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action, swell, and make the extremities of the exertions of the human body, it will be necesspines of the shoulder blades, called the tops of sary for him next to study the effect of the the shoulders, appear indented or hollow. The passions upon the limbs and features. The shoulder blades following the elevation of the passions, says Le Brun, are motions of the soul, arms, their bases incline at that time obliquely either upon her pursuing what she judges to be downwards. If the arms be drawn down, put for her good, or shunning what she thinks hurtforward, or pulled backwards, the shoulder-blades ful; and commonly, whatever causes cmotions necessarily vary their positions accordingly. of passion in the soul, creates also some action These particulars can only be learned by an atten- in the body. It is therefore necessary for a tive study of anatomy and of the living model ; painter to know which are the different passions by which means the student becoming acquainted of the soul, and how to delineate them. with the circumstances which attend every action Le Brun has been extremely happy in delihe will be able to form an idea how they ought to neating many of the passions, and the young be expressed.
artist cannot study any thing better than the exWhen the cubit or fore-arm is bent, the biceps amples which he has left us of them; and of has its belly very much raised, as shown in the which we have given a copy in plate VI. left arm. The like may be observed of the triceps However, as De Piles justly observes, it is when the arm is extended, as shown in the rightarm. absurd, as well as impossible, to pretend to
The straight muscles of the abdomen appear give such particular demonstrations of them, as very strong when arising from a recumbent pos- to fix their expression to certain strokes, which ture. Those parts of the great serratus muscle the painter should be obliged to use as essential which are received in the beginnings of the ob- and invariable rules. This, he very properly lique descending muscle immediately below, are says, would be depriving the art of that excellent very much swelled when the shoulder on the variety of expression which has no other principle same side is brought forwards; the serratus than diversity of imagination, the extent of muscle then being in action in drawing the scapula which is infinite. The same passion may be finely forwards.
expressed several ways, each yielding more or The long extending muscles of the trunk less pleasure in proportion to the painter's act alternately in walking. If the right leg bears understanding and the spectators' discernment. the weight of the body, and the left is advancing Although every part of the face contributes as on tiptoe, the last-mentioned muscles of the towards expressing the sentiments of the heart, back, on the left side, will be tumefied on the yet the eye-brow is the principal seat of exother side about the region of the loins, and so pression, and that wherein the passions princion the other side.
pally indicate themselves. It is certain, says The trochanters, or outward and uppermost Le Brun, that the pupil of the eye, by its fire heads of the thigh bones, (see the skeleton in the and motion, very well shows the agitation of the plate of Anatomy,) vary in their positions in such a soul, but then it does not express tne kind or manner as that no precise observations can ex nature of such an agitation; whereas the motion plain their several appearances ; but a careful of the eye-brow differs according as the passions study of the living model
, placed in action, must change their nature. To express a simple pasbe carefully attended to. If either thigh be ex- sion, the motion is simple; to express a mixed tended, as when the whole weight of the body passion, the motion is compound: if the passion rests on that side, the glutæus or buttock-muscle be gentle, the motion is gentle; and if it be presents a very different appearance from violent, the motion is su too. it offers at another time, or when in repose ; but We may observe farther, says he, that there if the thigh be drawn backwards, that muscle be- are two kinds of elevation in the eye-brows: comes still more tumefied.
one, in which the eye-brows rise up in the When the whole leg is drawn upwards and middle--this elevation expresses agreeable senforwards, and at the same time the foot is in- sations, and it is to be observed that then the clined inwards, the upper part of the sartorius mouth rises at the corners: the other, in which muscle appears, rising very strong. In other po- the eye-brows rise up at the ends, and fall in the sitions of the thigh that muscle makes a furrowing middle; this motion indicates bodily pain, and appearance in its whole progress.
then the mouth falls at the corners. In laughter, If a man be on tiptoe, the extending muscles all the parts agree; for the eye-brows, which fall of the leg, which are situated on the fore-part of towards the middle of the fore-head, make the the thigh and those of the foot, which compose the nose, the mouth, and the eyes follow the same calf of the leg, appears very strongly, and the long motion. In weeping, the motions are compound perænous makes a considerable indentation or and contrary; for the eye-brows fall towards the furrowing at that time in its progress on the nose and over the eyes, and the mouth rises that outside of the leg. Many other remarks might way. It is to be observed also, that the mouth be made on this subject; but an attentive study is the part of the face which more particularly of nature will render them unnecessary. Indeed expresses the emotions of the heart: for when we beg leave to refer the reader for further illus- the heart complains, the mouth falls at the cortration, to the plates and article Anatomy. ners; when it is at ease, the corners of the Sect. X.-Op The Effects of the Passions sion, the mouth is protruded and rises in the
mouth are elevated, and when it has an averIN GENERAL.
