinitely surpass all that preparliament of Scotland, and still collects those ceded them, and would require even a better pen of the peers at the election of sixteen, to repre- than his adequately to describe them.
Our sent them in parliament.
limits do not permit of minute detail in matters The earliest institution of a grammar-school in of this kind, otherwise we could contrast and Edinburgh seems to have been about 1516, and comment on individual improvements as he a building which had been erected for the ac- has done. We may remark, however, that since commodation of the scholars in 1578, continued, 1793, Edinburgh has extended to twice the size notwithstanding the great increase of their num- it was at that time, and has nearly doubled its ber, to be used for the purpose till 1777; population. The public undertakings to improve when the foundation of the present High School and adorn it, would require a volume to detail was laid on the 24th of June, by Sir William thein with effect. In science, literature, and the Forbes. This building is plain, but commodious. arts, its progress has been equally extensive and The great hall, where the boys meet for prayers, remarkable. Wealth and luxury have increased is sixty-eight feet by thirty, with commodious li- in a like ratio, and the houses in some of the braries at each end. There are a rector and foar squares and streets, then occupied by persons of masters, who teach about 700 scholars annually. rank, fashion, and opulence, are now converted The salaries are trifling, and the fees are 10s. 61. into shops or places of business for the trading per quarter, but five quarters are paid. There part of the community. With regard to equiis also a janitor, who receives one shilling from pages, servants, and modes of living, the change each of the boys quarterly. To the scholars of is perhaps as striking as that which occurred prominent merit premiums are awarded annually, within the period of Mr. Creech's experience; chiefly in books; and to the dux of the highest but the difference of manners and of tastes is no class a gold medal, with a suitable inscription. where so conspicuous, as in the elegance and Edinburgh Academy is the name given to an- refinement displayed in the numerous country other school erected in 1824, to the north of the villas, within a short distance of the city, occuRoyal Circus. This establishment is under the pied, during the summer months, by the different superintendence of a board of directors; and classes of citizens. In morals too, if we are besides a rector and four masters for the Latin to judge from the general regard paid to pubclasses, as in the High School, has an English lic opinion, and from the outward observance master, and teachers for writing and arithmetic. of all the decencies of life, by persons of every There are also several other public English rank, there has for some years been a proschools, the masters of which have small salaries gressive improvement; and, when compared with in addition to the fees; and numerous private the morals of 1793, those of the present day, we estblishments, not only for teaching English, confess, compel us, in spite of ourselves and of but the learned and foreign languages, on mode- all our early predilections, to award them the rate terms; so that Edinburgh affords facilities preference and the palm of approbation. Perfor the acquisition of learning and the various haps the prevailing fault of Edinburgh society ornamental accomplishments, which are hardly at present is the rage which even persons of moto be met with upon equal terms in any other city. derate circumstances exhibit for show and splen
Edinburgh is not a mercantile or manufactur- dor in their domestic establishments. According town. The merchants, in the strict sense of ing to this foible of the time, nobody is entitled the word, reside principally at the port of Leith, to move in good society without a fine house, and the support of the city depends chiefly on fine furniture, fine servants, and every day at his the consumption of the necessaries and super- table an absurd and ostentatious display of fine fluities of life, Gentlemen of the law are a wines. If this be an evil to society at large, it very numerous and respectable body here : fortunately often cures itself by the ruin which country gentlemen, officers of the army and it brings down on the heads of those who weakly navy, travellers from all parts, and strangers and inconsiderately indulge in it. whose object is either business or pleasure, &c. The University of Edinburgh is a sufficiently
