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No man could comfort other: every man was too DOLICHOS, in botany, a genus of the defall of his own sorrow : helping rather to make the candria order, and diadelphia class of plants ; noise of the lamentation more doleful and astonishing. natural order thirty-second, papilionaceæ. The

Bp. Hall. Contemplations. basis of the vexillum has two callous knobs, obWith screwed face, and doleful whine, they only long, parallel, and compressing the alæ below. ply with senseless harangues of conscience against There are fifty-three species, natives of the East carnal ordinances.

and West Indies and of the Cape: the most reThe pain returned, dissipating that which

markable are: 1. D. lablab, with a winding obstructed the nerves, and giving the dolorifick motion stalk, a native of warm climates, where it is frefree passage again.

She earnestly entreated to know the cause thereof, quently, cultivated for the table. The Egyptians that either she might comfort or accompany her dole.

mahe pleasant arbours with it, by supporting the ful humour.

Sidney.

stem and fastening it with cords; by which means

the leaves form an excellent covering, and an Never troubling him either with asking questions or finding fault with his melancholy; but rather fit

agreeable shade. 2. D. pruriens, the couhage, ting to his dolour, dolorous discourses of their own ana

cow-itch, or stinging bean, is also a native of other folks' misfortunes.

Id

warm climates. It has a fibrous root, and an Hell-ward bending o'er the beach descry

herbaceous climbing stalk, which is naked, diThe dolesome passage to the infernal sky.

viding into a great number of branches; and Pope's Odyssey.

rises to a great height when properly supported.

The leaves are alternate and trilobate, rising from Talk not of ruling in this dolorous gloom,

the stem and branches about twelve inches disNor think vain words, he cried, can ease my doom.

Pope.

tant from each other. The foot-stalk is cylindri

cal, from six to fourteen inches long. From the Happy the mortal man, who now at last

axilla of the leaf descends a pendulous solitary Has thought this deleful vale of misery past;

spike, from six to fourteen inches long, covered Who to his destined stage has carried on The tedious load, and laid his burden down.

with long blood-colored papilionaceous flowers, Prior.

rising in clusters of three each, in a double alter

nate manner, from small fleshy protuberances, This, by the softness and rarity of the fluid, is in- each of which is a short pedunculus of three sensible, and not dolorifick. Arbuthnot on Air.

flowers. These are succeeded by leguminous, DOLE, a large well-built town of France, on coriaceous pods, like those of kidney beans, four the river Doubs, in Franche Compté, in the de- or five inches long, densely covered with sharp partment of the Jura. The country around has, hairs, which penetrate the skin, and cause great from its fertility and beauty, received the name itching, stinging like a nettle, though not quite of the Val d'Amour. It has several good edi. so painfully. This will grow in any soil in those fices, as the Palais de Justice, the former countries where it is a native: but is generally Chambre des Comptes, the church of Notre eradicated from all cultivated grounds; because Dame, the College d'Arc, and the Hotel Dieu the hairs from the pods fly with the winds, and Hospital. It has also a pleasant public pro- torment every animal they happen to touch. If menade.

it was not for this mischievous quality, the Dole was the Dola Sequanarum of the Ro beauty of its flower would entitle it to a place in mans, and contains considerable remains of that the best gardens. It flowers in the cool months, people. The great Roman road to Lyons passed from September to March, according to the situathrough this place; and here are two aqueducts tion. The spiculæ, or sharp hairs, of this plant, and a public edifice near the river of their erec- have been long used in South America as a vertion. It was the capital of Franche Compté un- mifuge, and have of_late been frequently til 1674, and, is twenty-three miles south of employed in Britain. The spiculæ of one pod Besançon, and twenty-eight south-east of Dijon. mixed with syrup or molasses, and taken in

Dole, La, a lofty point of the Jura chain of the morning fasting, is a dose for an adult. mountains, between the department of Jura and The beans are used in the East Indies as the Swiss canton of Vaud, it is elevated 5600 feet a cure for the dropsy. 3. D. soja is a native of above the level of the sea, and has the appear- Japan, where it is termed daidsu; and, from its ance of an immense rock. From its summit excellence, mame; that is, the pod, by way of there is a most magnificent view for 100 miles in eminence. It grows with an erect, slender, and each direction, and, on the side of France, a hairy stalk, to the height of about four feet. The prospect which extends into Burgundy.