middle. When the student has thus made himself * The head,' says De Piles, “contributes more master of the various attitudes and muscular to the expression of the passions, than all the
other parts of the body put together. Those tween the eye-lids, appear fixed upon the object: separately can only show some few passions, but the mouth half opens, but occasions no sensible the head expresses them all. Some, however, alteration in the cheeks. Ibid. 2. are more peculiarly expressed by it than others : 3. Admiration combined with Astonishmenthumility, by hanging it down; arrogance, by The motions that accompany this mixed expreslifting it up; languor, by inclining it on one sion arc scarcely different from those of simple side; and obstinacy, when, with a still and reso admiration; cxcept, that they are more lively“ lute air, it stands upright, fixed, and stiff between and more strongly marked. The eye-brows are the two shoulders. The head also best shows more elevated, the eyes more open, the eye-balls our supplications, threats, mildness, pride, love, removed farther from the lower eye-lid, and more hatred, joy, and grief. The whole face, and steadily fixed : the mouth more open, and all the every feature contribute something; especially muscles in stronger action. the eyes, which, as Cicero says, are the windows 4. Veneration.--Admiration begets esteem, and of the soul. The passions which they more par- esteem, in a high degree, produces veneration, ticularly discover are pleasure, languishing, which, when it has for its object something divine scorn, severity, mildness, admiration, and anger; or beyond our comprehension, occasions the face to which we may add joy and grief, if they did to decline, and the eye-brows to bend downnot proceed more particularly from the eye- ward. The eyes become almost closed and brows and mouth: but when these two passions fixed, and the mouth is shut. These motions fall in also with the language of the eyes, the are gentle, and produce but little alteration in harmony will be wonderful.
the other parts of the face. Ibid. 3. • But though the passions of the soul are most vi 5. Rapture.—Although rapture has occasionally sible in the lines and features of the face, they often the saine object as veneration, only viewed in a require the assistance also of the other parts of the different manner, yet its motions and characterbody. Without the hands, for instance, all action istics are different. The head becomes inclined is weak and imperfect; motions, which are to the left side, the eyc-balls and eye-brows rise almost infinite, create numberless expressions : directly up; the mouth half opens, and the corit is by then that we desire, hope, promise, call, ners are also a little turned up; while the other send back; they are the expressive instruments parts remain in the natural state. Ibid. 4. of threatening, prayer, horror, and praise; by 6. Desire.--This passion brings the eye-brows them we approve, condemn, refuse, admit
, fear, togetner, and protruded towards the eyes, which ask; express our joy and grief, our doubts, re are more open than ordinary. The eye-balls are grets, pains, and admiration. In a word, it may intiamed, and place themselves in the middle of be said, as they are the language of the dụmh, the eyes. The nostrils rise up, and contract themthat they contribute not a little to speak a selves towards the eyes; the mouth opens, and language common to all nations, which is the the spirits, being in motion, give a lively glowing language of painting. But to say how these parts color to the whole countenance. Ibid. 5. must be disposed for expressing the various 7. Joy.-Very little alteration is perceived in passions is impossible, nor can any exact rules the faces of those who feel within themselves the be given for it, both because the task would be sweetness of this passion, or of joy mixed with infinite, and because every one must be guided tranquillity. The forehead is smooth and serene; in this by his own genius and the particular turn the eye-brows without motion, elevated in the of his own studies.'
middle; the eye pretty open, and with a laughSect. XI.-OF THE PARTICULAR EFFECTS OF
ing air; the eye-balls lively and shining; the
corners of the mouth turned up a little; the comTHE DIFFERENT PASSIONS ON THE FEATURES.
