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and the countess of Bedford ; to the first of whom
From this descent he owns himself indebted for a great part of his
Celestial virtues rising will appear education, and by the second he was for many
More glorious and more dread than from no all.
Id. years supported. His poems are very numerous and elegant; the most celebrated one is the Poly
The rigid interdiction which resounds
Yet dreadful in mine ear. Albion, a chorographical description of England,
Id, with its commodities, antiquities, and curiosities,
All night the dreadless angel, unpursued, in metre of twelve syllables; which he dedicated
Through heaven's wide champaign held his way. to prince Henry, by whose encouragement it was
You may despise that which terrifies others, and written ; and, whatever may be thought of the
which yet all, even those who most dread it, must in poetry, his descriptions are allowed to be exact.
a little time encounter.
Wake. He died in 1631; and was interred in Westmin
Deaths invisible come winged with fire ; ster Abbey among the poets, where his bust is to
They hear a dreadful noise, and straight expire. be seen with an epitaph by Ben Jonson.
Dryden. DRAʼZEL, n. s. Perhaps corrupted from Not sharp revenge, nor hell itself, can find drossel, the scum or dross of human nature; or A fiercer torment than a guilty mind, from Fr. droslesse, a whore. A low, mean, worth- Which day and night Joth dreadfully accuse, less wretch.
Condemns the wretch, and still the charge renews.
Was ever any wicked man free from the stings of a
Tillotson. DREAD, n. s., v. a. & d. n. Sax.dræd, from DREAD'ER, n. s.
Goth. rædur, ter
It may jusily serve for watter of extreme terrour to Dreadful, adj.
ror; or, as Mr. the wicked, whether they regard the dreadfulness of the DREAD'FULLY, adv.
day in which they shall be tried, or the quality of the Dread'FULNESS, n. s.
from Icel. and
Hakewill on Providence. DREAD'LESS, adj.
Goth. thra, sadDREAD'LESSNESS, N. S.
Zelmane, to whom danger then was a cause of fear, terror, awe; the cause of fear. The verb dreadlessness
, all the composition of her elements being seems to be derived from the noun, and means to
nothing but fiery, with swiftness of desire crossed him.
Sidney. fear in a great degree; to be in fear: a dreader
Thy love, still armed with fate, is one who lives in babitual dread : dreadful is
Is dreadful as thy hate.
Granville. terrible: dreadless, without fear or dread: the
To thee, of all our good the sacred spring; derivatives correspond in meaning.
To thee, our dearest dread; to thee, our softer king. And Zacarye seynge was afrayed : and drede fel
I have suspended much of my pity towards the And the aungle sayde to him, Zacarye drede thou great dreaders of popery.
Swift. not : for thy preier is herd.
Wiclif. I call upon others to join me in order to make a Not scruynge at ighe as plesynge to men, but in company apart, but no one will hearken to me. syinplenesse of herte dredinge the Lord. Id. Col. iii. Every one keeps at a distance, and dreads the storm The fear of you, and the dread of you, shall be
that beats upon me from every side. upon every beast of the earth.
Genesis ix. 2. How dreadfiel is this place!
Every step I take is with hesitation ; and every new
reflection makes me dread an error and inconsistency Let him be your dread.
in my reasoning. Quod he, to Athenes right now wol I fare;
Hume on the Human Understanding. Ne for no drede of deth shal I not spare
But slavery S-Virtue dreads it as her grave : To see my lady, that I love and serve;
Patience itself is meanness in a slave. Corper. In hire presence I rekke not to sterve. Chaucer. Cant. Tales.
They build each other up with dreadful skill, Right, faithful, true he was in deed and word;
As bastions set point blank against God's will; But of his cheere did seeme too solemne sad;
Enlarge and fortify the dread redoubt,
Id. Yet nothing did he dread, but ever was ydrad.
Deeply resolved to shut a Saviour out,
Rest, ye wild storms, in the cave of your slumbers; Think'st thou that duty shall have dread to speak,
How your dread howling a lover alarms ! When power to fatt'ry bows? To plainness honour Wauken, ye breezes, row gently, ye billows, Is bound, when majesty to folly falls.
And waft my dear laddie ance mair to my arms.