prominent feature in its history and character to single college, which enjoys the privilege of deserve our distinct notice. In 1581 a grant was conferring degrees. obtained from James VI. for founding a college The branches of education at present taught in within the city of Edinburgh; and the citizens, it are the following: 1. Literature and Philosophy, aided by various donations, purchased part of comprehending humanity, or Latin, Greek, mathe areas, chambers, and church of the collegiate thematics, logic, moral philosophy, natural phiprovostry and prebends of the Kirk-a-field, other- los phy, rhetoric, belles lettres, universal history, wise called Templum et Præfectura Sanctæ Mariæ 'and natural history. 2. Theology, comprein campis, as a suitable site for it. Iu 1583 the hending divinity, church history, and oriental provost, magistrates, and council, the patrons of languages. 3. Law, comprehending civil law, this new institution, prepared the place for the institutes and pandects, Scots' law, public law, reception of teachers and students; and in Octo- conveyancing. 4. Medicine, comprehending ber, 1583, Robert Rollock, whom they had in- dietetics, materia medica, and pharmacy; pracvited from a professorship in the University of tice of physic, chemistry, and chemical pharSt. Andrew's, began to teach in it. Other pro- inacy; theory of physic, anatomy, and surgery; fessors were soon after elected; and Rollock theory and practice of midwifery; medical juriswas made principal of the College, and professor prudence, clinical medicine, clinical surgery, of divinity. The offices of principal and pro- and military surgery. During the Summer sesfessor of divinity remained united till 1620. In sion lectures are given on the following branches, 1617 James VI. having visited Scotland, com viz. botany, natural history, midwifery, clinical manded the principal and regents to attend him lectures on medicine, and clinical lectures on in Stirling Castle, where they held a solemn surgery. The principal professors and lecturers philosophical disputation, and the king desired are at present thirty-one in all; and the number that their college should for the future be called of students is about 2400. The professorships The College of King James, which name it still of church history, natural history, astronomy, bears in all its diplomas and public deeds. For law of nature and nations, and rhetoric, are in some time the college cousisted only of the prin- the gift of the crown. The professor of agricipal and four regents or professors of philoso- culture was nominated by Sir William Pulteney, phy, who each instructed one class of students the founder of the institution. The remaining for four years, in Latin, Greek, logic, mathemaa chairs are in the gift of the town council. Betics, ethics, and physics. It was not till about sides the classes here enumerated, the medical the year 1710 that the regents began to be professors alternately give clinical lectures upon confined each to a particular profession; since the cases of the patients in the Royal Infirmary. which time they have been commonly styled The integrity and discernment uniformly disProfessors of Greek, Logic, Moral Philosophy, played in the appointment to professorships in and Natural Philosophy. The first medical pro- this university, have contributed greatly to exfessors instituted at Edinburgh, were Sir Robert tend its reputation both at home and abroad. Sibbald and Dr. Archibald Pitcairn, in 1685. From confidence in the talents and industry of For thirty years afterwards, however, a summer the professors, it has become a seat of education, lecture, on the officinal plants, and the dissection not only to the youth of the united kingdom, of a human body, once in two or three years, but, to the bonor of our country, students have completed the whole course of medical education been attracted to it from every nation in Europe, at Edinburgh. In 1720 an attempt was made and from almost every civilised country on the to teach the different branches of physic regu- globe. About thirty years ago, the old buildings larly; which succeeded so well, that, ever since, of the college being thought quite unsuitable to the reputation of the University as a school for the dignity of such a flourishing seat of learning, medicine has been undisputed. The College the magistrates and council set on foot a subhas a fine library, founded in 1580, by Mr. scription for erecting a new structure, according Clement Little, advocate. It is enriched by a to a design of Robert Adam, Esq., architect. copy of every book entered in Stationers' Hall, Most of the old fabric was in consequence pulaccording to statute, and it now contains 70,000 led down, and the new building is now in convolumes. The students of divinity. who pay siderable forwardness. It is upon a superb nothing to this library, have one belonging to scale, and the whole, when finished, if not the their own particular department. The museum most splendid structure of the sort in Europe, contains a capital collection of natural curiosities, will be the completest and most commodious. the number of which is daily increasing; and, The estimate for completing the whole was about under the admirable management of professor £63,000. The six columns in the front are not Jamieson, it promises to become the most inte- to be equalled in Britain. The shaft of each is resting and important in Britain. The anato- twenty-three feet high, and three feet diameter, mical and obstetrical preparations are peculiarly of one entire stone. The botanical garden bevaluable. This university having been insti- longing to the university is situated to the northtuted after the Reformation, among a frugal ward of the village of Canon-mills, and consists people that had no love for ecclesiastical digni- of about twelve acres. But the funds for the ties, it differs greally from the wealthy founda- support of this garden are very inadequate to tions which receive the name of Universities and the purpose, not exceeding.£170 per annum. colleges in England, or in the Catholic countries EDINBURGHSHIRĚ, or Mip-LOTHIAN. of the continent of Europe. It still consists of a See MID-LOTHIAN.
