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sprinkled with spirits, as rum or geneva. Dr. might have been restored to life by resolution Fothergill of Bath advises mustard moistened and perseverance. Bleeding is never to be em with spirits. A warming-pan heated (the body ployed in such cases, unless by the direction of being surrounded with flannel) may be lightly one of the medical assistants, or some other genmoved up and down the back. Fomentations tleman of the faculty who has paid attention to of hot brandy are to be applied to the pit of the the resuscitating art. The Royal Humane Sostomach, loins, &c., and often renewed. Bottles ciety of London has, for a series of years, offered filled with hot water, heated tiles covered with premiums for machines and other inventions to flannel, or hot bricks, may be efficacious ap save mariners and other persons from drowning plied to the soles of the feet, palms of the hands, in cases of shipwreck, or other accidents at sea. and other parts of the body. The temples may The committee of the Society have also recombe rubbed with hartshorn, and the nostrils now mended several inventions for enabling persons and then tickled with a feather; and snuff, or to swim from a wreck to the shore; particularly eau de luce, should be occasionally applied. the cork or marine spencer, described under the VIII. Tobacco fumes should be thrown up the article Cork, and the Life Preserver, invented fundament; if a fumigator be not at hand, the by Mr. Daniel, of Wapping. This last is a sort common pipe may answer the purpose. The of bag made of water-proof leather, which wraps operation should be frequently performed, as it round the body just under the arm-pits, and may is of importance; for the good effects of this be inflated like a bladder in the space of half a process have been experienced in a variety of minute, by blowing with the breath through a instances of suspended animation. But should silver tube, furnished with a stop-cock, which is the application of tobacco smoke in this way not
to be turned when the machine is full of air. be immediately convenient, or other impedi DROWSE,v.a. & v.n. Dut. droosen, from ments arise, clysters of this herb, or other acrid Drows'ıued, n. s. Goth.dur, lightly, and infusions with salt, &c., may be thrown up with Drows'ily, udv. doze. To make or be advantage. IX. When these means have been DROWS'INESS, heavy with sleep; 10 employed a considerable time without success, Drows'y, adj.
slumber; to make and any brewhouse or warm bath can be readily heavy. Drowsihed is used by Spenser for obtained, the body should be carefully conveyed drowsiness. to such a place, and remain in the bath, or sur The day is spent, and cometh drowsie night, rounded with warm grains, for three or four When every creature shrouded is in sleepe. hours. If a child has been drowned, its body
Spenser. Fuerie Queene. should be wiped perfectly dry, and immediately The royal virgin shook off drowsihed; placed in bed between two healthy persons.
And rising forth out of her baser boure, The salutary effects of the natural vital warmth,
Looked for her knight.
Faerie Queene. conveyed in this manner, have been proved in a
Up, up, my drowsy soul! where thy new car variety of successful cases. X. While the various
Shall in the angels' songs no discord hear.
Donne. methods of treatment are employed, the body is
What a strange drowsiness possesses them ! to be well shaken every ten minutes, in order to
Shakspeare. render the process of animation more certainly
They rather drowsed and hung their eyelids down, successful; and children, in particular, are to be Slept in his face, and rendered such aspect much agitated, by taking hold of their legs and As cloudy men use to their adversaries. arms frequently and for a continuance of time.
Id. Henry VI. In various instances, agitation has forwarded the We satisfy our understanding with the first things, recovery of boys who have been drowned, and and, thereby satiated, slothfully and drowsily sit down. continued for a considerable time apparently
Raleigh. dead. XI. If there be any signs of returning
Men are drowsy, and desirous to sleep, before the fit life, such as sighing, gasping, or convulsive mo
of an ague, and do use to yawn and stretch.
Bucon's Natural History. tions, a spoonful of any warm liquid may be
In deep of night, when drowsiness administered; and if the act of swallowing is
Hath locked up mortal sense, then listen I returned, then a cordial of warm brandy or wine
To the celestial syren's harmony.
Milton. may be given in small quantities, and frequently
All their shapes repeated. XII. Electricity may be tried by the
Spangled with eyes, more numerous than those iudicious and skilful, as its application neither
Of Argus; and more wakeful than to drowse, prevents nor retards the various modes of reco
Charmed with Arcadian pipe. Id. Paradise Lost. very already recommended; but, on the other
There gentle sleep hand, will most probably tend to render the First found me, and with soft oppression seized other means employed more certainly and more My drowsed senses uncontrolled.