leaves are like those of the garden kidney bean. DOLGELLY, or Dolgeti, a town of North The flowers, of a bluish-white, are produced Wales, in Merionethshire, at the foot of the from the blosom of the leaves, and succeeded by mountain Cader-Idris. A new court-house has bristly hanging pods resembling those of the yellow been erected, in which the summer assizes for the lupine, which commonly contain two, sometimes county are held. The county jail is situated at a three, large white seeds. This legumen is doubly small distance from the town. The town and useful in the Japanese kitchens. It serves for its neighbourhood have a peculiar manufacture of the preparation of a substance named miso, that coarse undyed woollen cloth, called webbing or is used as butter; and likewise of a pickle celewhite plains, which is chiefly exported. It has a brated among them under the name of sooju or market on Tuesday. It is seated in a valley on soy. the banks of the Avon, thirty-one miles north DOLL, n. s. A contraction of Dorothy; and west of Montgomery, and 212 north-west of hence a child's toy. London.

Doll tearsheet. Shakspeare.

DOʻLLAR, n. s. Dutch daler. Ses below, which had before been in use. He here reserves A Dutch and German coin of different value, the detail of his theory for a future occasion. from about two shillings and sixpence to four and His great discovery is narrated in an · Acsixpence.

count of some Experiments concerning the difHe disbursed

ferent Refrangibility of Light,' Phil. Trans. Ten thousand dollars for our general use.

1758, p. 733. Mr. Doilond commenced the Shakspeare. Macbeth.

decisive experiments here described, by putting Dollar, in this country, is chiefly applied to a common prism of glass into a prismatic vessel the Spanish silver coin, otherwise called a piece of water, and varying the angle of the vessel till of eight. Dollars are also coined in different parts the mean refraction of the glass was compenof Germany and Holland: and have their sub- sated; when he found that the colors were not divisions into semi dollars, quarter dollars, &c. destroyed, as they were supposed to have been See Coins.

in a similar experiment of Sir Isaac Newton's; DOLLART Bay, or The DOLLERT, an arm for the remaining dispersion was nearly as great of the North Sea, extending between East Fries as that of a prism of glass of half the refracting land in Hanover, and Groningen in the Nether- angle. A thinner wedge of glass being then emlands, to the mouth of the Ems. It is said toployed, our optician found that the image was have been formed by the sea breaking in here colorless when the refraction of the water was towards the close of the thirteenth century; when about one-fourth greater than that of the glass, it swept away nearly fifty villages. On the side He next attempted to construct compound obof East Friesland, the sea has in some measure ject-glasses by enclosing water between two receded.

lenses; but in this arrangement he found great DOLLOND (John), a celebrated optician, the inconvenience from the spherical aberration. He inventor of the achromatic telescope, was de- was, therefore, obliged to try the effects of difscended from that useful body of artificers the ferent kinds of glass, and fortunately discovered French refugees of Spitalfields, London, where that the refractions of flint and crown glass were he was born 10th June, 1706. His education extremely convenient for his purpose, the image was limited by the circumstances of his friends, afforded by them being colorless, when the angles who could only destine him to their own occu were to each other nearly as two to three : hepce pation, and he is said to have passed many years he inferred that a convex lens of crown-glass, and a of his life as an operative silk-weaver. Mr. convex one of flint, would produce a colorless Dollond, however, possessed a mathematical image when their focal distances were in the and philosophical taste, which soon disclosed it same proportion. “The spherical aberration, self; he acquired the Greek and Latin languages, where the curvature was so considerable, still together with a considerable knowledge of ana- produced some inconvenience; but, having four tomy and scholastic divinity; and though he surfaces capable of variation, he was enabled to married early, found means to continue his scien- make the aberrations of the two lenses equal; tific pursuits, and bring up his family. In his and since they were in opposite directions, they eldest son Mr. Peter Dollond, he was happily thus corrected each other. These arrangements afforded an heir of his own taste, and in 1752 required great accuracy of execution for their he had so well established him in business as an complete success; but, in the hands of the inoptical instrument-maker, that he quitted Spital- ventor, they produced the most admirable infields to join him in partnership. This same struments; and he was fortunate in obtaining a year was read in the Royal Society, a letter of quantity of glass of remarkably uniform density. Mr. J. Dollond's to James Short, A. M. F. R. S., le afterwards made some small Galilean telesconcerning a mistake in Mr. Euler's Theorem copes, with triple object-glasses. for correcting the Aberration in the Object For these inventions Mr. Dollond received Glasses of Refracting Telescopes, together with the Copleian medal of the Royal Society; and an introductory letter of Mr. Short, in which in 1761 he was chosen a fellow of that learned Euler's calculations are disputed; with Euler's body, and appointed optician to the king. answers to Short and Dollond. (Phil. Trans. Other valuable contributions of his to the 301753, p. 287.) . It is somewhat strange,' says ciety were, A description of a Contrivance for Mr. Dollond, that any body now-a-days should Measuring Small Angles, and an Explanation of attempt to do that which so long ago has been an Instrument for that purpose. Trans. 1753 demonstrated impossible :' and his discoveries and 1754. His instrument consisted of a diwere doubtless for a while retarded by his defer- vided object-glass, with a scale for determining ence to the great name of Newton, whom Euler the distance of the images by measuring the liconsidered to agree with him; and whose experi- near displacement of the two portions of the ments were certainly compatible with the doctrine glass. of Euler, while Mr. Dollond was better acquainted Mr. Dollond, however, did not long cajoy. than either with the mechanism of the eye. In 1753 these well-deserved honors. On the 30th of he describes, in a second letter to Mr. Short, a te- November, 1761, as he was reading a new work lescope with six glasses, calculated for correct- of Clairaut on the theory of the moon, he fell ing, either wholly or in a great measure, the errors down in an attack of apoplexy, which shortly of refraction arising from the dispersion of the became fatal. He left two sons who succeeded different colors, as well as from the spherical to his business. form of the surfaces of the eye-glasses ;' ap Dollond (Peter), eldest son of Mr. John