ED'IT, v.a. Old Fr. editer; Lat. edo, courage and abilities during a short reign of about Edi'TION, n. s. edere, to. set forth. To eight years. He was murdered by Leolf, a ED'ITOR, n. s. publish; and hence to pre- robber, A. D. 948. See ENGLAND.
Edito'rtal, adj.) pare a work for publication. EDMUND JI, surnamed Ironside, from his It is now particularly applied in our language, strength and valor, succeeded his father Ethelto the duty of superintendence and correction, red II. A. D. 1016, in that part of England in distinction from the original composition of a. which was not then possessed by the Danes. book.
He was endued with great abilities, but was These are of the second edition. Shakspeare.
murdered by the traitor, Edric, duke of Mercia, The business of our redemption is to rub over the before he had reigned a year. See ENGLAND. defaced copy of the creation, to reprint God's image EDOM, Heb. 178, i. e. red; or Esau, the upon the soul, and to set forth nature in a second and son of Isaac and brother of Jacob. The narne a fairer edition.
Edom was given him, either because he sold his I cannot go so far as he who published the last birth-right to Jacob for a mess of red pottage, or edition of him.
Dryden's Fables, Preface. by reason of the color of his hair and complexion. The Code, composed hastily was forced to undergo Idumæa is derived from Edom, and is often an emendation, and to come forth in a second edition. called in Scripture the land of Edom. See the
Baker. next article. This English edition is not so properly a translation, Edom, or Idumæa, in ancient geography, a as a new composition upon the same ground. district of Arabia Petræa. A great part of the
Burnet. south of Judæa was also called Idumæa, because When a different reading gives us a different occupied by the Idumeans, upon the Jewish sense, or a new clegance in an author, the editor captivity. But Edom Proper appears, not to does very well in taking notice of it.
have been very extensive, from the march of the
Israelites, in which they compassed it on the This nonsense got into all the editions by a mistake south eastwards, till they came to the country of of the stage editors. Pope's Notes on Shakspeare. the Moabites. Within this compass lies mount
Here you see the two strongest inducements are Hor, where Aaron died; marching from which held forth ;-first, that nobody ought to read it; and, the Ísraelites fought with king Arad the Canaansecondly, that every body buys it : on the strength of ite, who came down the wilderness against them. which the publisher boldly prints the tenth edition, And this is the extent of the Idumea Propria, before he has sold ten of the first.
lying south of the Dead Sea ; but in Solomon's I sent it in a letter to the editor,
time extending to the Red Sea.- 1 Kings ix. 26. Who thanked me duly by return of post EDRISSI (Mohamed ben Mohamed, Scherif I'm for a handsome article his creditor.
al) an Arabian prince and geographer of the Byron.