Id. expeditiously efficacious. This stimulus bids Drunken at last, and drowsy they depart fair to prove an important auxiliary in cases of
Each to his house.
Dryden. suspended animation; and therefore deserves
The air swarms thick with wandering deities, the serious regard and attention of the faculty.
Which drowsingly like humming-beetles rise. Id. These methods are to be employed with vigor for
Drowsy am I, and yet can rarely sleep.
Sidney. three hours or upwards, although no favorable
He that from his childhood has made rising betines circumstances should arise; for it is a dangerous familiar to him, will not waste the best part of his life opinion to suppose that persons are irrecover
in drowsiness and lying a-bed.
Locke. able, because life does not soon make its appear
his whole life in a dozed condition, ance; an opinion that has consigned to the grave between sleeping and waking, with a kind of drowsiness an immense number of the seemingly dead, who and confusion upon his senses.
What succour can I hope the muse will send,
He from his first swath proceeded
Crashaw. To such as may the passive drugs of it
Id. T'imon of Athens. The hoary willows waving with the wind,
Those whom the Egyptians honoured before as lords, And feathered quires that warbled in the shade,
now they contemn as drudges. And purling streams that through the meadow strayed,
Bp. Hall. Contemplations. In drowsy murmurs lulled the gentle maid. Addison.
A high spirited man is above the world and its A sensation of drowsiness, oppression, and lassi• drudgery, and cannot pull down his thoughts to the tude, are signs of a plentiful meal in young people. pelting business of life.
Bp. Earle. Arbuthnot.
He sits above and laughs the while, Those inadvertencies, a body would think, even At thee, ordained his drudge, to execute our author, with all his drowsy reasoning, could never Whate'er his wrath shall bid. have been capable of. Atterbury.
Milton's Paradise Lost. The flowers, called out of their beds,
And to cracked fiddle, and hoarse tabour, Start and raise up their drowsy heads.
In merriment, did drudge and labour. Hudibras
It is not poetry, that makes men poor;
For few do write, that were not so before;
And those that have writ best, had they been rich,
Had ne'er been seized with a poetic itch;
Had loved their ease too well, to take the pains
To undergo that drudgery of brains ;
Id. Year chases year with unremitted fight,
Advantages obtained by industry, directed by phi. Till want now following, fraudulent and slow,
losophy, can never be expected from drudging ignoShall spring to seize thee like an ambushed foc.
Glanville. Dr. Johnson's Poems.
The hard master makes men serve him for nought, A dull rotation, never at a stay,
who rewards his drudges and slaves with nothing but Yesterday's face, twin image of to-day ;
shame, and sorrow, and misery.
The poor sleep little: we must learn to watch
Our labours late, and early every morning, The drowsy dungeon-clock had numbered two,
Midst winter frosts; then, clad and fed with sparing, And Wallace tower had sworn the fact was true :
Rise to our toils, and drudge away the day. Otway. The tide-swoln Frith, wi' sullen sounding roar,
To thee that drudgery of power I give; Through the still night dashed hoarse along the shore.
Cares be thy lot : reign though, and let me live. Burns.
Paradise was a place of bliss, as well as immortaDRUB, v. a. & n. s.? Dan. druber, to kill;
lity, without drudgery, and without sorrow. Locke, DRUB'BING, n. s. Swed. drabba; Island. drybba, to fight. To beat soundly; to give blows; offices of drudgery? Were there not people to receive
Were there not instruments for drudgery as well as also, the bearing given, for which a drubbing is orders, as well as others to give and authorise them! the common substantive of low conversation.
You do not know the heavy grievances,
The toils, the labours, weary drudgeries,
He does now all the meanest and triflingest things Have bruised my body, and bereaved
himself drudgingly, without making use of any inferior My limbs of strength.
or subordinate minister. Ray on the Creation. The little thief had been soundly drubbed with a good honest cudgel:
What is an age, in dull renown drudged o'er! Though the bread be not mine, yet, if it had been
One little single hour of love is more. Granville. less than weight, I should have been drubbed.