to the superiority of the telescopes, Dollond, the ptician, was born in 1730, He which he had thus constructed, above those communicated, in 1765, a paper to the Royai

Society on his improvement of telescopes; a Series of Lectures on the Philosophy of Mineradopting his father's contrivance for measuring alogy, written with bones and soot-water, on the small angles (see above); and in 1772 another margin of the few books he was allowed to read. on his additions to and alterations in Hadley's He was appointed, during his confinement, the quadrant. In 1779 he gave an account of his successor of Daubenton in the Museum of Natuequatorial instrument for correcting the errors ral History. His last publication was Sur la arising from refraction in altitude; and in 1789, Philosophie Minéralogique et sur l'espèce Minér"Some account of the discovery made by his alogique. He died at Paris, universally respected, father in refracting telescopes, which became 27th November, 1801. also a separate publication. He died at Ken DOLOMITE. Of this calcareo-magnesian sington in 1820, at the advanced age of ninety carbonate, we have three sub-species. years.

1. Dolomite, of which there are two kinds, DOLOMIEU (Deodate-Guy-Silvain Tancred viz. 1st. White granular. It occurs massive, and Gratet de), a celebrated geologist, was born in in fine granular distinct concretions, loosely agDauphiny in 1750. He entered into the service gregated. Lustre glimmering and pearly. Fracof the knights of Malta, and became a member of ture imperfect slaty; hard as fluor, and brittle. the order; but, happening to kill one of his com- Specific gravity 2-83. It effervesces feebly with panions, was sentenced to death. The grand acids, and is phosphorescent on heated iron, or master, however, granted him a pardon, but it by friction. Its constituents are 46.5 carbonate was necessary that this should be confirmed by of magnesia, 52.08 carbonate of lime, 0.25 oxide the pope, and Dolomieu was closely confined for of manganese, and 0.5 oxide of iron. 2d. Brown nine months under suspense. This perhaps de- dolomite, or magnesian limestone of Tennant. cided his future studious habits. At the age of Color, yellowish-gray and yellowish-brown. Mastwenty-two he went to Metz, where he studied sive, in minute granular concretions. Lustre, chemistry and natural history. In 1783 he pub- internally glistening. Fracture splintery. Harder lished his voyage to the Lipari Isles, and a me than calcareous spar. Brittle. Specific gravity moir on the earthquakes of Calabria. In 1788 of crystals, 2.8. It dissolves slowly, and with appeared his Memoire sur les Isles Ponces, et feeble effervescence. Its constituents are, lime catalogue raisonné de l'Etna.