Burn. Shakspeare. King Lear. It cannot be, but thou hast murthered him; Too high a sense cannot be entertained of the saSo should a murtherer look, so dread, so grim. credness of an oath, and of the importance of the
Shakspeare. judicial office; and the most fatal consequences may The wicked heart never fears God, but thundering be dreaded from accustoming jurymen to consider or shaking the earth, or raining fire from heaven; but these matters with the profane levity with which their the good can dread him in his very sun-sbine ; his practice proves that they regard thein. loving deliverances and blessings affect them with
Sir S. Romilly. awfulness. Bp. Hull. Contemplations.
Lo! where it comes like an eternity,
Dreadful attraction! while behind thee gapes
The man of sense his meat devours, The' unfathomable gulf where Ashur lies
But only smells the peel and flowers ; O'erwhelmed, forgotten !
Id. on Larury.
And he must be an idle dreamer, DREAM, 7. n., v.a. & n. s. Sax. drom;
Who leaves the pie and gnaws the streamer.
Prior. Dream'er, n. s.
Goth. draumu ; DREAM'LESS, adj.
He never dreamed of the deluge, nor thought that S
Belg. droom ; first orb more than a transient crust. Teut. traum, from Lat. dormio ; Heb. 77, to
Burnet's Theory. sleep. To have a representation or imagina Her midnights once at cards and hazard fled, tion of things in sleep: hence, to imagine gene- Which now, alas ! she dreams away in bed, rally; to think vaguely or idly : as an active verb, And round her wait shocks, monkeys, and mockaws
To all the place of fops and perjured beaus.
Guy. to see in a dream. Dreamer has formerly meant
Life, like their bibles, coolly men turn o'er , an interpreter or master of dreams: dreamless is
Hence unexperienced children of threescore, free from or without dreams. Dr. Johnson ob
True all men think of course, as all men dreum; serves. This word is derived by Meric Casaubon, And if they slightly think, 'tis much the same. with more ingenuity than truth, from Opapa to
Young. Bon, the comedy of life ; dreams being, as plays If we can sleep without: dreaming, it is well that are, a representation of something which does painful dreams are avoided. If, while we sleep, we not really happen. This conceit Junius has en can have any pleasing dreams, it is, as the French larged by quoting an epigram:
say, tant gague, so much added to the pleasure of life.
Franklin. “Σκηνή πας ο βιος και παίγνιον ή μαθε πάιζειν,
With woe I nightly vigils keep, Την σπεδην μεταθείς, ή φέρε τας οδυνας.”
Beneath thy wan unwarming beam; Behold this dreamer (Marg. master of dreams) And mourn, in lamentation deep, cometh !
Gen. xxxvii. 19.
How life and love are all a dream. Burns. Utterly these thinges be no dremes ne japes, to It may therefore, perhaps be fairly said, that, in throwe to hogges, it is lyfelych mete for children of respect of any supposed tendency to scepticism, the trouth, and as they me beriden whan I pilgramed out evidence of history is full as strong against natural of my kith in wintere.
Chaucer. philosophy as against metaphysics; yet who ever
dreamed of proscribing the natural sciences ? We eat our meat in fear, and sleep
Bowdler. In the affliction of those terrible dreams
He came-oh Hope! he hastened to my soat; That shake us nightly.
I saw, and almost dreamed him at my feet, I have long dreamed of such a kind of man, Close by my side a gay attendant slave; But, being awake, I do despise my dream.
The glance, which thousands sought, to none he gave. Shukspeare.
Dr. T. Brown.
Tell me no more of fancy's gleam,
No, father, no, 'twas not a dream ;
Alas! the dreamer first must sleep,
I only watched, and wished to weep;
But could not, for my burning brow Of dreamer Merlin, and his prophecies. Id.
Throbbed to the very brain as now. The savages of Mount Atlas, in Barhary, were re
Byron. The Giaour. ported to be both nameless and dreamless.
