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Russians claim the sovereignty of Daghestan, DAHL, or Dal, a large river of Sweden, which is divided into four districts; but their which runs through the provinces of Dalecarlia authority is ' not universally acknowledged. and Gestricia, and falls into the gulf of Bothnia, Many of the inhabitants subsist by plunder; but it four leagues E. S. E. of Gefle. Near Elfkarleby has recently been the scene of contest between it forms a celebrated cataract, scarcely inferior the Persians and Russians. The chief towns are to the fall of the Rhine at Lauffen. Tarki, Derbend, Baschli, and Ottermisch.

DAHLIA, in botany, a genus of plants beDAGO, or Daguo, an island in the Baltic longing to the syngenesia class and polygamia Sea, on the coast of Livonia, between the gulf of order, thus named by Cavanilles in honor of Dr. Finland and Riga. It is of a triangular figure, Andrew Dahl, a Swedish botanist. The stems and may be about twenty miles in circumference. die every winter, but the root is perennial and It has nothing considerable but two castles tuberous. The known species are but four. 1. called Daggerwort and Paden. Long. 22° 50' D. pinnata, figured by Cavanilles, and in AnE., lat. 58° 44' N.

drew's Botanical Repository: it has bipenuate DAGOE, Dagho, or Dagen, an island of the leaves of a deep purple color. 2. D. rosea, a Baltic, at the entrance of the gulf of Finland, rose-colored variety figured by Cavanilles in his near the coast of Esthonia, and separated from Icones. 3. D. coccinea, a scarlet variety; and, the island of Oesel by a narrow channel. It is 4. D. crocata, a saffron-colored species. These about forty miles long, and from twenty-six to beautiful plants are now becoming so general in thirty-six broad, and is well peopled. At Dage- British gardens, that a lengthened description rort there is a lighthouse.

would be superfluous : it is sufficient to say, that DAGON, the idol of Ashdod or Azotus. He they elevate the stem like the holly-hock, and is commonly represented as a monster, half man bear fine showy axillary and terminal flowers and half fish; whence most learned men derive late in the autumn. the name from the Hebrew dag, which signifies DAHOMEY, or Dauma, a kingdom of Africa, a fish. Those who make him to have been the on the coast of Guinea, situated about sixty or inventor of bread corn, derive his name from the seventy miles from the Atlantic, to the east of Hebrew, 1937, Dagon, signifying corn; whence Ashantee. This kingdom,which is correctly placed Philo-Biblius calls him Zevs Aparpelos, Jupiter in various old maps, particularly that of MercaAratrius. This deity continued to have a temple tor, who names its ancient capital Dauina, was at Ashdod to the time of the Maccabees : for the erased from the maps of Africa in 1700, and the author of the first book of Maccabees tells us, existence of the nation of Dauma denied; but it that ‘Jonathan, one of the Maccabees, having emerged from obscurity in 1727, by the fame of beaten the army of Apollonius, Demetrius's its conquests of the maritime states of Whidah general, they fled to Azotus, and entered into and Ardra. Dahomey, as known at present, is Bethdagon (the temple of their idol); but Jona- supposed to reach from the sea coast 150 miles in than set fire to Azotus, and burnt the temple of land, but no European has yet penetrated to that Dagon and all those who were fled into it.' distance from the coast. The soil is a deep rich Dagon, according to some, was the same with clay, of a reddish color, with a little sand on the Jupiter, according to others Saturn or Venus; surface, except about Calmina, where it is more but according to most Neptune.

light and gravelly; but there is not to be found DAHALAK, DALAKA, or Dalacca, an island a stone so large as an egg in the whole country, in the Red Sea, near the coast of Abyssinia, about so far as it has been visited by Europeans. Of twenty-five miles in length, and twelve in breadth, farinaceous vegetables, the country yields a plenanciently celebrated for its pearl fishery. It is tiful supply, in proportion to the culture. The low and Aat, with a sandy soil, and in summer Dahomese likewise cultivate yams, potatoes, the destitute of every kind of herbage, except a small cassada or manioka, the plantain, and the quantity of bent grass, which is barely sufficient banana. Pine-apples, melons, oranges, limes, to feed a few antelopes and goats. From the guavas, and other tropical fruits, also abound in end of March to the beginning of October, they this fertile country. Nor is it destitute of prohave no rain in Dahalak ; but in the inter- ductions adapted for commerce and manufacture; mediate months they have heavy showers, when such as indigo, cotton, the sugar-cane, tobacco, the water is collected into artificial cisterns, to palm-oil, with a variety of spices, particularly a supply the inhabitants during the ensuing sum- species of pepper, very similar in flavor, and

