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part of the length of the figure. The best-pro When these more mechanical parts are acportioned figures of the ancients are seven heads quired, and their real measurements tolerably and three quarters in height, but they vary as re- familiar, the student may proceed in respect to quired by the different characteristics of the the order and manner of drawing the human fifigure. If, therefore, the figure stands upright, gure, as follows:-First he should sketch the as fig. A, plate VI., draw a perpendicular line head; then the shoulders in their exact breadth, from the top of the head to the heel, which must in relation to the head; then draw the trunk of be divided into two equal parts. The bottom of the body, beginning with the arm-pits (leaving the belly is exactly the centre of the figure. Then the arms for an after consideration), and so trace divide the lower part into two equal parts again; all the beautiful undulations which form the the middle of which is to be the middle of the knee. outline of the human body, down the hips on
The method of delineating the upper part of both sides ; observing carefully the exact breadth the figure is as follows :-Take off with the com- of the waist. Then he should draw that leg passes the length of the face, which is about upon which the body stands, and afterwards the three-fourths of the length of the head ; then set other which is in repose: then the arms, and last off the length of another face from the pit of the of all the hands. He must carefully notice all throat to the pit of the stomach; thence to the the bowings and bendings that are in the figure; navel is another face in length, and thence to making the part which is opposite to that bendthe lower rim of the belly is a third.
ing inwards correspond to its antagonist by The entire line must then be divided into seven swelling outwards. cqual parts : against the end of the first division For instance: if one side of the body bend in, is the situation of the breasts; the second is the the other must naturally swell out to be answerplace of the navel; at the third mark out the able to it: if the back bend in, the belly must privities; the fourth comes in the middle of the swell out; if the knee bend out, the ham must thigh; the fifth to the lower part of the knee; bend in, and so on of every other joint in the the sixth to the lower part of the calf; and the body. In a word, he must endeavour to form all seventh to the bottom of the heel; the heel of the parts of the figure with truth, and in just the leg which supports the body being always proportion; not one arm or one leg bigger or less under the pit of the throat.
than the other; nor broad Herculean shoulders As the essence of all good drawing consists in with a weak and slender waist; nor raw and making a correct sketch at first, the student must bony arms with thick and puffy legs; but prebe very accurate and careful in this stage of his serving an harmonious 'agreement and keeping business, rubbing out and sketching again till he amongst all the members, and consequently a is right in all the bearings and proportions; and beautiful symmetry throughout the whole figure. firishing no one part perfectly till he finds the When these rudiments of drawing the human general sketch and character of the figure com- figure are thus acquired, and the student can plete and good; and when it is all in, correctly draw with sufficient correctness, he must next to his mind, he may then proceed to the finishing apply himself to its study after the antique and of one part after another, with all the fidelity in nature in a philosophical manner; studying Os
TEOLOGY and ANATOMY as his surest directors. Some artists, when they have a statue to copy, See those articles. begin with the head, which they finish, and then In copying after the antique, which should preproceed in the same manner to the other parts of cede and always accompany that of drawing after the figure, perfecting as they go on : but this nature, the following statues and sculptures are manner is generally unsuccessful; for, if they among the master-picces of ancient art to which make the head in the least too large or too small, the student's attention is particularly directed, as the consequence is a manifest disproportion be- subjects for his studies in chalk drawing or detween all the parts, occasioned by their not hav- sign : namely, first of all the remains of ancient ing sketched the whole proportionably at first. art, those incomparable works known by the Let the more advanced student therefore remem name of the Elgin marbles. Of these the figure ber that, in whatever he intends to draw, he called Theseus or Hercules, the Ilissus, the Cushould first sketch its several parts, measuring pid, and the wonderful fragment of the chest the distances and proportions between each with and shoulders of Neptune, stand pre-eminent his finger or his pencil, without using the com- among the naked ones: the colossal statue of passes, observing the precept of Du Piles to Bacchus, the Fates, the Victory, the Canephora, bear the compass in his eye,' and then to judge and the Panathenaic procession amor, the of its general effect by the eye which by degrees dressed and every one of them—from the Mewill be able to estimate truth and proportion, and topes to the fragment of a toe—for various will become his principal and best guide. Let degrees and kinds of perfection in art. They him also observe, as a general rule, invariably to were for more than 700 years the admiration of begin with the right hand side of the piece he the ancient world, and, in the time of Plutarch, is copying ; for thus he will always have what he were regarded as inimitable for their grace and has done before his eyes, and the rest will follow beauty. more naturally and with greater ease.
Whereas The torso of the Belvedere, commonly called if he begin with the left side of the figure, his the torso of Michelangiolo, as being a conhand and arm will cover what he does first, and siderable favorite with that great master, is andeprive him of the sight of it; by which means other beautiful study for the young artist; as is he will not be able to proceed with so much ease, also the Farnese Hercules, which is a standard pleasure, or certainty
master-piece of art. The Apollo Belvedere is
the most sublime of ancient statues, and presents viding the measures of children into four, five, a beautiful subject for the pencil. The Laocoon and six parts, of which one is given to the head, possesses splendid beauties of another character; is made use of in the way of proportion both by and the Venus de Medicis is a perfect model of painters and sculptors. feminine beauty, grace, elegance, and sweetness, A child of two years of age is in general about and is in teed the perfection of the female form. five heads high, but, of four or five years old, The Antinous of the Belvedere is a magnificent nearly six; about the fifteenth or sixteenth year, specimen of male youthful beauty, and the seven heads are the proportion or measure, and celebrated Gladiators are remarkable for their the centre declines to the upper part of the pudisplay of anatomical correctness.
bis. Hence it appears that, as the growth of When the student has mastered these, and im- the body advances, there is a gradual approach bued his mind with their beauties and propor to the proportion of an adult of nearly eight heads tions, he may commence drawing after nature, or in the whole height; of which, as before menfrom the living model ; undertaking a course of tioned, the head itself makes one. anatomy and anatomical drawing, and an occa Upon these principles the following table is sional return to the beauties of the antique, to consiructed, exhibiting the proportions of a strong, prevent a too great mannerism and individuality and of a graceful man, and of a fine woman, as of form.
given by the ancients, measured from the origiSect. VII.—OF THE PROPORTIONS AND MEA- and Raffaelle Morghen. It is found in Elmes's
nals al Rome, and published by J. J. Volpato SURES OF THE HUMAN BODY.
