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port of the local government of this colony. 1670, however, the oppressive measures of the Nor did the company formed at Barcelona, in French West India Company caused the inha1757, with exclusive privileges for the re-establish- bitants of this part of St. Domingo to revolt: ment of St. Domingo, ever make any consider- and tranquillity was only restored at the price of able' progress. They only sent out two small a free trade to France, subject to a duty of five vessels annually, which were freighted back with per cent. paid to the company on the arrival and 5000 hides, and other commodities.
departure of all vessels. The Spanish government was, however, roused Under the excellent management of Dogeron to some exertions in favor of St. Domingo at the the colony continued to prosper; but after his close of the last century. Settlers were encou- death, in 1673, it languished under the monoraged to come hither from the Canary Islands, poly of exclusive trading companies. Three the monopoly imposed on its trade was relaxed, years before his death the town of Cape Franand encouragements were held out to agricul- çois had been founded by Gobin, a French Proture and commerce. Under the influence of testant, whom the persecutions of Louis XIV. had these measures the colony began to improve, driven from his native land. In 1688, several the towns and villages were rebuilt and peopled, slaves having been taken from the English, the new plantations were laid out, and the trade with inhabitants of St. Domingo began to turn their the French part of the island became consider- attention to the culture of the sugar-cane. With able. At the period of the French revolution, this view they increased their stock of negroes, in 1789, the Spaniards had twenty-four sugar- and in 1694, taking advantage of the misfortunes works in St. Domingo. They paid'with raw which had befallen the English colony of Jasu zar, hides, timber, and piastres for the small maica, they effected a landing in that island, number of cargoes they received from Europe. and carried off a considerable number of slaves. Besides 11,000 heads of cattle, they furnished The English, in their turn, attacked the settlethe French part of St. Domingo with horses, ment of Cape François in the following year, mules, and some tobacco. Next to the ancient which they plundered and reduced to ashes. It city of St. Domingo, their principal towns were was, however, soon rebuilt. At the peace of Monte Christi, La Vega, St. Jago, Zeibo, St. Ryswick, the French obtained the first regular Thomé, Azua, and Isabella.
cession of the western part of St. Domingo, and This part of the island was ceded formally to in 1702, Port-au-Prince was made the seat of France by the treaty of Basle, July 22nd, 1795: the government, but the town of the cape contibut it was not taken possession of hy that power nued in every other respect the capital of the countil 1801, when the unfortunate Toussaint lony. The French in St. Domingo flourished as L'Ouverture appeared before the capital at the the Spaniards decayed. Their colony, which in head of a considerable French force. At this the time of Herrera counted 14,000 Castilians, period it is said 25,000 of the inhabitants emi- besides a proportional number of other inhabigrated to Cuba, South America, or other of the tants, had, in 1717, only 18,410 individuals of Spanish settlements, so averse were they to the every description; whilst
, according to the abbé French yoke. At the close of 1808 attempts to Raynal, the produce of the French colony, in expel the French were openly made: in Novem- 1720, amounted to 1,200,000 lbs. of indigo, ber the French commander was shut up in the 1,400,000 lbs. of white sugar, and 21,000,000 lbs. capital; but it was not until July of the follow- of raw sugar. From 1722, when the French ing year that he surrendered, when a British ar- colony of St. Domingo was freed from the yoke mament, under General Carmichael, came to the of exclusive trading companies, it rose gradually aid of the Spaniards. Since this period they to the highest pitch of prosperity. In the year have declared their independence of the mother 1754, the value of the various commodities of country, and offered their allegiance to the new the colony was £1,261,469 sterling, and the im. republic of Colombia. At the period of its ces- ports from the mother country £1,777,509 sterlsion to France, the Spanish part of St Doiningo ing. There were 14,000 white inhabitants, 4000 bad 123,000 inhabitants, 110,000 of whom were free mulattoes, and upwards of 172,000 negroes ; free people, and 15,000 negro slaves. Land was 599 sugar plantations, 3379 of indigo, 98,946 at six French livres, or five shillings the arpent; cocoa trees,' 6,300,367 cotton plants, and nearly and labor at two French livres, sixty-one cen- 22,000,000 cassia trees; 63,000 horses and umnes, or a little better than two shillings per mules, 93,000 heads of horned cattle, 6,000,000 day. Walton estimates the inhabitants of this banana trees; upwards of 1,000,000 plots of part, in 1810, at 104,000. We have seen that potatoes, 226,000 plots of yams; and nearly there had been a considerable emigration, which 3,000,000 trenches of manioc. he excludes from this amount.