Dreams have been defined as those thoughts Camden's Remains.
of which we are conscious, and those imaginary But, dearest beart! and, dearer image! stay; transactions in which we fancy ourselves engaged, Alas! true joys at best are dreams enough;
when in the state of sleep. Scarcely any part of Though you stay here you pass tou fast away,
nature is less open to our observation than the For even at first life's taper is a snuff. Donne.
human mind in this state. The dreamer himself He sleeps but once, and dreames of burglarie,
cannot observe the manner in which dreamis arise Bp. Hall's Satires, iv. 6.
or disappear. When he awakes he has in general The Macedon, by Jove's decree,
but a confused recollection of the circumstances Was taught to dream an herb for Ptolemy.
of his dreams. Were we to watch over him with Dryden.
the most vigilant attention, we could not perceive In dreams they fearful precipices tread;
wbat emotions are excited in his mind, or what Or shipwrecked, labour to some distant shore. Id.
thoughts pass through it, during his sleep. But Why does Anthony dream out his hours, though we could ascertain these phenomena, many And tempts not fortune for a noble day? Id. other difficulties would still remain. What parts
If our dreamer pleases to try whether the glowing of a human being are active, what dormant, when heat of a glass furnace be barely a wandering imagi- he dreams? Why does he not always dream while nation in a drowsy man's fancy, by putting his head asleep? Or why dreams he at all? Do any cirinto it, he may perhaps be wakened into a certainty. cumstances in our constitution, situation, and
peculiar character, determine the nature of our Dreaming is the having of ideas, whilst the out- dreams? ward senses are stopped, not suggested by any external Without pretending to solve the above quesobjects, or known occasion, nor under the rule or con- tions, we shall here give a brief view of thosc facts duct of the understanding.
which have been ascertained concerning dreams. They dream on in a constant course of reading, but 1. In dreaming we are not conscious of being not digesting.
Id. asleep. This is well known from a thousand cirI dreamed that I was conveyed into a wide and cumstances. When awake, we often recollect our boundless plain.
Tatler, dreams; and we remember on such occasions, Vol. VII
that, while those dreams were passing through duity as when awake; and the merchant returns our minds, it never occurred to is that we were to balance his books, and compute the profits of separated by sleep from the active world; ex an adventure, when slumbering on nis pillow cept in those cases where we have a kind of And not only do the general circumstances of a double dream; i. e. when, after dreaming for person's life influence his dreams, but his passome time, we dream that we have awaked from sions and habits are nearly the same when asleep sleep, and told our dream. But during this se as when awake. A person whose habits of life cond dream, and rehearsal of our former one, we are virtuous does not in bis dreams plunge into are fully persuaded that we are awake, till, by a series of crimes; nor are the vicious reformed, awaking in reality, we are convinced that we when they pass into this imaginary world. The were asleep all the time. We are also often ob- choleric man finds himself offended by slight proserved to act and talk in dreaming, as if we were vocations in his dreams, as well as in his ordinary busily engaged in the intercourse of social life. intercourse with the world, and a mild temper 2. In dreaming we do not consider ourselves as continues pacific in sleep. 5. The character of witnessing or bearing a part in a fictitious scene; a person's dreams is influenced by his circumwe seem not to be in a similar situation with the stances when awake in a still more unaccountactors in a dramatic performance, or the specta- able manner. Certain dreams usually arise in the tors before whom they exhibit, but engaged in the mind after a person has been in certain situabusiness of real life. All the varieties of thought, tions. Dr. Beattie relates, that he once, after that pass through our minds when awake, may riding thirty miles in a high wind, passed a part also occur in dreams; all the images which ima- of the succeeding night in dreams beyond descripgination presents, in the former state, she is also tion terrible. The state of a person's health, and able to call up in the latter; all the same emotions the manner in which the vital functions are carmay be excited, and we are often actuated by ried on, have a considerable influence in deterequal violence of passion ; none of the transac- mining the character of dreams. After too full tions, in which we are capable of engaging while a meal, or after eating of an unusual sort of food, awake, is impossible in dreams; in short, oui a person has dreams of a certain nature. 6. In range of action and observatiou is equally wide dreaming, the mind for the most part carries on in the one state as in the other; nay often more no intercourse through the senses with surroundso; for we may dream of flying, walking upon ing objects. Touch a person gently who is asleep, waters, and performing actions which we can he feels not the impression. You may awake not perform when awake. 