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quity, particularly those who executed the majes- outlines are to be sketched in by the black lead tic Apollo Belvedere, and the marvellous works pencil, so that any part which is not correct may called the Elgin marbles.

be easily obliterated by the Indian rubber. When The progress of the young artist's studies in the sketch is as correctly done with the pencil as is in drawing or designing, ought to be founded upon the student's power, he is then to draw carefully his a graduated scale. Individual nature, at the outline with the crow or duck-quill pen, and commencement of his studies; select, as he pro- diluted ink or seppia. After this he is to disceeds, and, when he attempts originality, idealized charge the pencil lines, by rubbing it gently with according to the precepts of Reynolds, and the the crumb of stale bread or Indian rubber. The practice of Phidias.

pigment used for this purpose is either Indian Sect. I.–Of the Proper Materials and color, and softer in execution. By rubbing these

ink, or seppia, which is a pleasanter warmer INSTRUMENTS for DRAWING, AND THE MAN

up with soft water on a plate, or palette of earthen NER OF USING THEM.

ware or marble, they may be made of any reThe first step towards attaining a profi- quired degree of strength, and used in the quill ciency in drawing, is the study of geometry or steel pen like common ink. and perspective. Geometry is the science of Having got the outline clear and correct, the extension, quantity, or magnitude abstractedly next step is to shade the work properly, either considered, and demands the greatest attention by drawing fine strokes with the pen in a manner from the scientific artist. Perspective is that which is called hatching, and of which the first branch of optics which teaches how to represent engravings were imitations, or by washing in the objects on a plain surface, in the manner wherein shadows, and softening them into the lights with they appear under the peculiarities which arise camel-hair pencils, and tints of Indian ink or from distance and height. A knowledge of these seppia. As to the rule and compasses, they are two branches of science may be said to form the very rarely to be used, except in architectural or fundamental part of drawing; and, when begin- geometrical drawings, or in measuring the proning, the learner must furnish himself with portions of figures, after they are drawn, to prove proper materials and instruments; such as black whether they are correct or not; or, finally, in lead pencils of different degrees of hardness; the delineation of fortifications and linear percrayons of black, white, and red chalk; crow or spective. Chalks and crayons are managed in duck-quill pens; Indian ink or seppia: as also a similar manner, except that the lights and with drawing-boards, rules or straight edges, and shades are drawn with the material dry, and compasses ; drawing-boards for fastening the hatched and softened into one another, in the paper upon, so that it may not shift, and like. same way. wise for straining it, to prevent the colors, or the washes of tint, when laid wet upon the paper,

Sect. II.-Or Drawing Lines, SQUARES, CIRfrom causing it to swell so as to dry uneven.

CLES, AND OTHER GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. The simplest of these latter requisites is made The first practice of a learner should be to draw of a deal board glued together to its proper width straight and curved lines, with ease and freedom, and length, strengthened with a piece rabbeted upwards and downwards, inclined to the right on at each end, to prevent warping. The paper and left, or in any required direction. To draw may be fixed down upon this board with pins, lines inclining to the right, or quite horizontal, wafers, or sealing wax, or it may be strained with he must hold his elbow close to his side as in paste or glue in the following manner: --First writing ; when perpendicular, the elbow must wet the paper well with a sponge, omitting the be removed to about seven inches from the side, edges, which should be turned up about half an and when inclined to the left, at a very consideinch in width on every side ; apply a small quan- rable distance, according to the degree which tity of good paste or glue all round on the under the angle forms. A good practice, illustrative of side, and press the paper down upon the board this precept, is for the student to draw by hand with a cloth, rubbing it well with your nail, or a series of equilateral triangles, with a perpendithe smooth handle of a knife to secure it. In the cular line drawn from the apex; and a row of process of drying, the paper, which had expanded various-formed right angled triangles, with hypoand blistered up much when wet, will contract, thenuses, bases, and perpendiculars of various and (the edges being fixed immoveably) will dimensions. He should also learn to draw by strain quite flat and tight, and will be much fitter hand, squares, circles, ellipses, and other geomefor drawing upon than when loose. But the best trical figures: for as the alphabet or a knowledge drawing boards are made with a frame and a of the letters of a language is an introduction to moveable panel, upon which the paper is simply grammar, so is geometry to drawing. put wet, and then forced into the frame, where The practice of drawing these simple elemenit is confined by wedges or keys at the back. tary figures, till he becomes master of them, will This strains equally well, without the trouble of enable him to imitate, with ease and accuracy, pasting, so that it may be dried at the fire; it also many formis both in nature and art, which are looks better.

composed thereof. Four general precepts or The young student must accustom himself to rules may here be laid down: 1. Never let the hold the pencil or port-crayon further from the student he in a hurry, but always make himself point than he does a pen in writing, which will master of one figure before he goes on to another; give him a better command of it, and render his the advantage, and even the necessity of this lines or delineations more free and bold. practice will appear to him as he proceeds. 2.

For Indian ink or seppia drawings, the first İle should accustom himself to draw all bis figures

J.Shu Neup

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lunion Published by Thomas Temo. 73. Chupside December 113 26.

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