In 1789 the prosperity of the French part of We have noticed the visits, and, under that St. Domingo was at its greatest height. "It was article, the settlement, of the Buccaneers, in divided into the northern, western, and southern St. Domingo. That part of this singular com- provinces. The first extended about forty leagues inunity, which abandoned the sea for its fertile along the northern coast, from the river Massacre valleys, consisted principally of Frenchmen, and St. Nicholas, and contained, inclusive of became acknowledged subjects by the govern- the island of Toriuga, twenty-six parishes. The ment of France at the close of the seventeenth principal towns were Cape François, Fort Daucentury. In 1669 the planters here amounted to phin, Port de Paix, and Cape St. Nicholas. The upwards of 1500; Bertrand Dogeron, a man of western province commenced at this cape, and considerable talents and probity, having been terminated at Cape Tiburon. It contained fourdeputed to form them into a regular colony. In teen parishes; its chief towns were Port-au
Prince, St. Marc, Leogane, Petit Goave, and head of the insurgent negroes and people of Jérémie. The southern province occupied the color ; but being defeated, in March 1791, was remaining coast from Cape Tiburon to l'Anse-à betrayed by the Spaniards, to whom he had fed Pitre, and contained ten parishes and two towns, for refuge, and, with Mark Chavane his lieuCayes and Jacmel. The cultivated land amounted tenant, broke alive on the wheel. The eightyto 2,290,000 English acres, or 771,275 carreaux five members of the colonial assembly were of French measurement, 350 feet on every side to arrested in France, and their act of the 12th of the carreau. But Barbé Marbois, in his Compte October 1790, annulled. In March, 1791, 8000 rendu des finances de St. Domingue, en 1789, troops arrived from France; and Mauduit reckons the cultivated land at 570,210 carreaux new governor was murdered by his own soldiers, only. There were 792 sugar plantations, 2810 with circumstances of horrible barbarity. By a coffee plantations, 705 cotton plantations, 3097 decree of the National Assembly, of the 15th of indigo plantations, sixty-nine cacao plantations, May 1791, people of color were declared eligible and 173 distilleries of rum. The produce of these to seats in the colonial assembly. And on the plantations, in 1788, consisted of 163,405,500lbs. 11th of September, a concordat, or truce, was of sugar, 68,151,000 lbs. of coffee, 6,289,000 lbs. signed between the whites and mulattoes. But of cotton, 930,000 lbs. of indigo, 150,000 lbs. of the operation of this truce,' says Edwards, was cacao, 34,453,000 lbs. of syrup, worth in all, with destroyed by the absurd decree of the national some less important articles, 135,763,000 French assembly of the 24th of September, repealing livres. It was sent to France in 686 vessels of the decree of the 15th of May, whereby in the 199,122 tons. The goods imported into the very moment when the justice and necessity of colony from different ports of France, in 465 this decree were acknowledged, and its faithful vessels of 138,624 tons, amounted to the value observance promised by the colonial assembly, of 54,578,000 French livres. Before the revo its repeal was pronounced by the legislative aslution, the exportation from the whole island sembly in the mother country. To such repugemployed 1070 vessels, navigated by 7936 sea nancy and absurdity must every government be men.