3. It is said that all him by a smart blow; but, when the stroke is men are not liable to dream. Dr. Beattie, in a not sufficiently violent, he remains insensible of very pleasing essay on this subject, relates, that it. We speak softly beside a person asleep withhe knew a gentleman who never dreamed except out fearing that he will overhear us. His eyelids when his health was in a disordered state; and are shut; and even though light should fall upon Locke mentions, that a person of his acquaint- the eye-ball, yet still his powers of vision are not ance was a stranger to dreaming till the twenty- awakened to active exertion, unless the light be sixth year of his age; when he began to dream 80 strong as to rouse him from sleep. He is inin consequence of having a fever. These in- sensible both to sweet and to disagreeable smells. stances, however, are too few; and, besides, it It is not easy to try whether his organs of taste does not appear that those persons had always retain their activity, without awaking him: yet, attended, with the care of a philosopher making from analogy, it may be presumed that these too an experiment, to the circumstances of their are inactive. With respect to the circumstances sleep. They might dream, but not recollect their here enumerated, it is indifferent whether a perdreams on awaking; and they might both dream, son be dreaming or buried in deep sleep. Yet and recollect their dreams immediately upon there is one remarkable fact concerning dreamawaking, yet afterwards suffer them to slip out of ing which may seem to contradict what has been their memory. But though it is by no means here asserted. In dreams we are liable not only certain that any of the human race are, through to speak aloùd in consequence of the suggestions the whole of life, absolute stangers to dreaming, of imagination, but some persons even get up and yet it is well known that all men are not equally walk about and engage in little enterprises, withliable to dream. The same person dreams more out awaking. Now, as we are in this instance so or less at different times; and, as one person may active, it seems that we cannot be then insensible be more exposed than another to those circum of the presence of surrounding objects. The stances which promote this exercise of fancy, one sleep-walker is really sensible, a certain deperson may therefore dream much oftener than gree, of the presence of the objects around him; another. The same diversity will naturally take but he does not attend to them with all their place in this as in other accidents to which man- circumstances, nor do they excite in him the same kind are in general liable. 4. Though in dreams emotions as if he were awake. He feels no terimagination appears to be free from all restraint, ror on the brink of a precipice; and, in conseand indulges in the most wanton freaks, yet it is quence of being free from fear, he is also without agreed that the imaginary transactions of the danger in such a situation unless suddenly awoke. dreamer, if in health, generally bear some rela- This is one of the most inexplicable phenomena tion to his particular character in the world, his of dreaming. There is another fact not quite habits of action, and the circumstances of his consonant with what has been above advanced. life. The lover dreams of his mistress; the It is said that, in sleep, a person will continue to miser of his money; the philosopher renews his hear the noise of a cataract in the neighbourhood, scientific researches in sleep with the same assi- or regular strokes with a hammer, or any simila
sound sufficiently loud, and continued uninter- some measure on his habits of action, and on the ruptedly from before the time of his falling asleep. circumstances of his life : that the state of the And it is affirmed that he awakes on the sudden health too, and the manner in which the vital cessation of the noise. This fact is asserted on functions are carried on, have a powerful influsufficient evidence : it is curious. Even when ence in determining the character of a person's awake, if deeply intent on study, or closely oc- dreams : that in sleep, and in dreaming, the cupied in business, the sound of a clock striking senses are either absolutely inactive or nearly so: in the neighbourhood, or the beating of a drum, that such concerns as we have been very deeply will escape us unnoticed; and it is therefore the interested in during the preceding day, are very . more surprising that we should thus continue likely to return upon our minds in dreams in the sensible to sounds when asleep. 