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The edible creation decks the board. Prior.

There was a holy chapel edifyed, Some of the fungus kind, gathered for edible mush Wherein the hermit wont to say rooms, have produced a difficulty of breathing.

His holy things each morn and eventide.
Arbuthnot.

Spenser. EʻDICT, n. s. Lat. edictum. A proclamation

My love was like a fair house built on another or command of prohibition ; a law promulgated.

man's ground ; so that I have lost my edifice by mis

taking the place where I erected it. When an absolute monarch commandeth his sub

Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor. jects that which seemeth good in his own discretion, hath not his edict the force of a law ? Hooker.

You shall hardly edify me, that those nations might

not, by the law of nature, have been subdued by any The great King of kings,

nation that had only policy and moral virtue. Hath in the table of his law commanded

Bacon's Holy War. That thou shalt do no murder; will you then

God built
Spurn at his edict, and fulfil a man's ?

So spacious, and his line stretched out so far,
Shakspeare. Richard III.

That man may know he dwells not in his own;
Severe decrees may keep our tongues in awe, An edifice too large for him to fill.

Milton. But to our thoughts what edict can give law ? Dryden.

An exercise so beneficially edificatory to the church. The ministers are always preaching, and the gover

Bp. Hall. nours putting out edicts against gaming and fine cloaths. Our blessed Saviour told us, that we must account

Addison.

for every idle word, not meaning that It is the business of a sensible government to im not designed for edification, or less prudent, shall be press all ranks with a sense of subordination, whether reckoned for a sin.

Taylor. this be effected by a diamond buckle, or a virtuous Life is no life, without the blessing of a friendly edict, a sumptuary law, or a glass necklace.

and an edifying conversation.

L'Estrange. Goldsmith. He gave, he taught ; and edifyed the more, If we may judge by the acts, arrets, and edicts, all Because he shewed, by proof, 'twas easy to be poor. the world over, for regulating commerce, an assembly

Dryden. of great men is the greatest fool upon earth.

Men have edifyed

Franklin. A lofty temple, and perfumed an altar to thy name. An Edict is an order or instrument, signed

Chapman. and sealed by a prince, to serve as a law to his

Out of these magazines I shall supply the town subjects. We find frequent mention of the edicts

with what may tend to their edificution.

Addison's Guardian. of the prætor, in the Roman law. In the cidevant French law, the edicts were of sever

As Tuscan pillars owe their original to this country, kinds: some importing new laws or regulations; the architects always give them a place in edifices

Id. On Italy. others, the erection of new offices ; establish- raised in Tuscany. ments of duties, rents, &c.; and sometimes articles

He must be an idiot that cannot discern more strokes of pacification. In despotic governments, an

of workmanship in the structure of an animal than

Bentley edict is much the same as a proclamation is with in the most elegant edifice. us: but with this difference, that the former has As in order to the edification of the church, the the authority of a law from the power which spirit of God at first conferred upon the ministers of it

a great variety of spiritual gifts,

Mason. issues it; whereas the latter is only a declaration of a law, to which it refers, and has no power in

It is with infinite caution that any man ought to itself. Edicts cannot exist in Britain, because venture upon pulling down an edifice which has anthe enacting of laws is lodged in the parliament swered in any tolerable degree for ages the common and not in the king. Edicts are all sealed with purposes of society, or op building it up again, with

out having models and patterns of approved utility green wax, as a sign of their being perpetual and

before his eyes.

Burke. irrevocab.s. ED'IFY, v. a. Fr. edifier ; Span. and

Some decent in demeanour while they preach, EDIFICA’TION, n. s. | Portug. edificur ; Italian

That task performed, relapse into themsclves • Edifica’TORY, adj. and Lat. edificare. To

And, having spoken wisely, at the close

Grow wanton, and give proof to every eye, ED'IFICE, n. s. build, applied both liter

Whoe'er was edified, themselves were not. ED'ITIER, ally and morally; but

Cowper. ED'IFYING, n. s. edification is principally So fares he in that dreadful hour, used in the latter sense : edificatory is tending to When injured Truth exerts her power, edification : edifice the building or structure Some new phenomenon to raise, paised : edifier he who builds or raises it.

Which, bursting on his frighted gaze,

From its proud summit to the ground, Seek that ye may excel to the edifying of the church.