plexion lively, and the cheeks and lips red. Notwithstanding the justice of the preceding Ibid. 6. observations of De Piles, yet Le Brun has given 8. Laughter.—That kind of laughter which is such an accurate description of the particular produced by joy mixed with surprise, makes the effects of the passions on the human features, as eye-brows rise towards the middle, and bend tomust be of essential service to all who wish to wards the nose; the eyes become almost clused, attain proficiency in any of the arts of design. and are sometimes wet with tears, which make We therefore subjoin it, not only as an illustra no alteration in the face. The mouth, half open, tion of his drawings, copied in plate VI. but as shows the teeth ; the corners of the mouth, drawn containing a set of general rules to the student back, cause a wrinkle in the cheeks, which swell for depicting the various passions of human so as to partially close the eyes; the nostrils open,
and all the face is of a red color. Ibid. 7. 1. Attention. The effects of attention are to 9. Acute Pain.-Acule pain occasions the eye make the eye-brows sink, and approach the sides brows to approach one another, and to rise to of the nose; to turn the eye-balls towards the wards the middle; the eye-balls are concealed object that causes it; to open the mouth, and under the eye-brows, the nostrils rise and wrinkle especially the upper part; to decline the head a the cheeks; the mouth half opens and is drawn litle, and to fix it without any other remarkable back, and all the muscles of the face are agitated alteration. See plate VI, 1.
in proportion to the violence of the pain. 2. Admiration.-Admiration causes but little Ibid. 8. agitation in the mind, and therefore alters but 10. Simple Bodily Pain. This degree of suffervery little the muscles of the face. Nevertheless ing produces proportionably the same notions as the eye-brows rise, the eyes open a little more the last, but in a less violent degree. The eye-brows than ordinary; the eye-balls, placed equally be- do not approach so close, nor rise so much; else
eye-balls appear to be fixed upon some object; the nostrils. The eyes are very open, the upper the nostra's rise, but the wrinkles in the cheeks eye-lid hidden by the eye-brow, the white of the are less perceptible; the lips are farther apart eye encompassed with red, the eye-balls fixed towards the middle, and the mouth is half toward the lower part of the eye; the lower part open
of the eye-lids swell and becoine livid, the 11. Sadness.—The dejection which is pro- muscles of the nose and cheeks enlarge, and the duced by this affection of the mind, makes the latter terminate in a point towards the sides of eye-brows rise towards the middle of the fore- the nostrils. The mouth is very open, and its head more than towards the cheeks. The eye- corners become very apparent; the muscles and balls appear perturbed, the white of the eye veins of the neck stretch; the hair stands ou becomes yellowish, the eye-lids are drawn down end; the color of the face, that is, of the end and a little swelled. All about the eyes becomes of the nose, the lips, the ears, and round the livid, the nostrils are drawn downwards, the eyes, becomes pale and livid; and all the muscles mouth is half open, its corners being drawn appear strongly marked. Ibid. 14. down, the head carelessly droops on one of the 17. Anger. The effects of this passion show its shoulders, the face becomes of a heavy color, and nature. The eyes become red and inflamed; the the lips pale. Ibid. 9.
eye-balls staring and sparkling; the eye-brows 12. Weeping.–The alterations occasioned in sometimes elevated, and at others depressed the human countenance by weeping are very equally; the forehead much wrinkled, as also the erident. The eye-brows sink down towards space between the eyes. The nostrils open and the middle of the forehead; the eyes are al- enlarged; the lips compress, the under one rising most closed, and are wet and drawn downwards over the upper, slightly opens the corners of the towards the cheeks. The nostrils swell, the mouth, and gives the appearance of a cruel and muscles and veins of the forehead appear, the disdainful grin. Ibid. 15. mouth is closed, and the sides thereof are drawn 18. Hatred, or Jealousy.—The expression of down making wrinkles on the cheeks: the under the two passions is so very similar that Le lip, pushed out, presses the upper one; all the Brun classes them together. They wrinkle the tace becomes wrinkled and contracted, and its forehead, and the eye-brows become depressed color is red, especially about the eye-brows, the and knit; the eye-balls are half hidden under eyes, the nose, and the cheeks. Ibid. 10.
