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Athenæus relates that they had a law by which given by a nobleman of Lombardy at Tortona on they were obliged to exercise their children at it account of the marriage between Galeas duke from the age of five years. This warlike people of Milan and Isabella of Arragon. At first the constantly retained the custom of accompanying women had no share in the public or theatrical their dances with hymns and songs. The follow- dance ; but, in 1681, we find the then dauphiness, ing was sung for the dance called trichoria, said the princess of Conti, and some other ladies of to be instituted by Lycurgus, and which had its the first distinction in the court of Louis XIV. name from its being composed of three choirs, performed a ballet with the opera called Le one of children, another of young men, and the Triomphe de l'Amour. This union of the two third of old. The old men opened the dance, sexes served to enliven and render the spectacle saying, “In time past we were valiant.' The more pleasing and far more brilliant. It was young men answered, “ We are so at present. received with so much applause, that in the May

We shall be still more so when our time comes,' of that year, when the same opera was acted in replied the chorus of children. The Spartans Paris at the theatre of the Palais Royal, it was never danced but with real arms. In process of thought indispensable for the success of that time, however, other nations came to use only kind of entertainment to introduce female danweapons of wood on such occasions. Nay, it was cers, and they have continued ever since to be only so late as the days of Athenæus, who lived the principal support of the opera. Thus, what in the second century, that the dancers of the was at first introduced as a mere accessary to Pyrrhic, instead of arms, carried only flasks, the musical performance, became in process of thyrsuses or reeds. But, even in Aristotle's days, time its only support; and this circumstance exthey had begun to use thyrsuses instead of pikes, cited the emulation of several ballet masters. and lighted torches in lieu of javelins and Modern dancing is so much the creature of swords. With these torches they executed a change and fashion, that we feel it impossible to dance which was called the conflagration of the detail its ever-varying steps in a work of science. world.

We must refer our younger readers to the proReligious dances were not confined to the fessors of the art; observing, only, that it seems pagan world. They have been practised both in itself a natural and most innocent mode of hy Jews and Christians. Among the ancient exercise and graceful motion; while, on the Jews, it appears to have made a part of religious other hand, in crowded assemblies, among the worship on some occasions, as we learn from suffocating vapors of innumerable lights and passages in the Psalms, though we do not find breaths, the blood becomes often undaturally it enjoined as a divine precept. In the Christian propelled to the breast and head; perspiration is churches mentioned in the New Testament, there dangerously checked; the lungs are expanded, is no account of dancing being introduced as an and the foundation is too often laid of that fatal act of worship, though it is certain that it was disease, consumption. used as such in after ages.

DANCER (Daniel), an extraordinary miser, Theatrical or stage dances. The Greeks were born near Harrow, in Middlesex, in 1716, of a the first who united the dance to their tragedies family who possessed a considerable estate in and comedies; not indeed as making part of that county. He succeeded to the family estate those spectacles, but merely as an accessary. in 1736. For upwards of fifty years he led the The Romans copied after the Greeks; but in the life of a hermit, having no dealings with manreign of Augustus they left their instructors far kind but what the sale of his hay necessarily behind them. Two remarkable men made their occasioned ; and was seldom seen, except when appearance at that time, who invented a new he was out gathering logs from the common, or species of entertainment, and carried it to a old iron, or sheep's dung under the hedges. His great degree of perfection. These were Pylades house was at one time robbed, to prevent which, and Bathylus, who first introduced among the he fastened up the door, and, by means of a Romans what the French call the ballet d'action, ladder, went in at an upper window, drawing wherein the performer is both actor and dancer. the ladder carefully up after him. He had a L'ylades undertook the task of representing, with sister who lived with him for a number of years, the assistance of the dance alone, strong and and who left him a considerable increase to his pathetic situations. He succeeded perhaps be- store, at her death; on which occasion, to put yond his own expectation, and may be called himself in decent mourning, he purchased a the father of that style of dancing which is known pair of second-hand worsted stockings. Even to us by the name of grave or serious pantomine. this was an article of luxury, for he commonly Bathylus, an Alexandrian, and a freedman of wore bands of hay around his legs. He died in Mecænas, took upon himself to represent such 1794, and left his estates to lady Tempest, who subjects as required a certain liveliness and had been very charitable to the poor man and agility. He was handsome in his person; and his sister. the two great scourges of Roman follies, Persius DANCETTE, in heraldry, an epithet applied and Juvenal, speak of him as the gallant of every to the bordure or ordinary, when very deeply inwoman in Rome. After their death the art gra- dented, so as to make generally but three points dually sunk into obscurity, and became even in the breadth of the shield, as fig. 1. a fesse entirely forgotten on the accession of Trajan to dancette sable, fig. 2, azure two bars indented the empire. Thus buried with the other arts in Name James. Double dancette, fig. 3, is oblivion, dancing remained uncultivated till an epithet belonging peculiarly to the bend, as about the fifteenth century, when ballets were argent a bend double dancette, azure, name Henrevived in Italy at a magnificent entertainment ricson.


Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

They have put me in a silk gown, and a gaudy fool's cap; I am ashamed to be dandled thus, and cannot look in the glass without blusbing, to see mye self turned into such a little pretty master.

Addison's Guardian, DANDOLO (Henry), doge of Venice, was born in 1108, and chosen to that office in 1192. He was nearly blind at the period of his election,

but neither that circumstance, nor his age, imDANDELION, n. s. Fr. dent de lion. A paired the vigor of his mind, and the events of plant of the syngenesia class. See LEONTODON.

his government became the principal causes of Por cowslips sweet let dandelions spread, the greatness of his country. Dandolo induced For Blouzelinda, blithsome maid, is dead. the senate to join in the fourth crusade, but di

Gay. rected the first efforts of the armament to recover DANDINI (Cæsar), an historical painter, was Zara, which had revolted from its allegiance to born at Florence, and successively studied with the republic. He accompanied the expedition Cavalier, Curradi, Passignano, and Christopher to Constantinople, and, on the storming of the Allori, from whom he acquired a very pleasing city, was the first who leaped on shore. After manner of designing and coloring. He was ex

the various changes with respect to the imperial tremely correct in his drawing, and finished his throne, which succeeded the second siege, Danpictures highly. Several noble altar-pieces in dolo was nominated emperor, but in consequence the churches of Florence are of his hand; and of his age, and his pressing ties to Venice, the one, which is in the chapel l'Annonciata, is par- choice ultimately fell on Baldwin. But Venice, ticularly admired.

in the sharing of the imperial dominions, obDasdisi (Peter), an eminent painter, born at tained a full moiety, and Dandolo was solemnly Florence in 1646. "He received his first instruc- invested as prince of Romania. He ended his tions from Valerio Spada, who excelled in small extraordinary life at Constantinople, at the age drawings with a pen. He afterwards travelled of ninety-seven, through most of the cities of Italy, studying the DANDOLO (Andrew), a learned doge and Forks of those who were most distinguished; historian of Venice, was born about 1310. He and resided long at Venice, where he copied the rose first to the office of procurator of St. Mark, paintings of Titian, Tintoretto, Paul Veronese, and then to that of doge in 1343. Making war and Correggio. When he returned to Florence against the Turks with considerable success, he the grand duke Cosmo III. kept him perpetually greatly extended Venetian commerce, and opened employed, in painting fresco, as well as in oil; her trade with Egypt. Genoa becoming jealhis subjects being taken not only from sacred and ous of this trade, a powerful Genoese fleet arfabulous history, but from his own fancy, which rived in the gulf of Venice, and caused so much frequently furnished him with whimsical carica- anxiety to the doge, that it brought on an illness tures. He died in 1712.

which terminated his life, September 1354. DANDIPRAT, 1. s., or Dopkin, says Min- Andrew Dandolo was a correspondent of Pesheu, “as little among other money, as a dandi- trarch, and to him is ascribed the compilation of prat or dwarf among other men. For according the sixth book of the Venetian Laws, and a Chroto Camden, Henry VII. stamped a small coin of nicle of Venice,written in Latin, and comprehendthis name. Dr. Johnson says, “a fool.' ing the History of the Republic, from its comA very dandiprat and exceedingly deformed. mencement to 1342. It was first published by World of Wonders, 1608.