Beattie. Bible. 1 Cor. 14. 12.

Proves the whole edifice unsound. He who speaketh no more than edifieth, is undeser

E'DILE, n. s. Lat. ædilis. The title of a vedly reprehended for much speaking. Hooker.

magistrate in old Rome, whose office seenis in Men are edified when either their understanding

some particulars to have resembled that of our is taught somewhat whereof, in such actions, it be justices of peace. hoveth all men to consider, or when their hearts are The edile, ho ! let him be apprehended. moved with any affection suitable thereunto.

Shakspeare.

Id.

672

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west.

E D IN B U R G H. EDINBURGH, the metropolis of Scotland, is morass of the North Loch; and, on account of situated in long. 3° 14' W. from London, and the ground which it occupies gently declining lat. 55° 57' N. It is surrounded on all sides, to the east, is about 180 feet above the palace of excepi to the northward, where the ground de- Holyrood-housc. The height of the houses in clines gently towards the Frith of Forth, by lofty this quarter, has always rendered it an interesting hills. Arthur's Seat, Salisbury Crags, and the object to a stranger visiting Edinburgh; and Calton-hill, bound it on the east; the hills of perhaps the High Street of this city is not equalBraid, and the extensive ridge of the Pentland led in grandeur by any street in Europe. Pahills rise on the south; and the beautiful emi- rallel to the High Street, in the valley on the nence of Corstorphine rears its summit on the south, runs a street called the Cowgate, from ten

These hills form a magnificent amphi- to twenty feet in breadth. The buildings in this theatre, in which, on elevated, though less lofty, street, though lofty, are less elevated than those ground, stands this flourishing city. It is of the High Street. From the High Street down said, with considerable propriety, to stand on to the loch on the north, and to the Cowgate on three hills, which run in a direction from east to the south, run narrow cross streets or lanes, west; and hence its natural division into the called wynds and closes, many of which, from southern, middle, and northern districts. the abrupt descent of the ground, are extremely

The origin of its name, like that of most other steep and difficult of passage; an inconvenience cities, is very uncertain. Some imagine it to be not at all remedied by their width, which is derived from Eth, a king of the Picts; others rarely more than six feet. from Edwin, a Saxon prince of Northumberland, The origin of this city is, likewise, involved who over-ran the whole or greatest part of the in obscurity. The most absurd and fabulous territories of the Picts abont A. D. 617; while accounts have been given of its first possesothers derive it from the Gaelic words Dun sors; and, without sharing in the credulity of Edin, signifying the face of a bill. The name the monkish writers, no credit can be given Edinburgh, however, seems to have been un to its remote annals. Situated in that part of known in the time of the Romans. The most the country which formed the Roman province ancient title by which we find this city distin- of Valentia, and which, more than any other, was guished is that of Castelh Mynyd Agned; which, the subject of wars and devastations, it is almost in the British language, signifies the fortress of impossible to trace its foundation. If we are to the hill of St. Agnes. Afterwards it was named believe our earliest historians, however, the castle Castrum Puellarum, because the Pictish prin- was built by Camelon king of the Picts, about cesses were educated in the castle (a necessary A. A. C. 330. It was in the hands of the Angloprotection in those barbarous ages) till they were. Saxons, from the invasion of Octa and Ebufa in married. The most plausible derivation of the 452, till the defeat of Egfrid king of Northumpresent name of the city seems to be that of the berland in 685 by the Picts, who then repossessed Northumbrian prince above mentioned. Simeon themselves of it. The Saxon kings of Northumof Durham calls it Edwinesburch, and notices berland reconquered it in the ninth century; and it as existing in the middle of the eighth century. it was retained by their successors till the year

The most ancient part of the city, or Old Town, 956, when it was given up to Indulfus king of as it is called, stands on the middle or central ridge Scotland. In 1093 it was unsuccessfully besieged of the three eminences above mentioned, which is by the usurper Donald Bane. In 1128 King terminated on the west by a lofty and almost in- David I. founded the abbey of Holyrood-house, accessible rock, on which is placed the castle; for certain canons regular; and granted them a the New Town occupies an elevated plain on the charter, in which he styled the town · Burgo meo north; and the southern district is situated on a de Edwinesbergh, my borough of Edinburgh'

