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about 1754, Melhem, wcaried with the cares of The battle of Damascus ensued ; and the Turks government, abdicated his authority, to live in were completely routed. The pacha of Saide religious retirement, after the manner of the escaping from this defeat, and not thinking himOkkals; but the troubles that succeeded occa- self safe in that town, sought an asylum even in sioned him once more to resume the reins of the house of Yousef. The moment was ungovernment, which he held till 1759, when he favorable: but the face of affairs soon changed died, universally regretted. He left three sons, by the flight of Mohammed Bey. The emir, minors : the eldest of whom ought to have suc- concluding that Ali Bey was dead, and not ceeded him; but, being only eleven years of age, imagining that Daher was powerful enough the authority devolved on his uncle Mansour, singly to maintain the quarrel, declared openly agreeably to a law very general in Asia, that the against him. Saide was threatened with a people shall be governed by a sovereign who siege, and he detached 1500 men of his faction has arrived at the years of maturity. The young to its defence; while himself in person, prevailprince was but little fitted to maintain his pre- ing on the Druses and Maronites to follow tensions ; but a Maronite, named Sad-el-Kouri, him, made an incursion with 25,000 peasants to whom Melhem had entrusted his education, into the valley of Bekaa; and in the absence took this upon himself. Aspiring to see his of the Motoualis, who had joined the army pupil a powerful prince, that he might himself of Daher, laid the whole country waste with become a powerful vizier, he made every exer- fire and sword from Balbec to Tyre. While tion to advance his fortune. He first retired the Druses, proud of this exploit, were marchwith him to Djebail, in the Kesraouan, where ing in disorder towards the latter city, 500 the emir Yousef possessed large dominions, and Motoualis, informed of what had happened, few there undertook io conciliate the Maronites, by from Acre inflamed with rage and despair, and embracing every opportunity to serve both indi- fell with such impetuosity on their army as to viduals and the nation. The great revenues of give them a complete overthrow. Such was the his pupil, and the moderation of his expendi- surprise and confusion of the Druses, that, imature, amply furnished him with the means. The gining themselves attacked by Daher himself and farm of the Kesraouan was divided between betrayed by their companions, they turned their several sheiks, with whom the Porte was not swords on each other as they fled. The steep very well satisfied. Sad treated for the whole declivities of Djezin, and the pine woods which with the pacha of Tripoli, and got himself ap- were in the route of the fugitives, were strewed pointed sole receiver. The Motoualis of the with dead, few of whom perished by the hands valley of Balbec had for some years before made of the Motoualis. The emir Yousef, ashamed several encroachments on Lebanon, and the of this defeat, escaped to Dair el Kamer, and Maronites began to be alarmed at the near ap- shortly after attempted to take revenge; but, being proach of these intolerant Mahommedans. Sad again defeated in the plain between Saide and purchased of the pacha of Damascus a permis- Sour (Tyre), he was constrained to resign to his sion to make war upon them; and in 1763 uncle Manscur the ring, which, among the drove them out of the country. The Druses Druses, is the symbol of command. In 1773 he were at that time divided into two factions; Sad was restored by a new revolution; but he could united his interest with those who opposed Man- not support his power but at the expense of a sour, and secretly prepared the plot which was civil war. In order, therefore, to prevent Bairout to raise the nephew, by the ruin of the uncle. from falling into the hands of the adverse faction, At this period the Arab Daher, who had made he requested the assistance of the Turks, and dehimself master of Galilee, and fixed his resi- manded of the pacha of Damascus a man of dence at Acre, disquieted the Porte by his sufficient abilities to defend that city. The choice progress and pretensions : to oppose him, the fell on Ahmad, an adventurer, who, from his divan had just united the pachalics of Damas- subsequent fortune, merits particular notice. cus, Saide, and Tripoli, in the hands of Osman This man was a native of Bosnia, and spoke the and his children; and it was evident that an Sclavonian as his mother tongue. It is said, open war was not very remote. Mansour, who that flying from his country at the age of sixteen, dreaded the Turks too much to resist them, made to escape the consequences of an attempt to viouse of the policy usual on such occasions, pre- late his sister in law, he repaired to Constantitending a zeal for their service, while he secretly nople, where, destitute of the means of procuring favored the enemy. This was a sufficient motive a subsistence he sold himself to the slave-merfor Sad to pursue measures directly opposite. chants to conveyed to Egypt; and, on his He supported the Turks against the faction of arrival at Cairo, was purchased by Ali Bey, who Mansour, and manæuvred with so much ad- placed him among his Mamelukes. Ahmad was dress, as to depose that emir in 1770, and place not long in distinguishing himself by his courage Yousef in his government. In 1771 Ali
' Bey and address. His patron employed him on declared war, and attacked Damascus. Yousef, several occasions in dangerous coups de main, called on by the Turks, took part in the quarrel, such as the assassination of such beys and cachefs but without being able to draw the Druses from as he suspected; of which commissions he actheir mountains, to enter into the army of the quitted himself so well, as to acquire the name Ottomans. Besides their natural repugnance, of Djezzar. With this claim to his friendship, at all times, to make war out of their country, he enjoyed the favor of Ali, until he was disturbed they were on this occasion too much divided at by an accident. The jealous Bey, having prohome to quit their habitations, and they had scribed one of his benefactors called Saleh Bey, reason to congratulate themselves on the event. commanded Ahmad Djezzar to cut off his head. Vol. VII.