Even Drudgery himself,
As at the car he sweats, or dusty hews
The palace stone, looks gay. Thomson's Summer. they have exposed them to innumerable drubs and It is now handled by every dirty wench, and concontusions,
Addison. demned to do her drudgery. In the rude state of society, prior to the existence
Swifi's Meditations on a Broomstick. of laws, if one man gave another ill language, the A man of wit is not incapable of business, but affronted
person might return it by a box on the ear; above it. A sprightly generous horse is able to carry and if repeated, by a good drubbing.
Frunklin. a pack-saddle as well as an ass; but he is too good DRUDGE, v. n. Sax. dreogan; Dutch to be put to the drudgery.
Pope. DRUDGʻER n. s. draghen; perhaps from
I knew that the work in which I engaged is geneDRUDG'ERY, DRAG, which see.
To rally considered as drudgery for the blind, as the firoDrudgʻingly, adv. labor in heavy or servile per toil of artless industry:
Johnson. Plan of Dictionary. Drug, n. s.
work: a drudger is he who thus. labors, and drudgery the work done.
But I am bankrupt now; and doomed henceforth Shakspeare has drugge for drudge in his first fol. To drudge, in descaut dry, un others' lays ; edit. See the passage given below from Timon But what is commentators' happiest praise ? Croper.
Bards, I acknowledge, of unequalled worth! of Athens.
The poor, inured to drudgery and distress, My old dame will be undone for one to do her hus
Act without aim, think little, and feel less, bandry and her drudgery.
Shakspeare. And no where, but in feigned Arcadian scenes, To conclude, this drudge of the devil, this diviner, Taste happiness, or know what pleasure means. laid claim to me.
Id. Id. Comedy of Errors.
Think ye, that sic as you and I,
marches, as the serges of Moui, Beauvois, and Wha drudge and drive through wet and dry, other like stuffs corded, are called corded drugWi' never-ceasing toil.
gets. The plain are wrought on a loom of two DRU'DGING-BOX. See DREDGING-BOX. marches, with the shuttle, in the same manner DRUG, n. s. & v.a. Fr. drogue ; Span. as cloths, camblets, and other like stuffs not DRUGʻGET, n. s. and Ital. droga; pro- corded. DRUG'GIST,
bably from Sax. drug; DRUID, n. s. & adj. Gr. opus, Celt. deru ; Drug'sTER, Gr. Tpvyn, dry; drugs Welsh and Arm. derw, an oak. An ancient properly signifying dry medicines : and hence priest of Gaul and Britain. See below. any thing dried up or worthless. Drugget is a In yonder grave a druid lies light, common kind of stuff: druggist and drug Where slowly steals the winding waves. Collins. ster, a seller of drugs.
Sage beneath a spreading oak Mortal drugs I have; but Mantua's law
Sat the druid, boary chief;
Every burning word he spoke
Full of rage and full of grief. Cowper. Do mock their charge with snores. I've drugged their It stood enibosomed in a happy valley, possets,
Crowned by high woodlands, where the druid oak That death and nature de contend about them. Id.
Stood like Caractacus in act to rally The poore people, the good physician prescribes
His host with broad arms 'gainst the thunderstroke.
Byron. cheap but wholesome medicines ; not removing the consumption out of their bodies into their purses, nor DRUIDS, DRUIDES, or Druidæ, the priests sending them to the East Indies for drugs which they or ministers of religion among the ancient Gauls, can reach better out of their gardens. Fuller. Britons, and Germans. Picard (Celloped. lib. Oft they assayed,
ii. p. 58) believes the druids to have been thus Hunger and thirst constraining; drugged as oft
called from Druis, or Dryius, their leader, the With batefulest disrelish, writhed their jaws
fourth or fifth king of the Gauls, and father of With soot and cinders filled. Milton's Paradise Lost.
Saron or Naumes. Pliny, Salmatius, Vigenere, A feet descried Hangs in the clouds, by equinoctial winds
&c., derive the name from Opus, an oak; on acClose sailing from Bengal, or the isles
count of their inhabiting, or frequenting, and Of Ternate and Tidore, whence merchants bring
teaching in forests; or because they never sacriTheir spicy drugs.