the eye-brows, and turn towards the object of 13. Compassion. That lively attention to the hatred, appearing fiery and animated; the nosmisfortune of others, which is called compassion, trils are pale, open, more marked than ordinary, causes the eye-brows to sink towards the middle and drawn backward so as to cause wrinkles of the forehead; the eye-balls to be fixed upon upon the cheeks; the lips are so compressed as to the object of its attention; the sides of the nostrils show that the teeth are firmly closed; the cornext the nose to be a little elevated, forming ners of the mouth are drawn back, and much wrinkles in the cheeks ; the mouth to be open ; sunk; the color of the face becomes partly inthe upper lip to be raised and thrust forwards ; flamed and partly yellowish, and the lips pale or the muscles and all the parts of the face to be de- livid. Ibid. 16. pressed, and turned towards the object which 19. Despair.-As despair is extreme, so are its excites the sentiment. Ibid. 11.
expressions. The forehead becomes wrinkled 14. Scorn.—The motions of this feeling are lively from the top to the bottom; the eye-brows bend and strong. The forehead becomes wrinkled, the down over the eyes, and press each other on the eye-brows knit, the sides of them next the nose sunk sides of the nose ; the eyes become fiery in their down, and the others much risen. The eyes are expression and full of blood; the eye-balls are widely open : and the eye-balls in the middle: disturbed, and concealed beneath the eye-brows, the nostrils rise and are drawn towards the eyes, sparkling and wandering. The eye-lids are forming wrinkles in the cheeks. The mouth swoln and livid, the nostrils large, open and closes, its sides are drawn down, and the under raised. The end of the nose turns down, the lip is protruded beyond the upper. Ibid. 12. muscles, tendons, and veins, become swoln and
15. Horror.-A despised object sometimes ex- stretched. The upper part of the cheeks becomes cites horror, and then the eye-brows become knit, large; the muscles protrude; the mouth drawn and sink considerably more than in the last instance. backwards is more open at the sides than in the The eye-balls, placed at the bottom of the eyes, middle; the lower lip swells and turns outwards. are half covered by the lower eye-lids; the mouth The sufferers gnash their teeth, foam and bite is half open, but closer in the middle than in the their lips, which are pale, as is the rest of tho sides, which, being drawn backwards, make face; the hair becomes straight and stands on wrinkles in the cheeks; the face becomes pale, end. Ibid. 17. the eyes livid, whilst the muscles and vains are To these rules the student will do well to add strongly developed. Ibid. 13.
Charles Bell's Anatomy of Expression, published 16. Terror, or Fright.—The violence of these exorcssly for artists upon the same subject; and, sensations, which are not synonymous, although as has been so often insisted on, to pursue an Le Brun has so classed them, as the former may attentive study of nature. be the result of certainty and durable, while the latter is sudden and often evanescent, alter all the Sect. XII.—Op the Distribution of Light middle parts of the face. The eye-brows rise in
AND SHADE. the centre, their muscles are strongly developed, After the student has made himself master, swoln, pressed against each other, and depressed in a tolerable degree, of drawing figures cortowards the nose, which is drawn up as well as rectly in outline, his next endeavour should
be to shade them properly. It is this portion of and elegantly upon them. In this departnıent the art which gives the desired efect of sub- of the art many things are necessary to be stance, form, distance, and distinction, to what observed. 1. The eye must never be left ever bodies he endeavours to represent, whether in doubt as to the object before it; but the animate, or inanimate.
shape and proportion of the limb, or portion of The best rule for performing this is, to consi- the figure, which is covered by the drapery, must der from what point, and in what direction, the appear to be beneath it; or at least so far as art light falls upon the objects which he proposes to and probability will permit
. This is so material delineate; and to make all his lights and shades a consideration, that the best artists draw the fall according to that direction throughout the naked figure first, and throw the drapery properly whole work. That part of the object must be about it afterwards. 2. The drapery must not be lightest which has the light most directly opposed too loose about the figure, but should so flow to it. If the light falls obliquely upon the round and adhere to it, that the latter may seem picture, he must make that side which is oppo- unencumbered and bave a free motion. 3. The site to the cause the lightest, and that side which draperies which cover those parts which are exis farthest from it the darkest. If he be draw- posed to great light, must not be so deeply ing the figure of a inan, and the light is placed shaded as to seem to pierce them, lest by the too above the head, then the top of the head will of great darkness of their shades, the limbs should course be the lightest, the shoulders will have the look as if they were broken. 4. The great folds next degree of light, and the lower parts be less must be drawn first, and then divided into lesser illumined as they are removed from the cause. ones; and great care must be taken that they do That portion of the object, whether the figure be not cross one another improperly. 5. Folds in naked or dressed, or whether it be a building general should be large and few; this must be which stands farthest out or nearest to the eye, guided, however, by the quality and quantity of must be made lightest, because it is nearest to the stuffs of which the drapery is composed. The the light; which loses so much of its brightness quality of the persons depicted must also be by how much any part of the object recedes ; considered in their drapery; if ancient legislators, because those parts which project, hinder the orators, or philosophers, their robes should be lustre and full brightness of the light from large and ample; if clowns, countrymen, or striking on the receding parts.