. rising ground in the opposite direction. The In 1174 the castle was surrendered to Henry II. hill on which the Old Town is built is separated of England, to purchase the liberty of king Wilfrom the other two districts by a valley on each liam 1. who had been taken prisoner by the side, that upon the northern side having been English. But William afterwards entered into formerly a lake. In the progress of improve an alliance with Henry, and married his cousin ment, however, this lake having been drained, and Ermengarde ; upon which the castle was restored streets and bridges having also be formed, these as part of the queen’s dower. valleys are no impediment to a complete and James II, in 1450 first bestowed on the comready communication from one district to another. munity the privilege of fortifying the city with a

The peculiar situation of the Old Town has wall, and empowered them to levy a tax upon often attracted attention. The principal street, the inhabitants for defraying the expense. This which occupies the flat surface of the central original wall of Edinburgh began at the foot of hill, extends nearly in a straight line from the the north-east rock of the castle, where it was castle, on the western extremity, to the palace strengthened by a small fortress called the Well of Holyrood-house on the east. This street, House Tower, and was carried quite across the which is not improperly named the High Street, hill, having a gate on the top as a communicameasures in length from the castle gate to the tion between the town and castle. It at first palace gate, about 5570 feet, and is about ninety proceeded eastward in such a manner, as would feet in breadth. The upper part of it is elevated have cut off not only all the Cowgate, but some about 140 feet above the level of the drained part of the parliament house; and turning to the

north-east was connected with the buildings on them; and two persons, in the dress of the war-: the north side of the High Street, at the original dens of the tower, attended to show them to visiNetherbow Port; but after the battle of Floddon tors. The governor of the castle is generally a the wall of the city was extended. It now began Scottish nobleman; and there is a deputy goon the south-east side of the rock on which the vernor, who resides in the garrison; also a fortcastle is built. From thence it descended ob- major, a store-keeper, master gunner, and chapliquely, to the West Port; it then ascended part lain. In its present improved state this castle of a hill on the other side, called the High Riggs; can accommodate 2000 men; but its natural after which it ran east with but little alteration strength of situation was not sufficient to render in its course, to the Bristo and Potter Row ports, it impregnable, even before the invention of arand from thence to the Pleasance. Here it took tillery, much less would it be capable of securing a northerly direction, which it kept from thence it against the attacks of a modern army provided to the Cowgate port, after which the enclosure with cannon. was completed to the Netherbow by the houses St. Giles's church is a beautiful Gothic baildof St. Mary's wynd. For 250 years the city of ing, measuring in length 206 feet. At the west Edinburgh occupied the same space of ground. end, its breadth is 110 feet, in the middle, 129; In the middle of the sixteenth century, it is de- and at the east end, seventy-six. It is adorned scribed as extending in length about an Italian with a lofty square tower, from the sides and nuile, and about half as much in breadth. This corners of which rise arches of figured stone space of ground, however, was not at that time work; these, meeting with each other in the midoccupied in the manner it has been since. The dle, complete the figure of an imperial crown, houses of the Old Town were neither so high nor the top of which terminates in a pointed spire. so crowded upon each other as they are now. The whole height of this tower is 161 feet. This These were consequences of the number of inha- is the most ancient church in Edinburgh, and its bitants increasing, which occasioned the raising tutelar saint was St. Giles, a native of Greece. of the houses to such a height, as perhaps is It was at first simply a parish church, of which not to be paralleled.