twelfth century, who, being expelled from his EDMONDSON (Joseph), a genealogist and dominions in the south of Egypt, took refuge in herald painter, was appointed in 1764, Mowbray Sicily, at the court of Roger II. Here he comherald extraordinary. He was also a member of posed Geographical Recreations; and constructthe Society of Antiquaries. He died in 1786. ed a silver globe, said to have weighed 400 His works are, Historical Account of the Gre- Greek pounds, on which were inscribed the diville family, 8vo.; A Companion to the Peerage, visions of the earth, so far as they were then 8vo.; A Body of Heraldry, 2 vols. folio; Baro- known. His book, which has been termed Geonagium Genealogicum, or the Pedigrees of Eng- graphia Nubiensis, from its containing much lish Peers, 6 vols. folio.
information relative to the eastern parts of Africa, EDMUND I, king of England, the son of was translated into Latin by Gabriel Sionita Edward the Elder, succeeded his brother Athel- and John Hesronita, and published at Paris, stan A. D. 941, and exhibited proofs of great 4to, 1619.
ED'UCATE, v.a. / Lat. educare, from duco, Diversity of cducation, and discrepancy of those
EDUCATION, n. S. À to lead. To bring up principles wherewith men are at first imbued, and from youth; instruct youth. See Hooker's fine wherein all our after reasonings are founded. definition of the substantive.
Lord Digby to K. Digby. Education and instruction are the means, the one
If the children of religious parents, after all by use, the other by precept, to make our natural fa
Christian nurture, shall shame their education, God culty of reason both the better and the sooner to judge
takes it more heinously, and revenges it more sharply. rightly between truth and error, good and evil.
Bp. Hall. Contemplation,
Hooker. Their young succession all their cares employ; The best time for marriage will be towards thirty,
They breed, they brood, instruct and educate, or as the younger times are unfit, either to choose or And make provision for the future state. to govern a wife and family, so, if thou stay long, thou
Dryden. Virgi. shalt hardly see the education of thy children, who, Some independent ideas, of no alliance to one anbeing left to strangers, are in effect lost; and better other, are, by education, custom, and the constant din wore it to be unborn than ill-bred.
of their party, so coupled in their minds, that they aleigh to his Son. ways appear there together.
What education did at first conceive, educational treatises; what is more must be either Our ripened age confirms us to believe. purely speculative; or it must involve, details
Pomfret. which are varied with the designs of every parent, Educanon is worse, in proportion to the grandeur of and the talents, station in life, and destiny of the parents : if the whole world were under one mo
every young person. It will suffice, therefore, narch, the heir of that monarch would be the worst
here briefly to review the principal ancient and educated mortal since the creation.
modern systems of education, adding a more Swift. On Modern Education.
particular account of one or two modern and Education at our public schools and universities is
material improvements. travelling in a waggon for expedition, where there is a bridle road that will take you by a short cut to Par- adapted to a state just emerging from barbarism,
The system of Lycurgus, however well nassus, and the polisher has got the key of it.
was but a species of detached military training; Lively and sensible, and having received an educa- designed to form the heroic at the expense of all tion somewhat above her rank, her conversation was
the other virtues, and extinguishing all regard to very agreeable. Ralph read plays to her every even
the interest of other states as well as family and ing.
Franklin. personal interests, in an exclusive spirit of supTrue, and then as to her manner ; upon my word I posed patriotism. For, in reality, his system was think it is particularly graceful, considering she never too confined to be truly patriotic. It had no had the least education : for you know her mother was tendency to elevate the human intellect, or to a Welsh milliner, and her father a sugar baker at Bris- stimulate into activity many of the noblest and tol.
best affections of our nature. Had his institnEDUCATION. We have explained this term tions been preserved in their pristine vigor, the verbally. A more ample and satisfactory defi- Spartans might have continued precisely the nition has been given thus: · Education is that same; but they would have been incapable of series of means, by which the human under- receiving the knowledge of those arts which standing is gradually enlightened, and the dis- adorn and improve mankind. The system, inpositions of the human heart are formed and deed, of a state education has always been too called forth, between early infancy o'id the pe- cumbrous for management; it has the appearriod when a young person is consid :red as qua- ance at the best of endeavouring to mould all lified to take a part in active life.'