Of these cisterns, which are supposed to indeed scarcely distinguishable from the black be either the work of the Persians or of the first pepper of the East Indies. The Dahomese, Ptolemies, upwards of 300 remained at a recent like the other inhabitants of tropical climates, period, cut out of the solid rock. Its principal plant twice a year, viz., at the vernal and autumnal port is Dahalece-el-Kebar, but it will only admit equinoxes ; after which the periodical rains presmall vessels; and its trade is with Masuah. vail. The harmattan, or dry wind, blows here It was formerly much more populous than at strongly from the north-east; but Mr. Norris does present. This as well as the neighbouring islands not ascribe to it those pestilential qualities which is dependent upon Masuah; and the governor is have often been supposed, for while it parches up furnished monthly with a goat from each of the the ground, and injures every species of vegetable, twelve villages; besides which every vessel put- it does not induce any fatal diseases. It is even ting in here for Masuah, pays him a pound of said to cure cutaneous eruptions, and stop the coffee, and every one from Arabia, a dollar. progress of small pos, fluxes, and remittent feFrom these his revenue chiefly arises. Long. vers. The greatest bane of the climate is the 39° O E., lat. 15° 40' N.

periodical rains; which are attended with terri

mer.

ble tornadoes. The language is that which the These Amazons are regularly exercised, and go Portuguese call Lingua Geral, and is spoken not through their evolutions with much expertness; only in Dahomey Proper, but in Whidah, and the their accoutrements being precisely similar to other dependent states. The Dahoman religion those of the male troops. The dress of the men is vague and uncertain in its principles, and ra- in Dahomey consists of a pair of striped or white ther consists in the performance of some tradi- cotton drawers, of the manufacture of the countionary ceremonies, than of any fixed system of try, over which they wear a large square cloth belief, or moral conduct. According to Mr. of the same, or of European manufacture. This Norris, human sacrifices are not unfrequent cloth is about the size of a common counterpane among the Dahomese. Their kings, he says, for the middling class, but much larger for the water the graves of their ancestors every year with grandees. It is wrapped about the loins, and the blood of human victims. The same traveller tied on the left side by two of the corners, the mentions that the people in general take a peculiar others hanging down, and sometimes trailing on pleasure in contemplating human skulls. The the ground. A piece of silk or velvet, of sixteen king said to a traveller, "Some heads I place at or eighteen yards, makes a cloth for a grandee. my door: others I throw into the market-place. The head is usually covered with a beaver or felt This gives a grandeur to my customs; this hat, according to the quality of the wearer. The makes my enemies fear me; and this pleases my king, as well as some of his ministers, often wears ancestors to whom I send them.' The king is a gold or silver laced hat and feather. The even said to sleep in a room paved with the arins and upper part of the body remain naked, skulls of prisoners of distinction taken in war; unless when the party travels, or performs laboand frequently to exclaim, “ Thus I can trample rious work, when the large cloth is laid aside, on the skulls of my enemies whenever I please.' and the body is covered with a sort of frock or It appears to be customary with the Dahomese tunic without sleeves. The feet are always bare, to cut off the ears of the prisoners they take in none but the sovereign having a right to wear war, and to send them as a present to the Grand sandals. The dress of the women, though simSeignior: upwards of 300 pairs of ears have been ple, consists of a greater number of articles seat to him at one time. They believe more than that of the men. They use several cloths firmly in their amulets and fetiches, than in the or handkerchiefs; the neck, arms, and ancles, deity; their national fetiche is the tiger; and are adorned with beads and cowries; and rings their houses or huts are decorated with images, of silver, or baser metal, encircle the fingers. tinged with blood, stuck with feathers, besmeared The ears are so pierced as to admit the little with palm oil, and bedaubed with eggs. The finger, and a coral bead of that size, red sealing government is perhaps the most perfect despo- wax, or a piece of oyster-shell, stuck into each. tism upon earth, and seems to admit of no inter- Girls, before the age of puberty, wear nothing mediate degree of subordination between the but a string of beads or shells round the loins, king and slave. Norris having asked a soldier and young women usually expose the breasts. if he did not think the enemy numerous in a war The general character of the Dahomese is marked in which he found the Dahomese engaged; the lat- by a strange mixture of ferocity and politeness. ter replied, 'I think of my king, and then I dare en- The former appears in the treatment of their gage five of the enemy myself.' He added, “it is enemies; the latter they possess far above most of not material, my head belongs to the king, not to the African nations with whom we have hitherto myself; if he pleases to send for it, I am ready had any intercourse. Abomey, the capital, to resign it; for if it is shot through in battle, it lies between long. 3° and 4° E., and in lat. 7° is no difference to me, I am satisfied.' A mi- 50' N. Dister of state crawls towards the apartment of DAILLE (John), a protestant minister of the audience on his hands and knees, till he arrives seventeenth century, the most esteemed by the in the royal presence, where he lays himself fat Catholics of all the controversial writers among on his belly, rubbing his head in the dust, and the Protestants. He was tutor to two of the uttering the most humiliating expressions. Be- grandsons of the illustrious M. du Plessis Moring desired to advance, he receives the king's vai. Mr. Daille having lived fourteen years in commands, or communicates any particular busi- this family, travelled into Italy with his two Dess, still continuing in a recumbent posture; for no pupils; one of them died abroad; with the other person is permitted to sit, even on the floor, in the he visited Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Flanders, royal presence, except the women ; and even they Holland, and England, and returned in 1621: must kiss the earth when they receive or deliver He was received minister in 1623, and became the king's message. The king of Dahomey inain- chaplain to the family of M. Mornai. In 1625 tains a considerable standing army, commanded he was appointed minister of the church of Sauby an agaow or general, with several other sub- mur, and in 1626 removed to Paris, where he ordinate military officers; the payment of these spent the rest of his life, and composed several troops chiefly depends on the success of the ex- works. Ilis first work, Of the Use of the Fathers, peditions in which they are engaged. Sometimes was his masterpiece ; printed in 1631. He died the king takes the field at the head of his troops; in 1670, aged seventy-seven. and on very great emergencies a, the head of his DAILY. See Day. women. For within the walls of the different DAINT, adj.