the bishop of Lindisfarn or Holy Island, in the The casile of Edinburgh stands on a high rock, county of Northumberland, was patron. In accessible only on the east side. On all others 1466, it was erected into a collegiate church it is very steep, and in some places perpendicular. by James III. At the Reformation it was diIt is about 300 feet high from its base, and 383 vided into several parts. The four principal above the level of the sea. The entrance to this divisions form as many churches appropriated to fortress is defended by an outer barrier of pali- divine worship; the smaller ones to other pursadoes; within this is a dry ditch, draw-bridge, poses. At the same time the religious utensils and gate, defended by two batteries which flank belonging to it were seized and sold by the mait; and the whole is commanded by a half moon gistrates; part of the money being applied to its mounted with cannon. Beyond these are two repair, and the rest added to the funds of the gate-ways, the first of which is very strong, and corporation. In the steeple are three ancient has two portcullises. Immediately beyond the bells: there is also a set of music bells, upon second gate-way, on the right hand, is a battery which tunes are played by the hand. The prinmounted with cannon, carrying balls of 12 and cipal division is called the High Church, in which 18 lbs. weight. On the north side are a mortar the general assembly sits. The church is fitted and some gun batteries. The upper part of the up with seats for all the great officers of the ascastle contains a half-moon battery, a chapel, a sembly; and there is a throne for his majesty's parade for exercise, and a number of houses in commissioner. In this church is a monument to the form of a square, which are laid out in bar- the celebrated Napier, inventor of logarithms; racks for the officers. There are also other bar- another to the regent Murray; and a third to racks sufficient to contain 1200 men; a powder the great marquis of Montrose. The names of magazine, bomb-proof; a grand arsenal, capable the four churches, into which St. Giles's is diof containing 8000 stand of arms; and other vided, are, the New, or High Church, 'above apartments which can contain full 22,000 more. described; the Old Church; the New North On the east side of the square were formerly Church, or Haddow's Hole, so named from the royal apartments; in one of which king James Laird of Haddow having been for some time imVÍ. was born. In this quarter, immediately prisoned in it; and the Tolbooth Church. The under the square tower, is the apartment called Tron Church is an elegant structure, erected in the crown room, wherein are deposited the Scot- 1641, with a spire, and stands on the south side tish regalia ; consisting of the crown, sceptre, of the High Street, between the north and south and sword of state, which were placed here on bridges. The spire was burnt down in 1824, the 26th of March, 1707. was long doubted having accidentally caught fire from the burning whether these ensigns of royalty had not been embers blown by the wind from the great teneremoved; but in 1818, when commissioners ments on the west. Lady Yester's Church is were appointed by his present majesty, then situated nearly opposite to the Royal Infirmary. prince regent, to search for them, a large oaken The Old and New Gray Friars churches are chest in the crown room was forced open, and situa'ed on the top of the south ridge, east of the relics of the Scottish monarchy were dis- Heriot's Hospital, nearly in the middle of the covered. They were found in a state of the most ancient gardens belonging to the Gray Friars. perfect preservation, and have since been open These churches are both under one roof, and to the spection of the public. The crown have one common portico; but are separated by room was neatly fitted up for the exhibition of a partition wall. The Old Gray Friars was Vol. VII.

2 X

founded about 1612, and had once a steeple. Dr. Jameson's Chapel, at the south end of Ni . Trinity College Church was founded by queen cholson-street, founded in 1819, and finished in Mary, wife of king James II. in 1461, at the 1820; Dr. Hall's Chapel, terminating the east same time with the Trinity Hospital. It is end of Broughton Street. Mr. Paxton's Chapel, situated at the east end of the north loch. in Infirmary Street; and the Relief Chapel,