Id. ficed but under the oak. Menage derives the In the names of drugs and plants, the mistake in a word from the old British drus, dæmon, or maword may endanger life.
gician: Borel, from the Saxon dry, magician; or Baker's Reflections on Learning. from the old British dru or derw, oak,' whence Common nitre we bought at the druggist's. Boyle. he takes the Greek word dpuç to be derived ; Common oil of turpentine I bought at the drugster's
. which is the most probable supposition. Gorop. Id.
Becanus, lib. i. takes druis to be an old Celtic Each noble vice
and German word, formed from trowis or truwis, Shall bear a price
“a doctor of the truth and the faith;' which etyAnd virtue shall a drug become. An empty namt,
mology Vossius also approves. Was all her fame,
The druids were the first and most distinBut now she shall be dumb.
guished coder among the Gauls and Britons ;
Dryden's Albion. they were chosen out of the best families; and In druggets drest, of thirteen pence a-yard,
the honors of their birth, joined with those of See Pbilip's son amidst his Persian guard. Swift. their function, procured them the highest vene
They set the clergy below their apothecaries, the ration among the people. They were versed in physician of the soul below the drugsters of the body. astrology, geometry, natural philosophy, politics,
Atterbury. and geography; they were the interpreters of Judicious physick's noble art to gain,
religion, and the judges of all affairs indifferently; He drugs and plants explored, alas! in vain. Smith.
Whoever refused obedience to them was declared Bright Helen mixed a mirth-inspiring bowl,
impious and accursed. We know but little as Tempered with drugs of sov'reign use, lo assuage
to their peculiar doctrines; only that they beThe boiling bosom of tumultuous rage.
lieved the immortality of the soul; and the meBut 0 the' important budget! ushered in
tempsychosis. Their chief settlement in Britain With such heart-shaking music, who can say
was in the isle of Anglesea, the ancient Mona, What are its tidings ? bave our troops awaked ?
which was well stored with spacious groves of Or do they still, as if with opium drugyed,
their favorite oak. They were divided into seSnore to the murmurs of the Atlantic wave ?
veral classes. Strabo, however, only distin
Cowper, guishes three kinds, bardi, vates, and druids. For Inez called some druggists and physicians, The bardi were the poets; the vates, satels, were
And tried to prove her loving lord was mad, the priests and naturalists; and the druids, beBut as he had some lucid intermissions,
sides the study of nature, applied themselves to She next decided he was only bad. Byron.
morality. Diogenes Laertius assures us, that DRUGGET, a slight kind of woollen stuff, some the druids were the same among the ancient times made all wool, sometimes half wool half Britons with the philosophers among the Greeks; thread; sometimes corded, but usually plain. the magi among the Persians; the gymnosophists Those that have the woof of wool, and the warp among the Indians; and the Chaldeans among of thread, are called threaded druggets; and the Assyrians. Their garments were remarkably those wrought with the shuttle on a loom of four long; and, when employed in religious cere
monies, they wore a white surplice. They ge- dorus Siculus, Strabo, Cæsar, Mela, Ammianus nerally carried a wand in their hands; and wore Marcellinus, and others, they entered into many a kind of ornament enchased in gold about their disquisitions, in their schools, concerning the necks, called the druid's egg. See ANGUINUM form and magnitude of the universe in general, Ovum. Their necks were also decorated with and of this earth in particular, and even concerngold chains, and their hands and arms with ing the most sublime and hidden secrets of nabracelets: they wore their hair very short, and ture. On these subjects they formed a variety their beards remarkably long. The druids had of systems and hypotheses, which they delivered one chief or arch-druid, in every nation, who to their disciples in verse, that they might the acted as high-priest. He had absolute authority more easily retain them in their memories, as over the rest; and commanded, decreed, pu- they were not allowed to commit them to writnished, &c., at pleasure. At his death he was ing. Strabo lias preserved one of the physiolosucceeded by the most considerable among the gical opinions of the druids concerning the unisurvivors; and, if there were several pretenders, verse, viz. that it was never to be entirely dethe matter was ended by an election, or else de- stroyed or annihilated; but was to undergo a cided by arms. The druids presided at sacri- succession of great changes and revolutions, fices, and other ceremonies; and had the direc- which were to be produced sometimes by the tion of everything relating to religion. The predominancy of water, and sometimes by that British and Gaulish youth were instructed by of fire. This opinion, he intimates, was not pethem. The children of the nobility, Mela tells culiar to them, but was enteriained also by the us, they carried into caves, or the most desolate philosophers of other nations; and Cicero speaks parts of forests, and kept them there, sometimes of it as a truth universally acknowledged and for twenty years, under their discipline. They undeniable. But they did not express their senwere here instructed in the motion of the heavens, timents on these and the like heads in a plain and the course of the stars; the magnitude of the and natural, but in a dark, figurative, and