29.5, magnesia 20:3, carbonic acid 47.2, alumina On the breaking out of the revolution, Dolo- and iron 0.8. In the north of England it occurs mieu ardently embarked, with his friend La in beds of considerable thickness, and great exRochefoucault, in the supposed cause of liberty; tent, resting on the Newcastle coal formation. In he was at Paris on the 14th of July, and when the Isle of Man it occurs in a limestone which La Rochefoucault fell a victim to the horrors of rests on gray wacke. the day, watched his last moments, and re 2. Columnar Dolomite. Color, pale grayishceived the affectionate messages which he sent to white. Massive, and in thin prismatic conhis mother and his wife. He now resumed his cretions. Cleavage imperfect. Fracture ungeological studies in other parts of Europe, and even. Lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly, particularly in its southern countries. He after- Breaks into acicular fragments. Brittle. Spewards extended his researches into the physical cific gravity 2.76. Its constituents are, 51 carconstitution of Egypt, on which subject he ad- bonate of lime, 47 carbonate of magnesia, 1 dressed a Memoir inserted in the Journ. Phys., carbonated hydrate of iron. It occurs in serpenv. xlii. In 1795 we find him again in France; tine in Russia. and, upon the establishment of the school of

3. Compact Dolomite, or Gurhofite. Color, Mines, he became Professor of Geology and In- snow-white. Massive and dull. Fracture flat spector of Mines. He was also one of the origi- conchoidal. Semi-hard. Difficultly frangible. nal members of the National Institute of Sciences Specific gravity 2:76. When pulverised, it disand Arts. From this time he redoubled his solves with effervescence in hot nitric acid. It philosophical labors, and published a great num- consists of 70-5 carbonate of lime, and 29.5 carber of memoirs in the course of a few years. bonate of magnesia. This kind occurs in veins He also furnished various contributions to the of serpentine rocks, near Gurhoff, in Lower Encyclopédie Méthodique. On the scientific ar- Austria. rangements being made for the expedition to

DOLPHIN, n. s. Fr, dauphin ; Germ. Span. Egypt, he was invited to take part in them : and on his journey was employed as a negociator for ltal. and Lat. delphin, from Gr. oeddus à de pat, the surrender of Malta. In Fgypt he visited the fatness, and the form of its intestines

, &c., says

a pig, because the dolphin resembles a pig in its Pyramids, and examined some of the mountains which form the limits of the country; but his Minsheu after Becmanus. A fish. See our article

DELPHINUS. health compelled him to return long before his companions. On his voyage home, the vessel

His delights was nearly lost in a tempest, and was only saved Were dolphin like ; they shewed his back above at the last extremity by running into a port in the

The element they lived in.

Shakspeare. gulf of Tarentum. Here, as a knight of Malta, Draw boys riding upon goats, eagles, and dolphins. he was pronounced a traitor to the existing

Peacham. government, and committed to close confinement

Misshapen seals approach in circling flocks, at Messina. In this unfortunate situation he re

In dusky mail the tortoise climbs the rocks, mained until the peace of 1800, in which the Torpedoes, sharks, rays, porpus, dolphins, pour French government stipulated expressly for his Their twinkling squadrons round the glittering shore. release. During this period he had commenced

Darwn.

Dolphix OF THE Mast, in sea language, a to Europe, in 1785, the revolution disgusted him peculiar kind of wreath, formed of plaited cordage, so much that he re-embarked for America; and, to be fastened occasionally round the masts as á being captured on the passage, died in prison in support to the puddeniny, whose use is to sus the island of Montserrat, February 19th, 1796. tain the weight of the fore and main yards in case DOMBEYA, in botany, a genus of the class the rigging or chains by which those yards are monodelphia and order dodecandria : CAL. double, suspended should be shot away in the time of outer three-leaved, deciduous: Pet. five : stam. battle; a circumstance which might render their ten or twenty : styl. five-cleft : CAPs. five, united, sails useless at a season hen their assistance is one.celled, one or many seeded. Species twelve, extremely necessary.

chiefly natives of the isles of Bourbon and DOLT, n. s. 1 Teut, and Sax. dol. A heavy

Mauritius. Dottish, adj. I stupid fellow; a block head; a DOMB00, a considerable town of Bornou, thickscull; a loggerhead. It is clearly the past Mourzouk, and the first which occurs after passing

Africa, situated on the caravan route from participle of dull, as Mr. Tooke says.

the desert of Bilma. It is situated amid fertile Thou hast not half that power to do me harm, As I have to be hurt : oh gull, oh dolt,

plains.

DOMBOO Lakes are situated on the northern As ignorant as dirt ! Shakspcare. Othello.

extremity of Bornou, and supply that kingdom, Like men condemned to thunder-bolts, Who, ere the blow, become mere dolts ;

Cassina, and the states on the south of the Niger, They neither have the hearts to stay,

with salt. The merchants of Agadez bring Not wit enough to run away.