Canongate Church stands near the middle of Cowgate. The architecture of the other places the north side of the street called the Canongate, of worship in Edinburgh, is not such as to reand was founded in 1688. It is a Gothic build- quire them to be particularly noticed on that ing, in the form of a cross, and was erected at account. Till of late years, the plainest and the cost of about £2400, being the accumulated most homely accommodation was all that was principal and interest of 20,000 merks, be- aimed at in the erection of places of worship. queathed by a Mr. Thomas Moodie, for the pious Besides the churches and chapels already partipurpose of building a church. In the cemetery cularised, however, there are various others in lie the remains of the celebrated author of the this city of great importance, either for the extent Wealth of Nations, Dr. Adam Smith; and a of the congregations which they contain, or the simple stone, erected at the expense of Burns, celebrity and talents of their pastors. The marks the burial place of his fellow-bard Fer- Scottish Episcopal Church alone has several gusou. St. Cuthbert's Church, or the West places of worship. There are also Lady GleKirk, stands at the western extremity of the valley norchy's Chapel, and the Gaelic Chapel, in which which divides the New from the Old Towu, near latter the service is performed in the Erse lanthe base of the castle rock. Its architecture is guage, for the benefit of the Highlanders: it by no means elegant, but a handsome spire was erected in 1769, and stood on the south side atones for the homely appearance of the church of the castle; but the congregation removed in itself. It is deemed the largest place of worship 1815 to a more commodious place of worship, in Edinburgh. St. Andrew's Church stands on at the head of the Horse-Wyod. At present, the the north side of George's Street, in the New number of places for divine worship in EdinTown, surmounted with a fine spire 168 feet in burgh and Leith, distinguishing the different height. A portico, supported by four columns persuasions, is as follow: Established Church, of the Corinthian order, projects a few feet into 16; Chapels of Ease, 9; Scottish Episcopal, 7; the street. In the spire there is a chime of eight Cameronjans, 1; United Associate Synod of the bells. The whole is elegantly finished, and Secession, 9; Associate Synod, i; Original has a fine appearance. St. George's Church Burgher, 1; Original Antiburgher, 1; Rělief, stands on the west side of Charlotte Square, and 6; Independents, 3; Baptists, 4; Methodists, 2; forms the terminating object of George's Street, Roman Catholics, 2; Glassites, 1; Society of from which it is seen along its whole extent. Friends, 1; Bereans, 1; New Jerusalem Temple, The front to the square consists of a portico, or 1; Unitarians, 1; Jews, 1: in all sixty-eight. vestibule, with four columns and two pilasters The regular established clergy connected with of the Ionic order, elevated on a flight of steps Edinburgh are twenty-five. The number of sixty-eight feet in width. Behind the portico parishes is sixteen, nine of which are called rises a dome, intended as a miniature represen- collegiate charges, or have two ministers each tation of that of St. Paul's, London. The joined in the discharge of the pastoral office. whole building, with the exception of the dome, Besides these there are, under the control of the which is seen to advantage in almost every di- established church, seven of the chapels of ease, rection round the city, has a heavy appearance, as they are called; two of which are in the and it has often been regretted that the original Canongate, one in the old part of the town, two design of the celebrated architect, Adam, was in the southern district, one at Stockbridge, and abandoned merely with a view to economy. The one in Leitb. building, as it stands, cost £33,000; but it has In 1215 this city was first distinguished by since been ascertained that, according to Mr. having a parliament and provincial synod held Adam's plan, the expense would have been in it; but it does not appear to have been looked considerably under that sum. This church was upon as the capital of Scotland till about the opened for public worship in 1814, and is cal- middle of the fifteenth century, when parliaments culated to contain 1600 people. The other began to be held in it regularly, and when civil churches of Edinburgh, remarkable for the ele- institutions succeeded to the rude military gance of their architecture, are St. Mary's anarchy, which had previously prevailed. For Church, situated in Bellevue Crescent, opened the improvements which were introduced into for worship, in 1825; St. Paul's Chapel, on the the kingdom at that period, Scotland was chiefly north side of York Street, finished in 1818, at an indebted to her amiable and enlightened monarch, expense of £12,000; St. John's Chapel, situated James I., who unfortunately fell a victim to the a little to the south of the western extremity of jealousy entertained by the nobility, of the meaPrince's Street, also finished in 1818, at an ex sures he projected in favor of the people. In pense of £15,000. St. George's Chapel, in 1329 the town of Leith, with its harbour and York-place, built from a design by Robert mills, had been bestowed upon Edinburgh, by Adam, in 1794; the Roman Catholic Chapel, Robert I.; and his grandson, Robert III. conat the head of Leith-walk, built from a design ferred upon all the burgesses the singular priviby Gillespie in 1813, possessing a very fine lege of building houses in the castle, upon the organ, and a beautiful altar-piece, painted by sole condition that they should be persons of Vaudyke; the Methodist Chapel, in Nicholson's od fame. From the middle of the fifteenth square, built in 1814, at an expense of £5000; century, its privileges continued to be increased