Either from humanity or some secret friendship pacha of Saide; and, perhaps, 300 purses more for the devoted victim, Djezzar hesitated, and in the way of extraordinary demands, or about even remonstrated against the order. But learn- £20,750 altogether. Ile has also to purchase, ing the next day that Mohammed Bey had exe- annually, the friendship of the pacha of Akri, or cuted the commission, and that Ali had spoken Acre. This revenue is derived from the whole of him not very favorably, he thought himself a country situated between Bilad Accar, the north lost man, and, to avoid the fate of Saleh, escaped declivity of Mount Libanus, and the immediate unobserved, and reached Constantinople. He neighbourhood of Akri. The internal animosities there solicited employments suited to his ormer of the Druses have continued from the middle rank; but meeting, as is usual in capitals, with of the last century: in 1799 or 1800 some of the a great number of rivals, he pursued another plan, chiefs of one faction were put to death in the and went to seek his fortune in Syria as a private palace of the emir: and the most powerful chief soldier. Chance conducted him among the in the country in 1812, was, according to BurckDruses, where, being hospitably entertained in the hardt, El-sheikh Beshir, of the Jonbelat tribe: be house of the kiaya of the emir Yousef, he repaired has a clear income of about £50,000 a year, to Damascus, and obtained the title of Aga, with while that of the emır, his nominal superior, is the command of five pair of colors, that is to say not above £10,000. of fifty men. He was thus situated when fortune Neither the chief nor the individual emirs destined him to the government of Bairout. maintain troops; they have only persons attached Djezzar was no sooner establisked there, than he to the domestic service of their houses, and a took possession of it for the Turks. Yousef was few black slaves. When the nation makes war, confounded at this proceeding. He demanded every man, whether sheik or peasant, able to justice at Damascus; but findiog his complaints bear arms, is called upon to narch. He takes treated with contempt, entered into a treaty with with him a bag of flour, a musket, some bullets, Daher, and concluded an offensive and defensive and a small quantity of powder, made in his vilalliance with him at Rafaen, near Sour. No lage, and repairs to the rendezvous appointed by sooner was Daher united with the Druses, than the governor. If it be a civil war, as sometimes he laid siege to Bairout by land, whilst two Rus- happens, the servants, the farmers, and their sian frigates, whose service was purchased by friends, take up arms for their patron, or the 600 purses, cannonaded it by sea. Djezzar was chief of their family, and repair to his standard. compelled to submit to force, and, after a vigo- In such cases, the parties irritated frequently rous resistance, gave up the city and surrendered seem on the point of proceeding to the last exhimself prisoner. Sheik Daher, charmed with tremities; but they seldom have recourse to acts t's courage, and flattered with the preference he of violence, or attempt the death of each other; had given him in the surrender, conducted him mediators always interpose, and the quarrel is to Acre, and showed him every mark of kind- appeased the more readily, as each patron is
He even ventured to trust him with a obliged to provide his followers with provisions small expedition into Palestine; but Djezzar, on and ammunition. This system, which produces approaching Jerusalem, went over to the Turks, happy effects in civil troubles, is attended with and returned to Damascus. The war of Moham- great inconvenience in foreign wars, as suffimed Bey breaking out, Djezzar offered his ser- ciently appeared in that of 1784. Djezzar, who vice to the captain Pacha, and gained his confi- knew that the whole army lived at the expense dence. He accompanied him to the siege of of the emir Yousef, aimed at nothing but delay, Acre; and that admiral, having destroyed Daher, and the Druses, who were not displeased at and finding no person more proper than Djezzar being fed for doing nothing, prolouged the opeto accomplish the designs of the Porte in that rations; but the emir, wearied with paying, concountry, named him pacha of Saide. Being now, cluded a treaty, the terms of which were not a in consequence of this revolution, superior lord little rigorous for himself, and eventually for the to the emir Yousef, Djezzar was mindful of his whole nation. The ceremonies to which I have past injuries, and, by a conduct truly Turkish, been a witness on these occasions,' says M. l'olfeigning alternately gratitude and resentment, he ney, “bear a striking resemblance to the customs extorted from the emir, within the space of five of ancient times. When the emir and the sheiks years, 4,000,000 of French money (above had determined on war at Daer-el-Kamar, criers £160,000), a sum the more astonishing as the farm in the erening ascended the summits of the of the country of the Druses did not then amount mountain, and there began to cry with a loud to 100,000 livres, £4000. In 1784 he made war voice: “To war, to war; take your guns, take on him, deposed him, and bestowed the govern- your pistols : noble sheiks, mount your horses; ment on the emir of the country of Hasbeya, arm yourselves with the lance and sabre; rendeznamed Ismael. Yousef, having once more pur vous to-morrow at Daer-el-Kamar. Zeal of chased his favor, returned, towards the end of the God! zeal of combats !' This summons,