7. Not only do hours of rest: thai dreams may be rendered proa person's general character, habits of life, and phetic of future events; and therefore, wherever state of health, influence bis dreams; but those we have such evidence of their having been proconcerns in which he has been most deeply in- phetic as we would accept on any other occasion, terested during the preceding day, and the views we cannot reasonably reject the fact as absurd ; which have arisen most frequently to his imagi- but that they do not appear to have been actually nation, very often afford the subjects of his such, in those numerous instances in which the dreams. When one looks forward with anxious superstition of nations, ignorant of true religion, expectation towards any future event, he is likely has represented them as referring to futurity, nor to dream either of the disappointment or the gra- in those instances in which they are viewed in the tification of his wishes. If engaged through the same light by many among ourselves . and, lastly, day, either in business or amusements which he that dreaming is not a phenomenon peculiar to found exceedingly agreeable, or in a way in which human nature, but common to mankind with the he has been extremely unhappy, either bis hap- brutes. piness or his misery is likely to be renewed in We know of no other facts, that have been his dreams. 8. Though dreams have been re- ascertained concerning dreaming, besides the garded in almost all nations, at least in some pe- above. But we are by no means sufficiently acriods of their history, as prophetic of future quainted with this important phenomenon in the events, yet it does not appear that this popular history of mind. We cannot tell by what laws opinion has been established on good grounds. of our constitution we are thus liable to be so Christianity, indeed, teaches us to believe that frequently engaged in imaginary transactions, the Supreme Being may operate through this nor what are the particular means by which the medium, and actually has operated on the human delusion is accomplished. The delusion is indeed mind; and influenced at time the determinations remarkably strong. One will sometimes fancy of the will; as he did to Abimelech, Gen. xx. that he reads a book, and actually enter into the 3-6, and to Joseph, Matt. i. 20, and ii. 19, 22. nature of the imaginary composition before him, The dreams of Joseph and Pharaoh ; of his chief and even remember, after he awakes, what he butler and baker; of Nebuchadnezzar and the then knows, that he only fancied himself reading. prophet Daniel, &c., are also decisive on this Another will sometimes dream that he is at point. Yet it is perfect folly to confound such church, and hears a sermon delivered, which he miraculous dreams with those which the priest- would be incapable of composing when awake. hood among heathen nations, or the vulgar among Can this he delusion? If delusion, how, or for what ourselves, have considered as prophetic. We purpose, is it produced? The mind, it would know how easily ignorance imposes on itself, and appear, does not, in sleep, become inactive like what arts imposture adopts to impose upon the body; or at least is not always inactive while others. We cannot trace any certain connexion we are asleep. When we do not dream, the between our dreams and those events to which mind must either be inactive, or the connexion the simplicity of the vulgar pretends that they between the mind and the body must be conrefer. And we cannot, therefore, join with the sidered as in some manner suspended : and when vulgar and the superstitious in believing them we dream, the mind, though it probably acts in really referrible to futurity. 9. It appears that concert with the body, yet does not act in the brutes are also capable of dreaming. The dog same manner as when we are awake. It seems is often observed to start suddenly up in his to be clouded or bewildered, in consequence of sleep, in a manner which cannot be accounted for being deprived for a time of the service of the any other way than by supposing that he is roused senses. Imagination becomes more active and by some impulse received in a dream. The same more capricious; and all the other powers, esthing is observable of other brutes. That they pecially judgment and memory, become disorshould dream, is not an idea inconsistent with dered and irregular in their operations. what we know of their economy and manners Various theories have been proposed to explain in general. We may, therefore, consider it as a what appears most inexplicable in dreaming. pretty certain truth that many, if not all, of the The ingenious Mr. Baxter, in his treatise on the inferior animals are liable to dream, as well as Immateriality of the Human Soul, endeavours to human beings. It appears, then, that in dream- prove that dreams are produced by the agency ing we are not conscious of being asleep; that to of some spiritual beings, who either amuse or a person dreaming, his dreams seem realities: employ themselves seriously in engaging manthat though it be uncertain whether mankind are kind in all those imaginary transactions with all liable to dreams, yet it is well known that which they are employed in dreaming. This they are not all equally liable to dream : that theory, however, is far from being plausible. It the nature of a person's dreams depends in leads us entirely beyond the limits of our know.'