Hudibras.

hither annually a large caravan, which they load Dametas, the most arrant doltish clown that ever

with this commodity, and convey it to the surwas without the privilege of a bauble. Sidncy.

rounding counties. These lakes are supposed to

be the Chelonides Palus of Ptolemy. Let dolts in haste some altar fair erect To those high powers, which idly sit above. Id,

DOME, n. s. Fr. dome, from Lat. domus. A

building, nouse ; fabric. Also, from an early Wood's adulterate copper,

shape of roofs, probably a hemispherical arch, Which, as he scattered, we, like dolts,

a cupola. Mistook at first for thunder-bolts. Swift.

Best be he called among good men, DOʻMAIN, n. s. Fr. domaine, from Lat. do

Who to his God this column raised; minium. Empire; dominion; possession. Hence

Though lightning strike the dome again, also, we may remark, our termination dom as

The man who huilt it shall be praised.

Prior. birthdom, kingdom, &c.

Stranger ! whoe'er thou art, securely rest Rome's great emperor, whose wide domain

Affianced in my faith, a friendly guest; Had ample territory, wealth and power.

Milton.

Approach the dome, the social banquet share.
A Latian field, with fruitful plains,

Pope's Odyssey. And a large portion of the king's domains.

Frum dome to dome when flames infuriate climb,

Dryden's Æneid. Sweep the long street, invest the tower sublime ; Ocean trembles for his green domain.

Thomson. Gild the tall vanes amid the astonished night, So Howard, Moira, Burdett, sought the cells,

And reddening heaven returns the sanguine light.

Daruin. Where Want, or Wo, or Guilt in darkness dwells; With Pity's torch illumed the dread domains,

While the vine-mantled brows
Wiped the wet eye, and eased the galling chains.

The pendent goats unveil, regardless they
Darwin.

Of hourly peril, though the clefted domes
Vain end of human strength, of human skill,

Tremble to every wind.

Byron, Conquest, and triumph, and domain, and pomp,

Dome, in architecture is a roof of a hemi. And ease, and luxury!

spherical form, raised over the middle of a buildDomain. See DemesNE.

ing, as a church, hall, pavilion, vestibule, DOMAT (John), a celebrated French lawyer stair-case, &c., by way of crowning. Domes are born in 1625, who, observing the confused state the same with what the Italians call cupolas; or, of the laws, digested them in 4 vols. 4to, under according to Vitruvius, tholi. They are usually the title of The Civil Laws in their Natural Or- made round, though we have instances of square der; for which Louis XIV. settled on him a ones; as those of the Louvre; and others that are pension of 2000 livres. Domat was intimate polygons, as that of the ci-devant Jesuits' church with the famous Pascal, who left him his private in the Rue St. Antoine at Paris. They have papers at his death. He died in 1696.

usually columns ranged around their outsides, DOMBES, a ci-devant principality of France, both by way of ornament, and to support the about twenty-four miles long, and twenty-one vault. See ArchiteCTURE. broad, lying around and partly in the late pro Dome, in chemistry, the upper part of furvince of Burgundy, but not under its govern- naces, particularly portable ones.

It has the ment, on the west bank of the Soane. Trevoux figure of a hollow hemisphere, or small dome. Its was the capital. It now forms part of the de use is to form a space in the upper part of the partment of Ain.

furnace, the air of which is continually expelled DOMBEY (Joseph), a French botanist of by the fire; hence the current of air is considercelebrity, was born at Macon in 1742. He took ably increased, which is obliged to enter by the the degree of doctor of physic at Montpelier, ash-hole, and to pass through the fire, to supply and in 1778 went to South America, where he the place of the air driven from the dome. The discovered the majestic tree of the tribe of pines, form of this piece renders it proper to reflect or now named after l'im, Dombeya. On his return reverberate a part of the flame upon substances

Byron.

one.

· which are in the iurace, which has orcasioned of being advanced in its value: they were likethis kind of furnace to be called a reverberatory wise directed to return the tenants of every deSee CHEMISTRY.

gree, the quantity of lands then and formerly Dome, or Doom, signifies judgment, sentence, held by each of them; what was the number of or decree. The homagers' oath in the black-book villains or slaves, and also the number and kinds of Hereford ends: “So help me God at his of their cattle and live stock. These inquisitions holy dome, and by my trowthe.'