heard same year, to Dair-el-Kamar, and even courted from the neighbouring villages, was repeated his confidence so far as to wait on him at Acre, there; and, as the whole country is nothing but from whence nobody expected him to return; a chain of lofty mountains and deep valleys, the but Djezzar was too wise to shed blood while proclamation passed in a few hours to the fronthere were any hopes of obtaining money: he tiers. These voices, from the stillness of the released the prince, and sent him back with every night, the long resounding echoes, and the nature mark of friendship. The present emir bashir is of the subject, had something awful and terrible a descendant of Yousef. He pays 130 purses in their effect. Three days after, 15,000 armed annually to the pacha of Tripoli, and 400 to the men rendezvoused at Daer-cl-Kamar and opera
tions might have been immediately coinmenced. from the formidable consequences of that retaliaWe inay easily imagine that troops of this kind tion of which I have spoken. These customs no way resemble our European soldiers; they may appear barbarous to us; but they have had neither uniforms, discipline, nor order. They the merit of supplying the deficiency of regular are a crowd of peasants with short coats, naked justice, which is necessarily tedious and uncerlegs, and muskets in their hands; differing from tain in these disorderly and almost anarchical the Turks and Mamelukes in that they are all governments. The Druses have another point of foot; the sheiks and emirs alone have borses, honor, that of hospitality. Whoever presents himwhich are of little use from the rugged nature of self at their door, in the quality of a suppliant or the country. War there can only be a war of passenger, is sure of being entertained and lodged posts. The Druses never risk themselves in the in the most generous and unaffected manner. M. plain, and with reason; for they would be unable Volney often saw the lowest peasants give the last lo stand the shock of cavalry, having no bayonets morsel of bread they had in their houses, to the to their muskets. Their whole art cousists in hungry traveller; and when it was observed to climbing rocks, creeping among the bushes and them that they wanted prudence, their answer blocks of stone ; from whence their fire is the was, “God is liberal and great, and all men are more dangerous, as they are covered, fire at their brethren.' There are, therefore, no inus in their ease, and, by hunting and military sports, have country any more than in the rest of Turkey. acquired the habit of hitting a mark with great When they have once contracted with their guest dexterity. They are accustomed to sudden in- the sacred engagement of bread and salt, no subroads, attacks by night, ambuscades, and all sequent event can make them violate it. Various those coups de main which require to fall sud instances of this are related, which do honor to denly on, and come to close fight with the enemy. their character. A few years ago, an aga of the Ardent in improving their success, easily dispi- janissaries having been engaged in a rebellion, rited, and prompt to resume their courage ; fed from Damascus and retired among the daring even to temerity, and sometimes ferocious, Druses. The pacha was informed of this, and they possess above all two qualities essential to demanded him of the emir, threatening to make the excellency of any troops; they strictly obey war on hiin in case of refusal. The emir detheir leaders, and are endowed with a temperance manded him of the sheik Talhouk, who had reand vigor of health, at this day unknown to most ceived him; but the indignant sheik replied, civilised nations. In the campaign of 1784 they •When have you known the Druses deliver up passed three months in the open air without their guests? Tell the emir, that as long as tents, or any other covering than a sheep-skin; Talhouk shall preserve his beard, not a hair of yet there were not more deaths or maladies than the head of his suppliant shall fall!' The emir if they had remained in their houses. Their threatened him with force; Talhouk armed his provisions consisted, as at other times, of stuall family. The emir, dreading a revolt, adopted a lnaves baked on the ashes or on a brick, raw method practised as juridical in that