minds into one form, and, by having a strong tenThe word education, among the ancients, seems dency to produce habitual submission to the will of to have had a signification different from that one, of being highly unfavorable to public liberty. which is affixed to it by the moderns. Educit No doubt can exist which is to be preferred, the obstetrix, says Varro, educat nutrix, instituit total neglect of education, or this artificial and pædagogus, docet magister. According to this forced method of attempting it; but all that the distinction, education, institution, and instruc- state has legitimately to do is, to take care that tion, are as different as the midwife, the nurse, none shall be without the means of instruction, the preceptor, and the master. But other writers, and to leave private persons to follow the bent both ancient and modern, have considered edu- of their own inclinations in the employment of cation in the comprehensive sense expressed in them. In those nations which were first civilised, the above definition; and as no subject is of the power of the parent was considered as absomore importance than this, it being the practical lute; and as implicit submission was, from the foundation of all mental acquirements, as well first, inculcated upon the young, the labor of as of all virtue, many distinguished authors have education was greatly diminished, and the lidevoted their minds to the consideration of it. mited knowledge and sentiments of the parent Lycurgus, and others of the most eminent legis- were very easily communicated to youth. The lators of antiquity, considered a proper education round of duty was less extensive, and its parts as so necessary to form good citizens, that they less complicated than at present. Among the incorporated their systems of education with the Israelites, where moral education appears to have codes of laws they gave to their countrymen. made the greatest advances, the system of duty But among all the legislators and authors of an was completely laid down in the written law; tiquity, of whose works any relics have come so that all the knowledge which the age and down to us, none appears to have written with country possessed was certainly to be gained, more propriety on this subject, than the cele- and the moral principles certainly to be regulated brated Quintilian, who taught rhetoric in Rome aright, where the parent employed wisely that under Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan.
authority which the law enforced, and which the Among the moderns, the sublime Milton, customs of the times would otherwise have and the judicious Locke, have left treatises on allowed. this important topic. The late lord Kames too The necessity of a tolerably correct direction was the author of an excellent tract, entitled of the early propensities, in order to promote doLoose Hints on Education; and the fanciful mestic comfort, must in a great number of cases Rousseau, whose genius and eccentricities are have led to such direction of them, without any well known to the public, devoted his Emilius view to the future advantage of the individual. to the consideration of this subject. To these But with respect to those who were to come fora host of respectable modern names might be wards in the employments of the state, or in any added. But we do not consider a Dictionary of other way to be exposed to the notice of their Science as the proper depository for extensive countrymen, the advantages of early instruction speculations of this kind! Our whole work, in knowledge, and of the early cultivation of indeed, is a course of elementary, and therefore those qualities which the wants of the age and Vol. VII.
country made of great estimation, were so is almost as destitute of real knowledge as when obvious, that they appear to have led, in a he first entered a school.' To render learning variety of cases, to great attention to the work of truly beneficial, instead of the school and univereducation; and though we have not, in many in-sity education which youth at present receive, stances, any account of the procedures of the Milton proposes that the place of both school ancients, yet, in the few circumstances which and university be supplied by an academy, in have been recorded, we perceive that, long before which they may acquire all that is taught at either, any thing like a systematic plan of education was except law and physic. adopted, individuals made education an object Let the academy,' he says, 'afford accommoof primary concern.