enigheavens and the earth; the power and wisdom matical manner. We know not what their opiof the gods, the metempsychosis, immortality, nions were about the dimensions of the universe &c. They preserved the memory and actions of or of the earth, but we have several reasons to great men in their verses, which they never al- suppose that they believed both to be of a sphelowed to be written down, but made their pupils rical form. This is visibly the shape and form get them by heart. In their common course of of the sun, moon, and stars, the most conspiculearning, they are said to have taught them ous parts of the universe ; and the circle was the 24,000 such verses. Thus their doctrines ap- favorite figure of the druids, as appears from peared more mysterious by being unknown to their houses and places of worship: all but themselves; and, having no book to recur It may be thought improbable that the druids to, they were the more careful to fix them in had made any considerable progress in arithme
tic, as this may seem to be impossible by the It has been disputed, whether the druids were mere strength of memory, without the assistance themselves the inventors of their opinions and of figures and of written rules. But it is very systems of religion and philosophy, or received difficult to ascertain what may be done by methem from others. Some have imagined, that mory alone, when it has been long exercised in the colony of Phocians, who left Greece and this way. There is reason to think that they built Marseilles, in Gaul, about the fifty-seventh made use of the letters of the Greek alphabet for Olympiad, imported the first principles of learn- their calculations. Cæsar, speaking of the druids ing and philosophy, and communicated them to of Gaul, says, ' In almost all other public transthe Gauls and other nations in the west of Eu- ' actions, and private accounts or computations, rope. But though we may allow, that the druids they make use of the Greek letters. This is of Gaul and Britain borrowed some hints of their further confirmed by what the same author says philosophy from this Greek colony, we have of the Helvetii, a people of the same origin, lanreason to believe that the substance of it was guage, and manners with the Gauls and Britons. their own.
Others have suggested, that the · Tables were found in the camp of the Helvetii, druids derived their philosophy from Pythagoras, written in Greek letters, containing an account which seems to be confirmed by Ammianus of all the men capable of bearing arms, who had Marcellinus, and indeed the philosophy of the left their native country, and also separate acdruids bore a much greater resemblance to that counts of the boys, old men, and women.' of Pythagoras, than to that of any other
sage of Astronomy appears to have been one of the apriquity. But this resemblance may, perhaps, chief studies of the druids of Gaul and Britain. be best accounted for by supposing that Pytha The druids,' says Cæsar, · have many disquigoras adopted some of the opinions of the sitionis concerning the heavenly bodies and their druids, as well as imparted to them some of his motions, in which they instruct their disciples." discoveries. And Aristotle says that the philo- Mela, speaking of the same philosophers, obsophy of the druids passed into Greece. It is serves, . That they profess to have great knowtherefore highly probable, and in fact directly ledge of the motions of the heavens and of the asserted by several authors, that Pythagoras stars.' Some knowledge of this science, indeed,
visited the druids of Gaul, and was initiated was absolutely necessary for fixing the regular • into their philosophy. From the concurring tes returns of their religious solemnities, of which timonies of several authors, it appears
the druids had the sole direction. The druids tural philosophy was the favorite of the computed their time by nights, and not by days, druids of Gaul and Britain. According to Dio a custom which they had received from the
niost remote ancestors by tradition, and in which Cæsar destroyed the druids of the Gauls, who they were confirmed by their measuring their time were the poets and physicians of that nation. very much by the moon. They assembled upon The people of Gaul and Britain were probably stated days, either at the new or full moon; for induced to devolve the care of their health on they believed these to be the most auspicious times the druids, and to apply to these priests for the for transacting all affairs of importance. Their cure of their diseases, not only by the high esmost solemn ceremony of cutting the misletoe teem they had of their wisdom and learning, but from the oak was always performed on the sixth also by the opinion which they entertained, that day of the moon. Nay, they even regulated a very intimate connexion subsisted between the their military operations very much by this lumi arts of healing and the rites of religion; and that nary, and avoided, as much as possible, to en the former were most effectual when accompagage in battle while the moon was on the wane. nied by the latter. It was indeed a prevailing We are told both by Cæsar and Mela that the opinion of all the nations of antiquity, that all druids studied the stars as well as the sun and internal diseases proceeded from the anger of the moon; and that they professed to know, and gods; and that the only way to obtain relief was taught their disciples many things concerning to appease them by sacrifices.—That this was the motions of these heavenly bodies.