slaves, short and of coarse materials; if ladies, or Titian used to say, that he knew no better rule nymphs, light and soft. 6. The garments should for the distribution of light and shadow, or, as the be adapted to the body, whose motions they Italian critics call this department of the art, should follow, and the closer the garments sit to chiaro-scuro, than the observations that may be the body the narrower and smaller must be the drawn froin the lights, shadows, and reflexes of folds. 7. Well-imagined folds give spirit to any a bunch of grapes. Satins and silks, and all other kind of action, because their motion implies a shining stuffs, have certain glancing reflections, motion in the principal limb, which seems to act exceedingly bright where the light falls strongest. forcibly upon them, and makes them more or less The like is seen in armour, brass pots, or any stirring as the action is more or less violent. 8. other glittering metal, where a sudden brightness An artful complication of folds in a circular appears in the centre of the light, which dis- manner greatly assists the effects of foreshortening. covers the shining nature of the body depicted. 9. All folds consist of two shades and no more, The principal light should be thrown on the which may be turned with the garment at pleasure, principal figure, and an equal balance must be shadowing the nearer side deeply and the outer kept between the lights and shades throughout more faintly. 10. The shades in silk and fine linen the whole.
are very thick and small, requiring little folds, The outlines must be faint and almost imper- and a light shadow. 11. Observe the motion of ceptible in such parts as receive the light; but the air or wind, in order to draw the loose apwhere the shades fall the outline may be stronger, parel all flying one way; and draw that part of bet must never be too evident, as there is no the garment which adheres closest to the body, besuch thing as outline in nature.' Another effect fore you draw the looser part which flies off from of nature to be observed is, that as vision be- it: lest hy drawing the looser part first you comes weaker by distance, so must the objects ap- should mistake the position of the figure, and pear more or less defined according to the places thereby place it wrong. 12. Rich ornaments, which they occupy in the picture; those which when judiciously and sparingly used, will someare very distant, faint and undefined ; those which times contribute to the beauty of draperies; but are nearer, and in the foreground, clear, strong, such ornaments are below the dignity of heavenly and accurately defined.
figurer, whose grandeur should be derived from However, so much of this important portion of their characteristic forms and expressions, whethe art depends upon the artist's own feelings and ther of countenance, attitude, or attire, rather perceptions, that better directions for its acquire- than from the earthly vanity of rich stuffs or ment cannot be given, than to study with atten- glittering ornaments. 13. Light and Aying tion the works of those masters who are reckoned draperies are proper only to figures in rapid mothe most successful in its uses, and to follow them tion, or blown upon by the wind; but in a calm and their mistress-nature, as guides.
placc, and free from violent action, their drape
ries should be large and flowing; that by their Sect. XIII.-OF DRAPERY.
contrast, and the fall of their folds, they may Drapery is the art of clothing figures, and bear the appearance of grace and dignity. See disposing the drapery or clothing properly further under Painting.
Suct. XIV.-OF DrawinG LANDSCAPES, Build- disgusting to see colored or tinted drawings, INGS, &c.
wherein the reds, greens, and blues are laid on Of all the branches of art, this is the most without regard to truth or harmony. It may be generally useful and necessary; because it is urged, by those who execute them, that nothing what every man may have occasion for at is greener than grass, nor bluer than the sky; one time or another. To be able, on the but it should be considered, that nature employs spol, to take the sketch of a fine building, a such a multitude of little shadows, and such an curious relic of antiquity, or a beautiful pros- endless variety of different tints, intermixed with pect of any curious production of art, or uncom- her broadest colors, that the harshness of the mon appearance in nature, is not only a desirable original hue, or local tint, is thereby corrected, accomplishment, but an agreeable and useful and the effect of the whole very different from a amusement. Rocks, mountains, fields, woods, raw and unbroken color laid upon
white paper. rivers, cataracts, cities, towns, castles, houses, Though the artist should have recourse to the fortifications, ruins, or whatsoever else may pre- study of nature, in preference to that of a master, sent itself to view on our journeys or travels, in for a knowledge of coloring, yet it requires some our own or forcign countries, may be thus brought judgment to know what part of nature is to be home and preserved for future use either in studied, and what to be avoided ; in short, selecbusiness or conversation. On this part, there- tion is necessary:
The student, in coloring, fore, more than ordinary pains should be be- should examine with attention, that of old walls, stowed.