being first methodised in the country, were afterÞOMENICHINO, a famous Italian painter, wards sent up to the king's exchequer. This born at Bologna in 1581. He was at tirst a survey, at the time it was made, gave great offence disciple of Calvart the Fleming, but soon quitted to the people; and occasioned a jealousy that it his school for that of the Caraccis. He always was intended for some new imposition. But notapplied himself to his work with much study withstanding all the precaution taken by the conand thoughtfulness; and never offered to touch queror, to have this survey faithfully and imparhis pencil but when he fancied a kind of enthu- tially executed, it appears, from indisputable siasm upon him. His great skill in architecture authority, that a false return was given in by also procured him the appointment of chief ar some of the commissioners; and that, as it is chitect of the apostolical palace from pope Gre- said, out of a pious motive. This was particugory XV. nor was he without a theoretical know- larly the case with the abbey of Croyland in Linledge of music. He died in 1641.

colnshire, the possessions of which were greatly DOMESDAY Book, an ancient record, made under-rated, both with regard to quantity and in the time of William I. and containing a survey value. Perhaps more of these pious frauds were of all the lands of England. It consists of two discovered, as it is said Ralph Flambard, minisvolumes. The first is a large folio, written on ter to William Rufus, proposed the making a 382 double pages of vellum, in a small but plain fresh and more rigorous inquisition; but this was character; each page having a double column. never executed. Notwithstanding this proof of Some of the capital letters and principal pas- its falsehood in some instances, which must throw sages are touched with red ink; and some a suspicion on others, the authority of domesday have strokes of red ink run across them, as if book was never permitted to be called in quesscratched out. This volume contains a descrip- tion; and always, when it has been necessary to tion of thirty-one counties. The other volume is in distinguish whether lands were held in ancient 4to., written upon 450 double pages of vellum, but demesne, or in any other manner, recourse was in a single column, and in a large but very fair cha- had to that only to determine the doubt. From racter. It contains the counties of Essex, Nor- this definitive authority, from which, as from the folk, Suffolk, part of the county of Rutland in- sentence pronounced at domesday, or the day of cluded in that of Northampton, and part of Lan- judgment, there could be no appeal, the name of cashire in the counties of York and Chester. This the book is said to have been derived. But work, according to the red book in the exche- Stowe assigns another reason for this appellation; quer, was begun by order of William the Con- namely that domesday book is a corruption of queror, with the advice of his parliament, in the domus Dei book; a title given it because hereyear of our Lord 1080, and completed in the tofore deposited in the king's treasury, in a place year 1086. The reason given for taking this sur of the church of Westminster, or Winchester, vey, as assigned by several ancient records and called domus Dei. From the great care formerly historians, was, that every man should be satis- taken for the preservation of this survey, we inay fied with his own right, and not usurp with iin. learn the estimation in which its importance was punity what belonged to another. But, besides held. The dialogue de Scaccaris says, “Liber this, it is said by others, that now all those who ille (Domesday) sigilli regis comes est individuus possessed landed estates became vassals to the in thesauro. Until lately it has been kept under king, and paid him so much money by way of three different locks and keys; one in the cushomage in proportion to the lands they held. tody of the treasurer, and the others in that of This appears very probable, as there was at that the two chamberlains of the exchequer. It is time extant, a general survey of the whole king- now deposited in the chapter-house at Westminsdom, made by order of king Alfred. For the ter, where it may be consulted on paying to the execution of the survey recorded in domesday proper officers a fee of 6s. 8d. for a search, and · book, commissioners were sent into every county 4d. per line for a transcript

Besides the two and shire; and juries summoned in each hundred, volumes above mentioned, there is also a third out of all orders freemen, from barons down made by order of the same king; and which difto the lowest boors. These commissioners were fers from the others in form more than matter, to be informed by the inhabitants, upon oath, of There is also a fourth called domesday, which is the name of each manor, and that of its owner; kept in the exchequer; which, though a very large also by whom it was held in the time of Edward volume, is only an abridgment of the others. In the Confessor; the number of hides; the quan- the remembrancer's office in the exchequer is tity of wood, of pasture, and of ineadow land; kept a fifth book, likewise called domesday, which how many ploughs were in the demesne, and is the same with the fourth book already menhow many in the tenanted part of it; how many tioned. King Alfred had a roll which he called mills, how many fish-ponds or fisheries belonged domesday; and the domesday-book made by to it; with the value of the whole together in the William the Conqueror, referred to the time of time of king Edward, as well as when granted Edward the Confessor, as that of king Alfred by king William, and at the time of this survey; did to the time of Ethelred. The fourth book of also whether it was capable of improvement, or domesday having many pictures and gilt letters Vol. VII.

2 D

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