Muratori in his collection of original Italian

Historians. DAN'DLE, v. a.? Fr. dandiner; Teut. tan

DANEGELT, an ancient annual tax of the DAN'DLER, R. s. À dle ; Belg. danden, to trifle. Anglo-Saxons, first of 1s. afterwards of 2s. for To fondle a child ; to lull it, or dance it lightly every hide of land through the realm, and for up and down. Also to trifle away time; to maintaining such a numher of forces as were delay.

thought sufficient to clear the British seas of And ye sball suck at the breast,

Danish pirates, who then greatly annoyed our Ye shall be carried at the side,

The danegelt was first imposed as a And on the knees shall ye be dandled. Isaiah lxvi. Bishop Lowth's Translation.

standing yearly tax on the whole nation, under

king Ethelred, A. D. 991. King Stephen, on Captains do so dandle their doings, and dally in the his coronation day, abrogated it for ever.

No service, as if they would not have the enemy subdued. church, or church-land paid the danegelt; be

Spenser. Courts are but superficial schools

cause, as it is said in an ancient Saxon law, the To dandle fools.


people of England placed more confidence in Their child shall be advanced,

the prayers of the church than any military deAnd be received for the emperor's heir,

fence they could make! And let the emperor dandle him for his own.

DANGʻER, v. a., & n. s.

Goth. danger ; Shakspeare.

DANG'EROUS, adj. Fr. danger; from Sporting the lion ramped, and in his paw

Dangʻerously, adv. Latin, damniger, Dandled the kid.


DANG'erless, adj. bringing or causMotion occasions sleep, a3 we find by the common

DANG'EROUSNESS, n, s. ing injury: or, says use of reking froward children in cradles, or dandling Minsheu, from davoc, death; but this seems farthere in their nurses' arms.

Tillotson. fetched. To put to risk, hazard, or peril; a state


of risk or hazard. It has beer used in an obso- any we had seen before,' says this navigator, lete sense for custody, as in the old French dan and like the rest, swarmed with people, whose gier. See the first example.

habitations we saw standing in clusters all along In danger had he at his owen gise

the coast. We saw also a large vessel under

sail at a little distance from the shore; but to The

yonge girles of the diocise, And knew hir counseil and was of hir rede our unspeakable regret we were obliged to leave A garland hadde he sette upon his hede.

the place without further examination, for it was Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. surrounded in every direction by rocks and Fareth every knight thus with his wif as ye ? breakers, which rendered the hazard more than Is this the lawe of king Artoure's hous?

equivalent to every advantage we might procure.' Is every knight of his thus dangerous ?

Long. 1690 28' W., lat. 10° 15' S.

Id. Cant. Tales. DA'NGLE, v. n. Swed. dinglu or dangla, Our craft is in danger to be set at nought.

DA’NG ER, T. s. seems, as Mr. Todd sug

Acts x. 27. Da'ngling, adj. ) gests, the most probable ety Pompey's son stands up

mology; but Skinner derives it from Saxon dune, For the main soldier; whose quality going on,

down, and hangan, hanging. To hang loose ; to The sides o'th' world may danger. Shakspeare. hang on and downwards; to follow. A dangler

He hath writ this to feel my affection to your ho. is a follower. nour, and to no other pretence of danger. Id. Go, bind thou up yon dangling aprico cks. A sort of naughty persons

Shakspeare. Have practised dangerously against your state,

He'd rather on a gibbit dangle, Dealing with witches and with conjurors. Id.

Than miss his dear delight to wrangle. Hudibres.

Codrus had but one bed; so short, to boot, Wyser Raymundus, in his closet pent,

That his short wife's short legs hung dangling out. Laughs at such daunger and adventurement; When halfe his lands are spent in golden smoke,

Dryden. And now his second hopeful glasse is broke.

But have you not with thought beheld

Prior. Bishop Hall's Satires. iv. 3.

The sword hang dangling o'er the shield ? It is just with God te permit those, which think after them, are well inclined to pull down the present

The presbyterians, and other fanaticks that dangle they stand so surely, to fall most dangerously.'


Hammond on Fundumentals.
A dangler is of neither sex.

Ralph. More danger now from man alone we ind,

In faithful memory she records the crimes
Than from the rocks, the billows, and the wind.

Or real, or fictitious, of the times;

Laughs at the reputations she has torn, I shall not need to mind you of judging of the And holds them dangling at arm's length on scorn. dangerousness of diseases, by the mildness of the part

Cowper. Task. affected,


DANIEL; 58937, Heb. i. e. my judge is Already we have conquered half the war,

God; the fourth of the greater prophets, was And the less dangerous part is left behind. Dryden. born in Judea, of the tribe of Judah, about the He showed no less magnanimity in dangerless de.

thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah, A. M. spising, than others in dangerous affecting, the multi 3376. He was led captive to Babylou, with plying of kingdoms.