country. onions, cheese, olives, fruits, and a little wine. He declared to the sheik, that he would cut The table of the chiefs was almost as frugal ; and down fifty mulberry-trees a-day until he should we may affirm, that they subsisted 100 days, on give up the aga. He proceeded as far as a what the same number of Englishmen or French- thousand, and Talhouk still remained inflexible. men would not have lived ten. They have no At length the other sheiks, enraged, took up the knowledge of the science of fortification, the quarrel; and the commotion was about to bemanagement of artillery or encampments, nor, come general, when the aga repreaching himself in a word, any thing which constitutes the art of with being the cause of so much mischief, made
But had they among them a few persons his escape without the knowledge even of Talversed in military science, they would readily houk. The Druses have also the prejudices of acquire its principles, and become a formidable the Bedouins respecting birth; like them, they soldiery. This would be the more easily effected, pay great respect to the antiquity of families ; as their mulberry plantations and vineyards do but this produces no essential inconveniences. not occupy them all the year, and they could af- The nobility of the emirs and sheiks does not ford much time for military exercises.
exeinpt them from paying tribute in proportion The Druses are considered, throughout the to their revenues.
İt confers on them no preroLevant, as restless, enterprising, hardy, and brave gatives, either in the attainment of landed proeven to temerity. Orily 500 of them have been perty or public employments. Every man, after seen to enter Damascus in open day, and spread paying his miri and his rent, is master of his around them terror and carnage. No people are property. In short, þy a particular privilege, more nice than they, with respect to the point of the Druses pay no fine for their succession : nor honor: any offence of that kind, or open insult, does the emir, like the sultan, arrogate to himis instantly punished by blows of the kandjur or self original and universal property: there exists the musket; while, among the inhabitants of the nevertheless, in the law of inheritance, an imtowns, it only excites injurious retorts. This perfection which produces disagreeable effects. delicacy has occasioned in their manners and Fathers have, as in the Roman law, the power discourse a reserve, or, if you will, a politeness, of preferring such of their children as they think which one is astonished to discover among pea- proper : hence it has happened in several famisants. It is carried even to dissimulation and lies of the sheiks, that the whole property has falsehood, especially among the chiefs, whose centered in the same person, who has perverted greater interests demand greater attentions. Cir- it to the purpose of intriguing and caballing, cumspection is necessary to all, says M. Volney, while his relations remain, as they well express
it, 'princes of olives and cheese ;' that is to say, the Druses. They practise neither circumcision, poor as peasants. In consequence of their nor prayers, nor fasting; they observe neither prejudices, the Druses do not choose to make festivals nor prohibitions. They drink wine, es alliances out of their own families. They in- pork, and allow marriage between brothers and variably prefer their relation, though poor, to a sisters, though not between fathers and children rich stranger; and poor peasants have been from this we may conclude, that the Druses known to refuse their daughters to merchants have properly no religion; but one class of them of Saide and Bairout, who possessed from must be excepted, whose religious customs are 12,000 to 15,000 piastres. They observe also, very peculiar. Those who compose it are to the to a certain degree, the custom of the llebrews, rest of the nation what the initiated were to the which directed that a brother should espouse his profane; they assume the name of Okkals, brother's widow; but this is not peculiar to which means spiritualists, and bestow on the them, for they retain that as well as several vulgar the epithet of Djahel or ignorant; they other customs of that ancient people, in common bave various degrees of initiation, the highest with other inhabitants of Syria and all the Arab orders of which require celibacy. These are tribes. In short, the proper and distinctive distinguished by the white turban they affect to character of the Druses, is a sort of republican wear, as a symbol of their purity; and so proud spirit, which gives them more energy than are they of this supposed purity, that they think any other subjects of the Turkish government, themselves sullied by even touching a profane and an indifference for religion, which forms a person. If such eat out of their plate, or drink striking contrast with the zeal of the Mahommedans out of their cup, they break