the practice of the Gauls and Britons, who, in There are still many monuments remaining in some cases sacrificed one man as the most effecBritain and the adjacent isles which give reason tual means of curing another, is attested by to think that the ancient Britons could apply the Cæsar. This gave rise also to that great number mechanical powers so as to produce very asto- of magical rites and incantations with which the nishing effects. As these monuments appear to medical practice of the druids, and of most anhave been designed for religious purposes, we cient physicians was attended. The druids enmay be certain that they were erected under the tertained a very high opinion of the medical direction of the druids. Many obelisks or pillars, virtues of the misletoe, and esteemed it a remedy of one rough unpolished stone each, are still to for all diseases. They believed it to be a spebe seen in Britain and its isles. Some of these cific against barrenness; a sovereign antidote are both very thick and lofty, erected on the against the effects of poisons; excellent for summits of barrows and of mountains; and some softening and discussing hard tumors; good for of them (as at Stonehenge) have ponderous drying up scrofulous sores; for curing ulcers blocks, raised aloft, and resting on the tops of and wounds; and (provided it was not suffered the upright pillars. We can hardly suppose to touch the earth after it was cut) very efficathat it was possible to cut these prodigious cious in the epilepsy. The selago, a kind of masses of stone (some of them above forty tons hedge hyssop, resembling savin, was another in weight) without wedges, or to raise them out plant, much admired by the druids for its supof the quarry without levers. But it certainly posed medicinal virtues, particularly in diseases required still greater knowledge of the mecha- of the eyes. But its efficacy, according to them, pical powers, and of the method of applying depended much upon its being gathered under them, to transport those huge stones from the certain magical directions. They entertained a quarry to the places of their destination, to erect high opinion also of the herb samolus or marshthe perpendicular pillars, and to elevate the im- wort for its sanative qualities; and gave many posts to the tops of these pillars. That the Bri- directions for gathering it. The person who was tish druids were acquainted with the principles to perform that office was to do it fasting, and and use of the balance, we have good reason with his hand; he was on no account to look to believe, from some druidical monuments still behind him, nor to turn his face from the herbs remaining, called Lagan stones, or rocking. he was gathering. It would be tedious to relate stones. Each of them consists of one prodi- the extravagant notions they entertained of the gious block or stone, resting upon an upright many virtues of the vervain, and to recount the stone or rock, and so equally balanced, that a ridiculous mummeries which they practised in very small force, sometimes even a child, can gathering and preparing it, both for the purmove it up and down, though hardly any force poses of divination and physic. These may be is sufficient to remove it from its station. Some seen in Pliny's Hist. Nat. 1. 25. c. 9, from whom of these stones may have fallen into this position we have these anecdotes ; but who, like other by accident, but others of them evidently appear Greek and Roman writers, seems designedly to to have been placed in it by art. That the an
represent the philosophers of Gaul and Britain cient Britons understood the construction and in an unfavorable light. We learn from Cæsar use of wheels, the great number of their war that the druids were the judges and arbiters of chariots and other wheel-carriages is a sufficient all differences and disputes, both public and proof; and that they knew how to combine private : they took cognizance of murders, inhethem together, and with the other mechanical ritances, boundaries, and limits; and decreed powers, so as to form machines capable of rais- rewards and punishments. Such as disobeyed ing and transporting very heavy weights, we have their decisions they excommunicated, which was good reason to believe.
their principal punishment; the criminal being In Germany and in the northern nations of hereby excluded from all public assemblies, and Europe, the healing art was chiefly committed to avoided by all the world; so that nobody durst the old women of every state ; but in Gaul and speak to him for fear of being polluted. Strabo Britain it was entrusted to the druids, who were observes, they had sometimes authority enough the physicians as well as the priests of these to stop armies upon the point of engaging, and countries. Pliny says expressly, · That Tiberius accommodate their differences.