broken and stained by time and weather; old All drawing consists in measuring visible ob- thatch, old tiles, rotten wood ;-in short, all ohjects accurately with the eye. In order to facili- jects which are covered with moss, stains, and tate this operation, the student should fancy, in tints of various kinds; wherein he will find all his own mind, that the subject he is delineating the principles of the picturesque and agreeable is divided into squares of imaginary lines. We .n coloring. Such things as these should be say, imaginary lines, because though engravers copied with every possible care, and all objects and others, who copy with great exactness, of a decided uniform color should be as carefully divide both their copy and the original into an avoided. This has ever been the practice of all equal number of squares, yet this is a method the great masters who have excelled in this denot to be recommended; since it imposes shackles lightful part of the art; and examples of drawupon the learner, from which he will find it ing landscapes from nature according to the difficult to emancipate himself, particularly when foregoing precepts have been often given. he comes to draw from nature, where such arti To conclude, in order to attain any considerfices will not avail him.
able proficiency in this sort of drawing, a knowWhen colors are used in drawing, they should ledge of Perspective is absolutely necessary. be managed with caution and judgment; it being See that article.
DRAWING Slate, in mineralogy, black chalk. A brace ji draymen bid God speed him well, Its color is grayish black. Massive. Lustre of the And had the tribute of his supple knee. Shakspeare. principal fracture, glimmering; of the cross frac
Have not coblers, draymen, and mechanicks goture, dull. Fracture of the former slaty, of the verned as well as preached? Nay, have not they by latter fine earthy. Opaque. Streak same color preaching come to govern?
This truth is illustrated by a discourse on the naand glistening. Very soft. Sectile. Easily fran
ture of the elephant and the drayhorse. Tatler, gible. It adheres slightly to the tongue. Spe
Let him be brought into the field of election upon cific gravity 2.11. It is infusible. Its constituents his druycart, and I will meet him there in a triumare-silica 64:06, alumina 11, carbon 11, water phant chariot.
Addison. 7-2, iron 2.75. It occurs in beds, in primitive When drays hound high, then never cross behind and transition clay-slate, also in secondary for- Where bubbling yest is blown by gusts of wind. mations. It is found in the coal formation of
Gay. Scotland, and in most countries. It is used in The drayplough is the best plough in winter for crayon-pairting.
Mortimer's Husbandry. DRAWL, v.n. From draw. To utter any
I know too that, if stopped upon my route, thing in a slow, driveling way.
Where the green alleys windingly aliare,
Reeling with grapes red waggons choke the way,Then mount the clerks, and in one lazy tone
In England 't woul be dung, dust, or a dray. Through the long heavy page drawl on. Pope.
Byron. Now sec hinn launched into the world at large;
DRAYTON (Michael), an eminent English If priest, supinely droning o'er his charge, Their fleece his pillow, and his weekly drawl,
poet, born of an ancient family in Warwickshire Though short, too long, the price he pays for all.
in 1563. His propensity to poetry was ex
Cowper. tremely strong from his infancy; and we find Mrs. Dan. Then, I suppose, it must have been most of his principal poems published by the time Mr. Dangle's dra:vling manner of reading it to me.
he was about thirty years of age.-It appears,
Sheridan. from his poem of Moses's Birth and Miracles, DRAY, n. s. Sax. Drag, of the same that he saw at Dover the famous Spanish armada, DRAY'CART, origin as Draw, which see. and it is not improbable that he was engaged in DRAY'HORSE, The car on which beer is some military employment there. He was patro. DRAY'MAN, conveyed; the horse at- nised by several persons of consequence : partiDRAY'PLOUGH. ) tached, and the driver. cularly by Sir Henry Goodere, Sir Walter Aston,