them; and hence and Christians. They are further said to be re the custom, so general in this country, of using markably domestic and intelligent. In the vases with a sort of cock, which may be drunk evening they sometimes assemble in the court, out of without touching them with the lips. All the area, or house of the chief of the village or their practices are enveloped in mysteries: their family. There, seated in a circle, with legs oratories always stand alone, and are constantly crossed, pipes in their mouths, and poniards at situated on eminences: in these they hold their their belts, they discourse of their various labors, secret assemblies, to which women are admitted. the scarcity or plenty of their harvests, peace or It is pretended they perform ceremonies there, war, the conduct of the emir, or the amount of in presence of a small statue resembling an ox the taxes; they relate past transactions, discuss
or calf; whence some have attempted to prove present interests, and form conjectures on the that they are descended from the Samaritans. fu*ure. Their children, tired with play, come But, besides, that the fact is not well ascertained, frequently to listen; and a stranger is surprised the worship of the ox may be deduced from to hear them, at ten or twelves years old, re
nther sources. They have one or two books counting, with a serious air, why Djezzar de- which they conceal with the greatest care: but clared war against the emir Yousef, how many chance has deceived their jealousy; for in a purses it cost that prince, what augmenta- civil war, which happened about twenty-eight tion there will be of the miri, how many mus- years ago, the emir Yousef, who is Djahel or kets there were in the camp, and who had the ignorant, found one among the pillage of one of best mare. This is their only education. They their oratories. M. Volney was assured by perare neither taught to read the psalms, as among sons who had read it, that it contaius only a the Maronites, nor the Koran like the Mahomme- mystic jargon, the obscurity of which doubtless dans; hardly do the sheiks know how to write renders it valuable to adepts. Hakem Bamr a letter. But if their minds be destitute of use- Ellah is there spoken of, by whom they mean fuil or agreeable information, at least it is not God incarnate in the person of the caliph. It pre-occupied by false and hurtful ideas; and, likewise treats of another life, of a place of without doubt, such natural ignorance is well punishment, and a place of happiness, where worth all our artificial folly. This advantage the Okkals shall of course be most distinguished. results from it, that their understandings being Several degrees of perfection are mentioned, to nearly on a level, the inequality of conditions is which they arrive by successive trials. In other less perceptible. For, in fact, we do not per- respects these sectaries have all the insolence and ceive among the Druses that great distance, all the fears of superstition; they are not comwhich, in most other societies, degrades the in-municative, because they are weak; but it is ferior, without contributing to the advantages of probable that, were they powerful, they would the great. All, whether sheiks or peasants, treat be promulgators and intolerant. The rest of the each other with that rational familiarity, which Druses, strangers to this spirit, are wholly inis equally remote from rudeness and servility. different about religious matters. The ChrisThe grand emir himself is not a different man tians, who live in their country, pretend that from the rest : he is a good country gentleman, several of them believe in the metempsychosis ; who does not disdain admitting to his table thé that others worship the sun, moon, and stars : all meanest farmer. In a word, their manners are which is possible; for, as among the Ansarians, those of ancient times, and of that rustic life every one, left to his own fancy, follows the which marks the origin of every nation; and opinion that pleases him most; and these opinions prove that the people among whom they are are those which present themselves most naturally still found are yet only in the infancy of the to unenlightened minds. When among the social state.' Volney's Travels.
Turks, they affect the exterior of Mahommedans, The opinions of Mohammed ben Ismael may frequent the mosques, and perform their ablutions be regarded as the substance of the religion of and prayers. Among the Maronites, they ac
company theia to church, and, like them, make the prophets ; but there is no instance whatever use of holy water. Many of them, importuned of pagans being tolerated. by the missionaries, suffer themselves to be bap •The Ismaylys, when they go to Hamah, pray tised; and if solicited by the Turks, receive in the mosque, which they never do at Kalaat circumcision, and conclude by dying neiiher Maszyad. This castle has been from ancient Christians nor Mahommedans.