dation for 150 persons; twenty of whom may be One grand object of moral education, so far as servants and attendants. As many academies it respects rectitude of dispositions and affec- as are necessary may be afterwards erected on tions, is to cultivate the habit of self-control. the model of this one. Let the youth who are Religious people, of all periods, who have pos- introduced into this academy begin with learning sessed the light of revelation, have, in a particu- the principal rules of grammar. In their prolar manner, been sensible that this habit lies at nunciation of Latin, let them follow that of the the foundation of moral worth; and where the Italians, as that of the English is indistinct, and authority of the parent is generally preserved, the unsuitable to the genius of the language. Next ciltivation of this habit follows as a matter of read to them some entertaining book on educa
It requires a wise choice of means to tion, such as the three first books of Quintilian, prevent filial submission from being the submis- in Latin; and Cebes, Plutarch, or some other of sion of a slave, rather than of a child: but where the Socratic discourses, in Greek; and inspire it is acquired, and rightly directed, the founda- them, by seasonable lectures, with love for learntion is laid for submission and obedience to the ing, admiration of great and virtuous characters, will of God; and, where this principle takes a and a disposition to cheerful obedience. At a firm hold on the mind, almost every thing is different hour let them be instructed in arithmedone that could be wished, to further the pro- tic and geometry. Between supper and bed gress of the individual towards moral worth. A time instruct them in the principles of religion maxim of the highest authority, now indeed, is and the sacred history. From the writers on felt in all its truth, “The fear of the Lord is the education, let the pupils pass to the authors on beginning of wisdom.' In reading almost the agriculture, to Cato, Varro, and Columella. Beonly systematic work of antiquity on the subject fore half these authors be read, they cannot but of education, that of Quintilian, we become be pretty well qualified to read most of the Latin convinced of the writer's great good sense, ex prose authors. They may now learn the use of cellence of disposition, and extensive informa- the globes, and make themselves acquainted with tion; and from his work, though it had a parti- the ancient and modern maps. Let them about cular object in view, much may be learned by the this time, begin the study of the Greek tongue, modern instructor. Most excellent principles and proceed in it as in the Latin: they will not are scattered up and down in those general parts, fail to overcome, in a short time, all the difficulwhich amply repay our perusal, though we are ties of grammar; after which they will have seldom invited to proceed by elegance of diction, access to all the treasures of natural knowledge or brilliance of thought: and the different facts to be found in Aristotle and Theophrastus. In he mentions, give us reason to suppose that, in the saine manner they may make themselves achis time, education was in a most degraded state quainted with Vitruvius, Seneca, Mela, Celsus, at Rome.
Pliny, and Solinus. Let them next turn their Among the moderns few names are more justly attention to mathematics, beginning with trigovenerated than that of John Milton. His life nometry, as an introduction to fortification, archiwas devoted to study; and part of it was em- tecture, and navigation. To teach them the ployed in instructing youth. Among his other knowledge of nature, and the arts of life, let works we find a Treatise on Education. He had them have the instructions of artists and me himself been educated according to the plan chanics, whose skill has been obtained by actual long established in the English universities., practice. They will now read the poets with The object of his directions is to exhibit a plan ease and pleasure. From these let them proceed of a better education, in extent and compre- to the moralists; after which they may be alhension far more large, and yet of time farlowed the best Greek, Latin, and Italian dramashorter, and of attainment far more certain, than tic compositions. From these let them proceed any that had yet been in practice.' The follow- to politics: let them here study the law of Moses, ing is the substance of his treatise :--The end of the admirable remains of the ancient lawgiven learning is to cultivate our understandings, and of Greece, the Roman tables,' edicts, and panto rectify, our dispositions, by enriching our dects, concluding with the institutions of their minds with the treasures of wisdom. But, in the mother country. Let them next be more partipresent modes of education, this design does not cularly instructed in the principles of theology; appear to be kept in view. The learner of Latin having by this time acquired the Hebrew lanis burdened with rules, themes, verses, and ora- guage, together with the Chaldee and the Syriac tions ; but no care is taken to make him master dialect, whereby they may read the Scriptures of the valuable knowledge which the classics con- in their original tongue. Thus furnished, they tain. And, when he advances farther, he is will be able to enter into the spirit of the noblest driven into the thorny paths of logic and meta- historians and poets. To get by heart, and rephysics. So, when his studies are completed, he peat in a proper manner, passages from the vrit