driven, that attempts to regulate and direct the The population consisted in 1788, according local concerns of a country 3000 miles distant. to Marbois, of 27,717 white inhabitants, of whom Open war in all its horrors was now renewed. there were 14,571 males, 4482 females, and 8664 All the workings of humanity were absorbed, in children; of 405,564 negro slaves, of whom there the raging and insatiable thirst of revenge, which were 174,971 males, 138,800 females, and 91,793 inflamed each class alike. It was no longer a children; and of 21,808 free people of color. contest for mere victory, but a diabolical emula
Soon after 1789 a most dreadful reverse took tion which party could inflict the most abomiplace. At this period, says Mr. Bryan Edwards, nable cruelties on the other.' On the 23d of in his Historical Survey of the French Colony August, 1791, Cape François was burnt, and in in St. Domingo, London, 4to. 1797, the mu- the space of two months it was computed, that lattoes were in a situation more degrading and upwards of 2000 wbite persons perished by these wretched, than that of the enslaved negroes in horrible massacres; and that of the mulattoes any part of the West Indies. No law allowed and negroes not fewer than 10,000 died by fathe privileges of a white person to any descen- mine and the sword, besides several hundreds dani of an African, however remote.'—*The that suffered by the executioner. Meantime cilaws, he adds, were dreadfully unequal.' In tizens Santhonax, Polverel, and Ailhaud, arrived such a situation it is not to he wondered at, that from France as commissioners, accompanied by they should have listened with pleasure to the 6000 of the national guards; and citizen Galnews of the French revolution, and to the acts baud was appointed governor. Their attempts, of the assembly, which abolished slavery, and however, to stop these enormities proved fruitless, established equality of rights. A colonial as- though they proclaimed the total abolition of sembly met at St. Mark, on the 16th of April, slavery, and a general indemnity. 1790, composed of 213 members, which, says In October, 1793, a body of British forces Mr. Edwards, 'fairly and fully represented the under colonel Whitlock, were landed, and took inhabitants. They passed acts of indulgence, possession of Tiburon, Treves, Jérémie, Leogane, and rectified gross abuses. But persons inter- Cape Nicolas Mole, and upwards of ninety miles ested in the continuance of these abuses were of the eastern coast with little opposition. But displeased. They counteracted the proceedings though the loss of the British in these engageof the assembly, and misrepresented their inten- ments, or rather skirmishes, did not exceed 100 tions. M. Peynier, the governor, attempted to men, yet the victims of disease, within six month restore the old despotic system: whereupon after their arrival, were upwards of 6000, among eighty-five members of the assembly embarked whom were 150 officers. Leogane was soon for France;' as did also M. Peynier, who re- after retaken by the negroes, who now amounted signed in November 1790. •The pride of power,' to above 100,000, under their general Toussiant adds this writer, the rage of reformation, the l'Ouverture; and Tiburon was taken by the contentions of party, and the conflict of opposing French under general Rigaud. To remedy these interests, now produced a tempest, that swept disasters, and to supply the Mole with proevery thing before it.' In October, 1790, James visions, an expedition was undertaken against Oge, a free mulatto, who had been at Paris, and the fort of Boinbarde, but the reduction of it who is characterised by Mr. Edwards, as “an (which was not accomplished till the 18th of June enthusiast for liberty, but mild and humane,' 1796) cost an immense number of men, and Icturned from France, and put himself at the after it was taken, instead of being able to supply
He Mole, it was found necessary to supply it The military establishment, when the British from thence, at a vast expense, and with the loss forces evacuated the island in 1798, did not of many brave troops. These and similar losses, exceed 40,000; but in two years it was more with the deaths of lieutenant colonels Brisbane than double that number. The soldiers regaraed and Markham, who were killed in 1795, together Toussaint as an extraordinary being: his generals with the faithlessness of the French emigrants, trembled before him (Dessalines durst not look upon whose suggestions this expedition had been him in the face); and every one trembled before undertaken, at last determined the British com- his generals. No European army, indeed, was mander to surrender Jeremie, Port au Prince, ever subject to a more rigorous discipline, than and Cape Nicolas Mole, the only places re- that which was observed by the troops of Tousinaining in the hands of the British, to general saint. Every officer commanded, pistol in hand; Hedonville, by capitulation in August 1798; and and had the power of life and death over the subon the 1st of October the island was totally alterns. 60,000 men were frequently reviewed evacuated by the British. The name of Port au and exercised together on the plain of the Cape. Prince was at this time changed to Port Repub- On these occasions 2000 officers were seen in licain; and the Spanish part of the island, having the field, carrying arms, from the general to the been ceded to the French by treaty was taken ensign, yet with the utmost attention to rank; possession of, as we have already intimated, without the smallest symptom of the insubordiby l'Ouverture. We must refer our readers to nation indulged in the leisure of the hotel. Each the life of this chieftain in another part of our general officer had a demi-brigade, which went work, for the detailed proofs of his very superior through the manual exercise with a degree of talents and character." He applied himself at expertness seldom witnessed ; and performed this period to heal the wounds of this his native equally well several manœuvres applicable to country with the greatest success; and such their method of fighting. At a whistle a whole was his popularity, that though the commis- brigade would run 300 or 400 yards, then, sepasioners, who had been sent out by the French rating, throw themselves flat on the ground, directory, remained in the island, and were changing to their backs or sides, keeping up a treated with every external mark of respect, strong fire the whole of the time, till they were they were, in fact, mere cyphers, destitute of recalled: then they would form again, in an influence, and dependent on Toussaint for sup- instant, into their wonted regularity. This single port.