Sidney, other young Hebrews, after the taking of JeruIt is dangerous self-Hattery to give soft and smooth

salem by Nebuchadnezzar, That prince gave ing names to sins in order to disguise. Mason.

them masters to instruct them in the language Wealth heaped on wcalth, nor truth nor safety buys, and sciences of the Chaldeans, and ordered them The dangers gather as the treasures rise.

to be fed with the most delicate viands; but they Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. desired the king's officers to allow them only Deep in wide raves below the dangerous soil

pulse. The wisdom and conduct of Daniel Blue sulphurs flame, imprisoned waters boil. Darwin. pleasing Nebuchadnezzar, that monarch gave l'o me, Almighầy, in thy mercy shining,

him several posts of honor. We need not parLife's dark and dangerous portals thou didst ope ;

ticularise them, or the few events of his life: they And softly on my mother's lap reclining,

are contained in the prophecies universally attriBreathed through my breast the lively soul of hope.

buted to him. It is believed that Daniel died in

K. White. Chaldea, and did not take advantage of the perrhy days of health, and nights of sleep; thy toils, mission granted by Cyrus to the Jews of returnBy danger dignified, yet guiltless; hopes

ing to their own country. St. Epiphanius says Of cheerful old age and a quiet grave,

he died at Babylon. The prophecies of Daniel With cross and garland over its green turf,

concerning the coming of the Messiah, and the And thy grand-children's love for epitaph;

other great events of after times, are so clear and This do I see and then I look within Byron. explicit, that, as St. Jerome tells us, Porphyry

Danger, Isles of, three islands in the Pacific insisted that those which related to the kings of Ocean, seen by commodore Byron, in June Syria and Egypt, chap. xi., must have been 1765; and which he supposed to be the same written after the times of Antiochus Epiphanes; with those seen by Quiros, in the beginning of whereas this prophecy was translated into Greek the seventeenth century, and named Solomon's 100 years before his time, and was in the hands Islands. They were very populous, but so sur- of the Egyptians, who had no particular kindrounded with rocks on all sides, that it was not ness for the Jews or their religion. Josephus safe to attempt to land. • The islands themselves says the prophecies foretelling the successes of had a more fertile and beautiful appearance than Alexander, chap. viii. 5, xi. 3, were shown to him

by the Jews, in consequence of which they ob Along thc leaguered wall and bristling bank, tained several privileges from him. Antiq. lib.

Of the armed river, while with straggling light xi. c. 8. The style of Daniel is not so lofty and The stars peep through the vapours dim and dank. figurative as that of the other prophets ; but it

Byron. is more clear and concise, and his narrations and

DANMONII, an ancient British nation, supdescriptions are simple and natural; in short, he posed to have inhabited the tract of country now writes more like a historian than a prophet

. Part called Cornwall and Devonshire, bounded on the of bis book, viz. from the fourth verse of chapter south by the British Ocean, on the west by St. ii. to the end of chapter vii. was originally written George's Channel, on the north by the Severn in Chaldee, all the rest of the book is in Hebrew. Sea, and on the east by the country of the Du-The first six chapters are a history of the kings rotriges.

Some other British tribes were also of Babylon, and what befel the Jews under their seated within these limits : as the Cossini and government. In the last six he is altogether Ostidamnii, which were probably particular clans prophetic

, foretelling not only what should hap- of the Danmonii. Ptolemy names a few places, pen to his own church and nation, but events in both on the sea-coasts and in the inland parts of which foreign princes and kingdoms were con- their country, which were known to the Romans. cerned ; and some of which appear to be even The most considerable of these are the famous yet unfulfilled.

promontories of Bolerium and Ocrinium, now DANIEL (Gabriel), a celebrated Jesuit, and the Landsend and the Lizard; and the towns one of the best French historians, was born at of Isca Danmoniorum and Tamare, now Exeter Rouen in 1649. He taught polite literature, and Saltash. After the departure of the Rophilosophy, and divinity, among the Jesuits; mans kingly government was immediately reand was superior of their house at Paris, where vived amongst the Danmonii in the person of he died in 1728. There are a great number of Vortigern. his works published in French, of which the prin