times their chief seat. One of them asserted Mr. Burckhardt confirms this general picture that his religion descended from Ismayl, the son of former travellers. Though a sect of the Ma of Abraham, and that the Ismaylys had been hommedans, they mingle so much of the tenets possessed of the castle since the time of El Melek of Zoroaster and the eastern Christian heretics el Dhaher, as acknowledged by the Firmahns of with their religion, that it belongs as a whole to the Porte. A few years since they were driven themselves only. Niebuhr has printed a cate out of it by the Anzeyrys, in consequence of a chism of their faith, which is principally remark- most daring act of treachery. The Anzeyrys able for its affected mysteriousness on the one and Ismaylys have always been at enmity; the hand, and its positive injunction to curse its consequence, perhaps, of some religious diforiginal author" (a great poet) on the other. ferences.' "We are they,' says their patriarch Hamzah, With respect more particularly to "who have been put in possession of the Faith religion of the Druses,' says this intelligent traafter the religion of Mahomet, the son of veller, 'none but a learned Druse can satisfy Abdullah; may the curse of our Lord be upon the enquirer's curiosity. What I have already him!'
said of the Anzeyrys is equally applicable to the They are a branch, it is clear, of the sect Is- Druses; their religious opinions will remain for mayly. “Enquiries,' says Burckhardt, “have ever a secret, unless revealed by a Druse. Their often been made concerning the religious doc- customs, however, may be described; and, as trines of this sect, as well as those of the An- far as they can tend to elucidate the mystery, the zeyrys and Druses. Not only European tra- veil may be drawn aside by the researches of the vellers, and Europeans resident in Syria, but traveller. It seems to be a maxim with them to many natives of influence, have endeavoured to adopt the religious practices of the country in penetrate the mysteries of these idolaters, without which they reside, and :0 profess the creed of the success, and several causes combine to make it strongest. Hence they all profess Islamism in probable, that their doctrines will long remain Syria ; and even those who have been baptised, on unknown. The principal reason is, that few account of their alliance with the Shehab family, individuals among them become acquainted with still practise the exterior forms of the Mahomthe most important and secret tenets of their medan faith. There is no truth in the assertion, faith, the generality contenting themselves with that the Druses go one day to the mosque, and the observance of some exterior practices, while the next to the church. They all profess Islamthe arcana are possessed by the select few. It ism, and whenever they mix with the Mahomwill be asked, perhaps, whether their religious medans they perform the rites prescribed by books would not unveil the mystery? It is true their religion." In private, however, they break that all the different sects possess books, which the fast of Ramadhan, curse Mahomet
, indulge they regard as sacred, but they are intelligible in wine, and eat food forbidden by the Koran. only to the initiated. A sacred book of the An- They bear an inveterate hatred to all religions zeyrys fell into the hands of a chief of the army except their own, but more particularly to that of Yousef pacha, who plundered the castles of of the Franks, chiefly in consequence of a trathat sect in 1808; it came afterwards into the dition current among them, that the Europeans possession of my friend Selym of Hamah who will one day overthrow their commonwealth. had destined it as a present to me; but he was This hatred has been increased since the invasion prevailed upon to part with it to a travelling of the French; and the most unpardonable insult physician, and the book is now in the possession which one Druse can offer to another, is to say of M. Rousseau, the French Consul at Aleppo, to him, “May God put a hat on you. who has had it translated into French, and means Nothing is more sacred with a Druse than to publish it, but it will probably throw little his public reputation: he will overlook an insult, light upon the question. Another difficulty is known only to him who has offered it; and arises from the extreme caution of the Ismayly's will put up with blows, where his interest is upon this subject ; whenever they are obliged to concerned, provided nobody is a witness; but visit any part of the country under the Turkish the slightest abuse given in public he revenges goverment, they assume the character of Mus- with the greatest fury. This is the most remarksulmans; being well aware that if they should able feature of the national character: in public be detected in the practice of any rite contrary a Druse may appear honorable ; but he is easily to the Turkish religion, their hypocrisy, in af- tempted to a contrary behaviour, when he has fecting to follow the latter, would no longer be reason to think that his conduct will remain untolerated ; and their being once clearly known discovered. The ties of blood and friendship to be pagans, which they are only suspected to have no power amongst them; the son no sooner be at present, would expose them to the heaviest attains the years of maturity, than he begins to exactions, and might even be followed by their plot against his father. Examples are not wanttotal expulsion or extirpation. Christians and ing of their assailing the chastity of their moJens are tolerated because Mahomet and his thers, and towards their sisters such conduct is immediate successors granted them protection, so freqnent, that a father never allows a full and because the Turks acknowledge Christ and grown son to remain alone with any of the fe