manæuvre used to be executed with such facility Agriculture and commerce were the first ob- and precision, as totally to prevent cavalry from jects of his care. Many of the planters were charging them bushy and hilly countries. restored to their former estates, bui no property Such complete subordination, such promptitude in human beings was allowed. The blacks, and dexterity, prevailed the whole time, as would however, were not permitted to waste their lives have astonished any European soldier who had in idleness. The planters were obliged to em- the least knowledge of their previous situation. ploy their lahorers as hired servants, and a third (History of St. Domingo, 1818.) part of the crops was assigned for their remune 'In these reviews,' says M. de la Croix, ration. While ample encouragement was af- • Toussaint appeared like an inspired person, and forded to industry, penalties were at the same became the fetiche or idol of the blacks who time denounced for the punishment of idleness. listened to him. In order to make himself betThe beneficial effects of such an administration ter understood, he frequently addressed them in were soon visible. The wasted colony began to parables, and often made use of the following: revive; the plantations were again brought into In a glass vessel full of grains of black maize, a fertile state ; the sugar-works and distilleries he would mix a few grains of white maize, and were rebuilt; the ports were opened to foreign say to those who surrounded him :—You are Fessels; and, notwithstanding the ravages of a the black maize; the whites, who are desirous ten years' war, the exports of St. Domingo were of enslaving you, are the white maize.' He raised from the lowest ebb to one-third of their would then shake the vessel, and presenting it to former amount and value in the most prosperous their fascinated eyes, exclaim, •See the white periods. Population also increased with aston- here and there !' in other words, see how few the ishing rapidity; and while the planters of the white are in comparison of yourselves.' The neighbouring West-India Islands were contin- gleam of prosperity, however, which resulted ually urging the necessity of annual importations from his wise administration, was of short confrom Africa, to supply the constant diminution tinuance. among the negroes, in St. Domingo their num The independence of St. Domingo was probers were considerably augmented, notwithstand- claimed on the 1st of July, 1801; and, while the ing the waste of blood during the troubles and inhabitants were indulging the hope of future sanguinary conflicts of the ten preceding years. happiness, a storm was gathering, which burst The churches were re-opened, public worship upon them with accumulated fury. Scarcely was restored; the elegant arts and amusements was the peace of Amiens concluded, when a forof civilised life began to resume their sway; and midable armament of twenty-six ships of war the combined result of all these causes was a was equipped by order of the first consul, with visible and striking improvement in every class the determination of reducing the revolted coof society. In the intercourse of the social hour, lony of St Domingo. On board this feet were all were on a perfect equality; thus presenting a embarked 25,000 chosen troops, amply furnished striking contrast to the very strict subordination with all the apparatus of military slaughter. The which prevailed in the army.
better to ensure success to the expedition (the
chief command of which was confided to ge- This mode of fighting was dictated by the naneral Le Clerc, the brother-in-law of Buonaparte), ture of their country. They would frequently recourse was first had to perfidious means. At- place whole lines in ambush, sometimes reaching tempts were made to sow disunion among the froin one part to auother, and sometimes extendfree people of St. Domingo. Proclamations and ing to a considerable distance from each wing of letters, expressed in all the delusive jargon of a camp. By their admirable discipline, and the republic, were widely circulated. The chiefs astonishing celerity, their enemies were often of both colors, then in France, and the two sons disconcerted, and thrown into disorder; and of Toussaint himself, who had sent them thither sometimes, when the French thought themselves for instruction, were pressed into the service of sure of a victory, detachments in ambush sudthis expedition.