DANTE (Aligheri),'a most distinguished poet cipal are: 1. A History of France, of which he of Italy, was born at Florence in 1265, of an also wrote an abridgment, in 9 vols. 12mo. 2. A ancient and honorable family. Boccaccio, who History of the French Militia, in 2 vols. 4to. lived in the same period, has left a very curious 3. An Answer to the Provincial Letters. 4. A and entertaining treatise, on the life, studies, and Voyage to the World of Descartes. 5. Letters manners of this extraordinary man; whom he on the Doctrines of the Theorists, and on Pro- regarded as his master, and for whose memory bability. 6. New Difficulties relating to the he professed the highest veneration. He relates Knowledge of Brutes: and, 7. A Theological that Dante, before he was ten years old, conTreatise on the Efficacy of Grace.

ceived a passion for the lady whom he has Daniel (Samuel), an eminent poet and his- immortalised in his poems. Her age was near torian, born near Taunton in Somersetshire, in his own; and her name was Beatrice, the daughter 1562, and educated at Oxford; but, leaving that of Folco Portinari, a noble citizen of Florence. University without a degree, he applied himself to The passion of Dante, however, seems to have English history and poetry under the patronage been of the platonic kind; but on the death of of the earl of Pembroke. He was afterwards tutor his mistress, at the age of twenty-four, he fell to the lady Ann Clifford ; and, upon the death of into a deep melancholy, from which his friends Spencer, was created poet laureat to queen endeavoured to raise him, by persuading bin Elizabeth. In king James's reign he was ap

to marriage. He followed their advice, but unpointed gentlenian extraordinary, and afterwards fortunately made choice of a Xantippe. The one of the grooms of the privy chamber to the poet, not possessing the patience of Socrates, queen consort. He wrote a History of England, separated from her, and never afterwards admitted several dramatic pieces, and some poems, and her to his presence. In the early part of his

life he gained some credit in a military character ; DANK, N. s. & adj. 2 Swed. dunk ; Germ. distinguishing himself by his bravery in an DA'NKISH.

$ tunck. Skinner says, from action where the Florentines obtained a signal the kindred German word tunken. Damp, victory over the citizens of Arezzo. He became moist, humid; or inclining to that state. Milton

still more eminent by the acquisition of civil uses dank as a substantive.

honors; and at the age of thirty-five rose to be He her the maiden sleeping found,

one of the chief magistrates of Florence, being On the dank and dirty ground.

elected by the suffrages of the people. Italy was Shukspeare.

at that time distracted by the contending factions They bound me, hore me thence,

of the Gibellines and the Guelphs : the latter, And in a dark and dankish vault at home There left me.


among whom Dante took an active part, were Yet oft they quit

again divided into the Blacks and the Whites. The dank, and rising on stiff pinions tour

Dante, says Gravina, exerted all his influence to

Milton. unite these inferior parties; but his efforts were Through each thicket dank or dry,

ineffectual, and he had the misfortune to be Like a black mist, low creeping, he held on

unjustly persecuted by those of his own faction. His midnight search.

Id. A powerful citizen of Florence, named Corso To wash the skins of beasts and fowls herewith, Donati

, had taken measures to terminate these Fould keep them from growing dank in moist weather. intestine broils, by introducing Charles of Va

lois, brother to Philip the Fair, king of France. Each dank steam the reeking marsh exhales, Dante, with great vehemence, opposed this disContagious vapours, and volcanic gales. Darwin. graceful project, and obtained the banishment of

died in 1619.

The mid aereal sky.