from various causes. In 1482 the citizens had Elizabeth, and Sir W. Drury was sent intc an opportunity of liberating king James III. Scotland with 1500 foot, and a train of artillery. from the oppression of his nobles, by whom he The castle was now besieged in form, and battehad been imprisoned in the castle. On this ac- ries raised against it in different places. The count the provost was by that monarch made governor defended himself with great bravery for hereditary high sheriff within the city, an office thirty-three days; but finding most of the fortiwhich he continues still to enjoy. The council, fications demolished, the well choked up with at the same time, were invested with the power rubbish, and all supplies of water cut off, he was of making laws and statutes for the government obliged to surrender. The English general, in of the city; and the trades, as a testimony of the name of his mistress, promised him honorthe royal gratitude for their loyalty, received the able treatment; but the queen of England celebrated banner known by the name of the shamefully gave him up to the regent, by whom Blue Blanket, which still exists, and is kept by he was hanged. Soon after, the most violent the convener of the trades for the time. By the religious commotions of Scotland took place, overthrow of James IV., at the battle of Flod- in which the king was insulted and railed don, Edinburgh was overwhelmed with grief, at by the clergy, seconded by the magistrates that monarch having been attended in his un- of Edinburgh, as well as the citizens. This fortunate expedition by the earl of Angus, then led to various severe measures against the city provost, with the rest of the magistrates, and a and ministers, which will be detailed under the number of the principal inhabitants, most of article ScotLAND. A reconciliation, however, at whom perished in the battle. The inhabitants, length took place, which appears to have been alarmed for the safety of their city, enacted that satisfactory to all parties, as the king not only every fourth man should keep watch at night; allowed the clergy, some of whom had been the fortifications of the town were renewed, and degraded, to be replaced, but in 1610 conferred the wall extended, as we have before mentioned. various marks of his favor on the town. Another After this, the inhabitants were gradually relieved invasion from England being apprehended in from the trouble of watching at night, by a cer- 1558, the city raised 1450 men for its defence, tain number of militia being appointed to pre- among whom there are said to have been 200 vent disturbances. About this period, the city tailors. was almost depopulated by a dreadful plague; In the beginning of the reign of Charles I., a so that, to stop if possible, the progress of the perfect harmony seems to have subsisted between infection, all houses and shops were shut up for the court and the city: for in 1627 that monarch fourteen days; and some, where infected persons presented the city with a new sword and gown, had died, were pulled down altogether. In to be worn by the provost. Next year he paid 1540 the tract of ground, called the Burrough- a visit to this capital, and was received by the Muir, was totally overgrown with wood, and it magistrates in a most loyal manner. When this was sagely enacted by the town-council, that prince attempted to introduce Episcopacy into whoever would purchase as much as was suf- Scotland, his first step was the erection of the ficient to make a new front for his house, three Lothians, and part of Berwick into a might extend it seven feet into the street. Thus, diocese, Edinburgh being the episcopal seat, while the city was, in a short time, filled with and the church of St. Giles the cathedral, Much wooden houses, the streets were, in many in- disturbance was occasioned in 1637, by the first stances, narrowed fourteen feet.

attempt to read the prayer-book there, and next In 1542 an English fleet of 200 sail entered winter the neighbouring people resorted to town the Forth; and, having landed their forces, in such multitudes, that the privy council thought quickly made themselves masters of the towns proper to publish two acts; by one of which of Leith and Edinburgh. They next attacked they were commanded, under severe penalties, the castle, but were repulsed from it with loss; to leave the town in twenty-four hours; and by and by this were so enraged, that they not only the other, the court of session was removed to destroyed both towns, but laid waste the country Linlithgow. The bishops on some of these for a great way round. Jn 1547 Leith was occasions narrowly escaped with their lives. agair burned by the English after the battle of Notwithstanding these disturbances, however, Pinkey, but Edinburgh was spared. Several dis- the king again visited Edinburgh in 1641, and turbances happened in the capital at the time of was entertained by the magistrates at an expense the Reformation, of which an account will be of £12,000 Scots. It does not appear that after given under the article SCOTLAND; but none of this the city was in any way particularly conthese greatly affected the city till 1570, when the cerned with the commotions which followed, civil war took place on account of queen Mary's either throughout the remainder of the reign of forced resignation. The city was then sometimes Charles I., the Commonwealth, or the reign of in the hands of one party, and sometimes of Charles II. In 1680 the duke of York, with another; during which the inhabitants, as may his duchess, the princess Anne, and the whole easily be imagined, suffered extremely. The earl court of Scotland, were entertained by the city of Morton, when regent, in 1573, built two bul- in the Parliament House, at the expense of warks across the High Street, nearly opposite to the £15,000 Scots. At this time, it is said, that the Tolbooth, to defend the city from the fire of the scheme of building the bridge over the North castle. A treaty was at last concluded between Lough was first projected by the duke. An act the leaders of the opposite factions ; but Kirk- passed in 1621, that the houses, instead of bein aldy refused to be comprehended in it. The covered with straw or boards, should have their regent therefore solicited the assistance of queen roofs constructed of slate. tiles, or lead. This

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