denly made their appearance, and mortified them The French forces arrived in January, 1802; with a defeat. At length, however, the negroes yet so little did Toussaint expect to have any and cultivators were either subdued by the terenemy to combat, that he had given no orders ror of the French army, or cajoled by the deceitful for resistance in case of attack. When the French promises of the French general, who had published squadron was descried, he was making a tour in his own name, and in that of the first consul, round the eastern part of the island : and, if repeated solemn declarations, that the freedom of some of the generals resisted, it was only in con all the inhabitants of St. Domingo, of all colors, sequence of the menaces and hostile manner in should be preserved inviolate. But elated by which they were summoned to surrender. his successes, be now threw aside the mask, and
After his troops had disembarked, and pre- issued an order, expressly restoring to the proviously to commencing operations in the in- prietors or their attorneys, all their ancient terior of the country, and perhaps in the hope authority over the negroes upon their estates. that the sight of so formidable a force would in- This order opened the eyes of the negro populaspire the Ilaytians with terror, Le Clerc thought tion. Toussaint, descending from his fastnesses proper to try what effect these circumstances, the with several hundred men, effected a jur.ction sight of his two sons, and a specious letter from with Christophe, who was at the head of three Buo'naparte, would produce upon Toussaint. hundred, and marched rapidly to the north of the Coisnon, their tutor, who had accompanied them island. Wherever he came," he summoned the from France, and was one of the chief confiden- cultivators to arms, multitudes of whom flocked tial agents in this expedition, was accordingly. to his standard. His force speedily became fordeputed on this errand, with instructions to press midable: they drove in the enemy's posts in all Toussaint's instant return to the Cape, and to directions, and surrounded the town of Cape bring back the children in case he should not François, within whose walls they had taken resucceed. When he reached Eunery, Toussaint's fuge. To save that place from being stormed by country residence, that chief was absent in a dis- the infuriated black iroops, Le Clerc was obliged tant part of the island, whence he did not re to abandon all his conquests in other parts of turn till the second day. The wily Frenchman the island, and hasten by forced marches to its availed himself of this delay to work upon the relief. Sensible of his precipitancy in throwing feelings of their mother; whose tears, and the off the mask, he again had recourse to his forsolicitations of the children, for a while shook the mer acts; and having issued a proclamation resolutions of Toussaint. Being at length con couched in the most specious terms, the black firmed in his suspicions of the snare that had chieftains, who were weary of the war, and whose been laid for him, by the conduct and language troops began to quit the ranks, agreed to lay down of Coisnon, Toussaint suddenly composed his their arıns, on condition of a general amnesty, agitated countenance; and, gently disengaging and the preservation of their own rank, and that himself from the embraces of his wife and chils of their officers. dren, he took their preceptor into another apart Scarcely had the French • thus succeeded in ment, and gave him this dignified decision : extending their dominion over the whole island, • Take back my children; since it must be so,' when they began to put in execution their frightI will be faithful to my brethren and my God.' ful system of slavery and destruction; and, as a Unwilling to prolong the painful scene, Tous- preliminary step towards this object, Le Clerc saint mounted his horse, and rode to the camp. caused Toussaint to be privately seized, in the A correspondence was subsequently opened with dead of the night, together with his family, and him by Le Clerc, but it failed to produce Tous- embark for France, on board a fast-sailing frisaint's submission.
gate, about the middle of May, 1802. He was Le Clerc now proceeded to hostilities, the kept a close prisoner on the voyage, and heard of minute circumstances of which we have not rooin no more by his countrymen. See L'OUVERTURE. to detail. It must therefore suffice to state, that To justify this base act of treachery, Le Clerc the numbers and discipline of the French troops, accused Toussaint of having intended to excite added to the military skill of their commanding an insurrection among the working negroes, and officers, overpowered all open resistance in the to raise them in a mass. The only proof alleged field, so that the blacks, after several obstinate by the French general was two intercepted letconflicts, and after the burning of several of their ters, said to have been written by him to his aidprincipal towns, were finally compelled to retire de-camp Fontaine. M. de la Croix (who was an into the inaccessible fastnesses of the interior, officer in the army of Le Clerc) has printed one whence they carried on, under their brave chief of these letters as genuine : the manifesto adtain, Toussaint, a desultory, but destructive, war dressed to the sovereigns of Europe by Christophe, fare against detached parties of their enemies. on his accession to the throne of Playti, affirms it