Dictionary of the Fine Arts. The models are, The centre, or middle part, between the extre the Farnese Hercules, the Belvedere Apollo, and mities of the head and feel of a well-proportioned the Medicean Venus, which may be classed as new-born child is in the navel, but that of an the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian orders adult is in the os pubis; and the practice of di- of human beauty.
From the beginning of the head to the root of the hairs
PROPORTIONS OF THE
P. M. P. M. P. M. The narrowest part of the foot .
3 5 3 3 The broadest part of the same.
5 0 1 From the last vertebra of the neck to the lower part of the os sacrum
38 4 From the end of the os sacrum to the end of the glutæus
6 4 From the end of the glutæus to the beginning of the gastrocnemius muscle
15 4 From the beginning of the gastrocnemius muscle to the end of the figure
30 1 The entire proportions of these celebrated sta- gravity may be placed in equilibrio. This point tues are, in round numbers; the Hercules seven or centre is determined by the heel; or, if the heads, three parts, seven minutes (four parts figure be on tiptoe, then the ball of the great toe being equal to one head, and twelve minutes in the centre. The muscles of the leg which equal to one part). The Apollo seven heads, three supports the body must be swelled, and their parts, six minutes; and the Venus seven heads, tendons drawn more to an extension than those three parts. The other most admired statues dif- of the other leg, which is only so placed as to fer a little from these proportions—the Laocoon receive the weight of the body like a buttress or measuring (if erect) seven heads, two parts, three a prop, towards that way to which the action inminutes; the Pyramus seven heads, two parts; clines it. the Antinoüs seven heads, two parts; the Grecian For example, suppose Hercules is to be represhepherdess seven heads, thrce parts, six minutes; sented, aiming a blow with his club, at someand the Mirmillo eight heads; but all their va- thing before him, towards his left side. Then rious proportions are harmonious and agreeable, must his right leg be placed so as to receive the and in keeping with the characters of the figures whole weight of his body, and the left merely they represent.
touching the ground with the toes. In this case It is a leading principle, in which every per- the external muscles of the right leg must be son who is conversant in the arts of design strongly inarked; while those of the left leg agrees, that, without a perfect knowledge of the must be represented more flaccid, and in repose; proportions of the human figure, nothing can be but, as the foot is extended, the muscles that produced but absurdity and extravagance; and compose the calf of the leg are extended also, as it is also universally admitted, that the ancient those of the right are compressed and tumefied. Greek and Roman sculptors attained the highest For if the leg or tibia is extended, then the exsuccess in producing unexceptionable models.
tending muscles are most swelled; but if it be The greatest modern artists, who have exa- bent, then the bending muscles and their tendons wined these antique statues with attention, ad- appear most plainly. mit, that several of the ancient sculptors have, The like may be observed of the muscles of in some degree, surpassed nature, no living man
the whole figure in general, if it be represented having been found so perfect in every part as in vigorous action. The Laocoon furnishes an some of their figures are. The opportunities for example of this muscular appearance being car. acquiring excellence, which they possessed, were ried through the whole figure; while in the Anindeed great: Greece abounded with models of tinous, the Apollo, the youthful Bacchus, and beauty, strength, and elegac.ce; and Rome being other figures where no energetic action is exmistress of the world, every thing beautiful, rich, pressed, the muscles are expressed but faintly, or curious was brought to it, from all parts. Thé as they appear through the skin in nature. motives which inspired them and their patrons
The clavicles, or collar bones, and the muscles were also powerful. Religion, glory, and inte in general, do not show themselves so strongly rest, all united in their aid. They considered in the female as in the other sex, nor in youths it a kind of religious duty to give to the figures as in adults. Nor will any action in which a of their gods so much beauty and grandeur, as to female uses her utmost strength occasion such attract at once the love and veneration of the risings or indications of the muscles as they do people. Their own glory was also concerned, in the stronger sex. The great quantity of fat particular honors being conferred on those who under the skin of females so clothes their more succeeded; and for their fortune they had no delicate muscles as to prevent such a marked farther care to take of that, after arriving at a appearance. certain degree of celebrity.
Sect. IX.-OF THE EFFECTS OF THE EXERSect. VIII.-OP THE ATTITUDES OF THE HU.
TION OF THE MUSCLES.
The most obvious effects of the exertion of If an artist be required to represent a those muscles which chiefly demand the attenpowerful athletic figure, such as a Hercules tion of the artist are the following: viz. or a Sampson, in a state of vigorous action, If either of the mastoid muscles (see the plate he must pay particular attention to the parts or of muscles in Anatomy,) act, the head is turned to limbs which are principally exerted in such the contraryside, and the muscle which performs action. If the figure be standing, the foot must that action appears very plainly through the skin. be placed in a right line or perpendicular to the If the arms be raised, the deltoid muscles trubk or bulk of the body, so that the centre of placed on the shoulders, which perform wat