Donati and his partizans. The exiles applied to his house, on that event, the beginning of his pope Boniface VIII., and by his assistance suc- poem was fortunately preserved, but remained ceeded in their design. Charles of Valois entered for some time neglected, till its merit being acFlorence in triumph, and those who had opposed cidentally discovered by an intelligent poet named his admission were banished in their turn. Dante Dino, it was sent to the marquis Malespina, an took refuge at Signa, and afterwards at Arezzo, Italian nobleman, by whom Dante was then prowhere many of his party were assembled. An tected The marquis restored these papers to the attempt was made to surprise the city of Florence, poet, and intreated him to proceed in the work bya small army which Dante is supposed to have To this incident we are probably indebted for attended; but the design miscarried, and our this celebrated poem, which Dante must have poet wandered to various parts of Italy, till he continued under all the disadvantages of an unfound a patron in the great Candella Scala, fortunate and agitated life. It does not appear prince of Verona, whom he has celebrated. The at what time he completed it; perhaps before he high spirit of Dante was ill suited to courtly de- quitted Verona, as he dedicated the Paradise to pendence; and he is said to have lost the favor his Veronese patron. The very high estimation of his Veronese patron by the rough frankness in which this production was held by his counof his behaviour. From Verona he retired to trymen, appears from a singular institution in France, according to Manetti; and Boccacio the republic of Florence; which, in 1373, asaffirms that he disputed in the theological schools signed a public stipend to a person appointed to of Paris with great reputation. The election of read lectures on it. The critical dissertations Henry count of Luxemburgh to the empire, in that have been written on Dante are almost as November, 1308, afforded Dante a prospect of numerous as those to which Homer has given being restored to his native city, as he attached birth; the Italian, like the Grecian bard, having himself to the interest of the new emperor, in been the subject of the highest panegyric, and of whose service he is supposed to have written his the grossest invective. Voltaire has spoken of Latin treatise De Monarchiâ, in which he asserted him with that precipitate vivacity which so frethe rights of the empire against the encroachinents quently led him to insult the reputation of the of the papacy. In 1311 he instigated Henry to best writers. But more temperate and candid lay siege io Florence; in which enterprise, how- critics have sufficiently vindicated his claims as ever, he did not appear in person. The emperor an original and most captivating poet. There are was repulsed by the Florentines; and his death, many valuable editions of his works, among in 1312, deprived Dante of all hope of re which it will be sufficient to specify those of establishmeni in Florence. After this he passed Conte Zapato, Venice, 1757, 3 vols. 4to.; and some years in Italy, in a state of poverty and Parma, Bodoni, 1796, 3 vols. folio. There is an distress, till he found an establishment atRavenna, English translation of bis Comedia by the Rev. under the protection of Guido Novello da Polenta, H. Boyd; and another and much better by the the lord of that city, who received this illustrious Rev. H. F. Carey of Chiswick. exile with the most endearing liberality, continued DANTON (George James), a celebrated to protect him through the few remaining years French politician, who took an active part, during of his life, and extended his munificence to his the French revolution, in erecting those bloody ashes. Eloquence was one of the many talents tribunals, and establishing that despotic power, which Dante eminently possessed, and on this to which he himself fell a victim. He was born account he was employed on fourteen different at Arcis sur l'Aube, in 1760; was bred to the embassies. Guido sent him to negociate a peace law, and became an advocate : with regard to rewith the Venetians, who were preparing to attack ligious opinions, he openly avowed himself an Ravenna. Manetti asserts that he was unable to atheist ; and, in politics, he was a decided reprocure a public audience at Venice, and returned publican: but having differed with Robespierre to Ravenna by land, from his apprehensions of he was accused of monarchical opinions, and, the Venetian fleet; when the fatigue of his jour- being condemned by the revolutionary tribunal, ney, and the mortification of failing in the attempt was guillotined with eight other deputies at Paris to preserve his patron from the impending on the 5th of April, 1794, in the thirty-fourth year danger, threw him into a fever, which terminated of his age. in death on the 14th of September, 1321. He DANTZIC, or Dantzia, the capital of West died in the palace of his friend ; and the affec- Prussia, is seated on a branch of the Vistula, tionate Guido paid the most tender regard to his about five miles above its embouchure into the memory. He commanded the body to be adorned Baltic. This city is famous in history on several with ornaments, and after being carried on a bier accounts, particularly as having been formerly at through the streets of Ravenna, by the most the head of the Hanse towns. It is large, beauillustrious citizens, to be deposited in a marble tiful, populous, and rich; its houses being gencoffin. He himself pronounced the funeral erally five stories high, and many of its streets oration, and expressed his design of erecting a planted. It is traversed by two branches of the splendid monument in honor of the deceased : Vistula, and consists properly of three towns: the a design which his subsequent misfortunes Vorstadt,or Fore-town; the Aldstadt,or Old-town; rendered him unable to accomplish. This was and the Rechstadt. The suburbs, called Old and afterwards done by Bernard Bembo, the father of New Scotland, are the best built parts of the the cardinal of that name. Boccacio asserts place; and the Scotch have considerable privithat Dante began his Inferno, the work which has leges here, in consequence, as they tell us, of their immortalised his name, and finished seven can- gallant defence of the town under one of the tos of it before his exile ; that in the plunder of family of Douglas, when it was besieged by thie

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