to be a forgery; and such is the opinion of M. power. For several years these rival chieftains de Gastine, who observes further, that the pre- carried on a sanguinary contest, with various tended letters not only do not prove that Tous- success on both sides, until the year 1810, when saint was preparing to take up arms again, but hostilities were suspended ; and, though no that every thing concurs to prove that they were formal treaty was concluded, the country long forged, otherwise the French would have tried enjoyed the blessings of peace. Christophe him before a special commission, instead of tran was crowned king of Hayti in March 1811, by sporting him 2000 miles from his country, in the title of Henry I.; and Pétion, as president defiance of the law of nations and of humanity. of the republic of Hayti, governed the southern
The base treachery of Le Clerc aroused the part until 1818, when he died, and was sucblack chieftains, and opened the eyes of their ceeded by general Boyer, whom he was allowed countrymen to the designs of the French. Des- to nominate his successor. salines, Christophe, and Clerveaux, again raised Roth governments encouraged agriculture as their standards, and were soon found at the head the basis of their national prosperity, and disof considerable bodies of troops, ready to renew played a laudable solicitude for the instruction the struggle for liberty, and determined to suc- of the rising generation. Christophe examined ceed or perish in the attempt. During the latter the rival claims of the two systems of mutual half of the year, 1802, actions were fought with instruction practised in England, and gave the various success. And though the French were preference to that of the British and Foreign continually receiving fresh supplies of men, yet School Society. Schools, under the care of these did not suffice to supply the place of those English teachers, were established in his domiwho perished by the sword and by sickness. nions at Cape Henry, Sans Souci, Port de Paix, Their hospitals were crowded with sick, and Gonaives, and St. Marc. In the primary schools, disease daily made new ravages. At length the instructions are principally given in English. Rochambeau, who had succeeded to the chief In the republicad part of the island, a school command on the death of Le Clerc, was com was established at Port-au-Prince, on the Bripelled by Dessalines to evacuate Cape François, tish and Foreign Society's plan, by an English where the remains of the French arıny were sur- teacher, to whose conduct and ability the presirounded ; and, as the war had then recommenced dent, general Boyer, has borne the most hobetween Great Britain and France, the French norable testimony. This school is under the gladly surrendered themselves prisoners of war superintendence of a native teacher. A lyceum to a British squadron, and were conveyed to this has likewise been instituted for teaching the country. We shall not harrow up the feelings higher branches of literature and science. of our readers by a recital of the refined cruelty Christophe, in imitation of other monarchs, and savage barbarity practised by the French created various orders of nobility, together with during this residence of twenty-one months on numerous officers of state, each of whom had a the island of St. Domingo. According to the fixed order of precedence, according to the returns which have been subsequently made to supposed dignity of their office. His dynasty, the Haytian Government, more than 16,000 ne- however, was like his predecessor's, but shortgroes and people of color perished under the lived. In 1820 a successful conspiracy was various toriures inflicted by them. The bar- formed against him, and finding himself barities committed by these modern conquerors surrounded by an overwhelming force, he upon the children of Ilayti far exceeded indeed committed suicide. See CHRISTOPHE. The the crimes of the Pizarros, Cortez, and the president of the republic, Boyer, now advanced Bovadillas, those early scourges of the New upon the kingdom, and succeeded, with but little World.
opposition, in adding it to the republic of Hayti. The French being expelled, at a general The population of the two Haytian governmeeting of the National Assembly, on the 1st ments, in 1820, was computed to be about of January, 1804, the independence of the island 501,000, viz. :was again proclaimed; the aboriginal name of
480,000 Hayti was resumed, and the Haytians pronounced
Persons of color
20,000 the oath to die free and independent, and never
1,000 again to submit to any foreign domination whatever. Dessalines was elected governor-gencral
501,000 for life, which title, a few months afterwards, he exchanged for that of emperor, being crowned Of this number, 261,000 were in the republican by the style of Jacques I. But his reign was of part, and 240,000 in the kingdom of Christophe. short duration; the cruelties he perpetrated The introduction of vaccination has greatly facicaused a conspiracy to be formed against him ; litated the increase of population. and, two years after his coronation, he was sur The revenues of the two governments are rounded by the conspirators at his head-quarters, supposed to be about 48,000,000 francs; and and, struggling to escape, received a wound, thc expenses of their administration, in 1817, which terminated his life. His death produced scarcely exceeded 18,000,000 francs, thus leaving a division of St. Domingo, and another civil a surplus of 15,000,000 at the disposal of each. war.
The Catholic religion is declared to be that of In the north, Christophe assumed the reins of both divisions of the island; the hierarchy of government, with the modest designation of the northern part consists of an archbishop, chief of the government of Ilayti; while Pé- three bishops, and a rector in each parish. At tion, a mulatto, asserted his claim to sovereign Sans Souci there is a royal and parochial church.