ledge. It requires us to believe without evi- only a part of the orain is col apsed, we are then dence. It is unsupported by any analogy. It neither asleep nor awake, but in a sort of delirium creates difficulties still niore inexplicable than between the two. This theory, like the last, those which it has been proposed to remove. supposes the mind incapable of acting without Till it appear that our dreams cannot possibly the help of sensation : it supposes that we know be produced without the interference of other the nature of a state, of which we cannot ascerspiritual agents, possessing such influence over tain the phenomena; it also contradicts a known our minds as to deceive us with fancied joys, fact, in representing dreams as confused images and involve us in imaginary afflictions, we can of things around us, not fanciful combinations, not reasonably refer them to such a cause. Be- of things not existing together in nature or in sides, from the facts which have been stated as human life. We must treat it likewise, therefore, well known concerning dreams, it appears that as a baseless fabric. In thc second edition of their nature depends both on the state of the the Encyclopædia Britannica, a theory different human body and on that of the mind. But were from any of the foregoing was advanced. It was they owing to the agency of other spiritual beings, observed, that the nervous fluid, which is suphow could they be influenced by the state of posed to be secreted from the blood by the brain, the body? Wolfius, and after him M. Formcy, appears to be likewise absorbed from the blood have supposed, that dreams never arise in the by the extremities of the nerves. It was argued mind, except in consequence of some of the or- that, as this fluid was considered as the principle gans of sensation having been previously excited. of sensibility, therefore, in all cases in which a Either the ear or the eye, or the organs of touch- sufficient supply of it was not absorbed from ing, tasting, or smelling, communicate informa- the blood by the extremities of the nerves, the tion somehow, in a tacit, secret manner; and parts of the body to which those uerves belonged thus partly rouse its faculties from the lethargy must be, in some degree, deprived of sensation. in which they are buried in sleep, and engage From these positions it was inferred, that, as long them in a series of confused and imperfect exer as impressions of external objects continue to tions. But what passes in dreams is often so communicate a certain motion from the sentient very different from all that we do when awake, extremities of the nerves to the brain, so long we that it is impossible for the dreamer himself to continue awake; and that, when there is a defidistinguish whether his powers of sensation per- ciency of this vital fluid in the extremities of the form any part on the occasion. It is not neces nerves, or when from any other cause it ceases sary that imagination be always excited by sen to communicate to the brain the peculiar motion sation. Fancy, even when we are awake, often alluded to, we must naturally fall asleep, and wanders from the present scene. Absence of become insensible of our existence. It followed mind is incident to the studious: the poet and that, in sleep, the nervous fluid between the exthe mathematician often forget where they are. treme parts of the nerves and the brain must We cannot discover from any thing that a person either be at rest, or be deficient, or be prevented in dreaming displays to the observation of others, by some means from passing into the brain ; and that his organs of sensation take a part in the it was concluded, that whenever irregular motions imaginary transactions in which he is employed. of this fluid were occasioned by any internal In those instances, indeed, in which persons cause, dreaming was produced. Thus we might asleep are said to hear sounds, the sounds which be deceived with regard to the operation of any they hear are also said to influence, in some man of the senses; so as to fancy that we see objects ner, the nature of their dreams. But such in- not actually before us : that we hear sounds; stances are singular. Since it then appears, that that we taste, feel, smell, &c. The instances of
person who dreams is himself incapable of visions which will sometimes arise, and as it distinguishing, either during his dreams or by were swim before us when awake, though our recollection when awake, whether any new im- eyes be shut; the tinnitus aurium, which is often pressions are communicated to him in that state a symptom in nervous diseases; and the strange by his organs of sensation ; that even by watci- feelings in thc case of the amputated limb, were ing over him, and comparing our observations of produced in proof of this theory, and applied to his circumstances and emotions, in his dreams, confirm it. with what he recollects of them after awaking, we Plausible as the above theory at first view cannot, except in one or two singular instances,
may appear, it is not satisfactory. It is too ascertain this fact; and that the mind is not in much founded on supposition. The nature of capable of acting while the organs of sensation the nervous fluid is but imperfectly known, are at rest, and on many occasions refuses to and even its existence is not fully ascertained. listen to the information which they convey; we All theories founded upon it must, therefore, be way conclude, that the theory is groundless. at best uncertain. Besides the suppositions Other physiologists tell us, that the mind, when made in this theory, of a partial privation and we dream, is in a state of delirium. Sleep, they sensation, and efficiency of the vital fluid, as nesay, is attended with what is called a collapse of cessary to produce sleep, seem to infer that sleep the brain; during which either the whole or a part is not consistent with a state of perfect health, of the nerves of which it consists, are in a state which every body knows is contrary to fact. The in which they cannot carry on the usual inter Brunonian system of medicine appears to give course between the mind and the organs of sen rather a more satisfactory solution of the phenosation. When the whole of the brain is in this mena and causes of sleep, by ascribing them to state, we become entirely unconscious of exist the exhaustion of the excitability by the exciting ence and the mind sinks into inactivity; when powers. But, without trusting entirely to the