Fr. dain, delicate. royal palaces in Dahomey, are immured not less Dain'teous, udj. From Lat. dens, a tooth, than 3000 women; several hundreds of whom Dain'ty, n. s. & adj. because pleasing to the are trained to arms under a female general, and Dain'tily, adv. palate, Minsheu subordinate officers appointed by the king. DAIN'TiNESS, n. s. says : delicious, exqui

as

site, or of agreeable taste; elegant. The adverb Children, in dairy countries, do wax more tall thar

id. and substantives follow the meanings of the where they feed more upon bread and flesh.

You have no more worth adjective.

Than the coarse and country fairy, Be not desirous of his dainties ; for they are deceit

That doth haunt the hearth or dairy. Ben Jonson, ful mcat.

Proverbs xxiii. 3.

She in pens his flocks will fold, Both halle and chambres, eche in his degree, And then produce her dairy store. Dryden. Houses of office stuffed with plentee ;

The poorest of the sex have still an itch, Ther mayst thou see of deinteous vitaille

To know their fortunes, equal to the rich; That may be found as far as lasteth Itaille. The dairymaid enquires if she shall take Chaucer. Cant. Tales. The trusty taylor, and the cook forsake.

Id. Ther may men fest and realtee beholde,

Come up quickly, or we shall conclude that thou And deintees mo than I can you devise,

art in love with one of Sir Roger's dairy-maids.

Addison. But all to dere they bought it or they rise. Id.

Dairy. The operations of the dairy are conNe poets witt, that passeth painter farre

nected with the domestic comforts of almost every In picturing the parts of Beauty daynt, So hard a workmanship adventure darre. English family. Man is here seen taking that

useful and honorable direction of the works of Spenser. Faerie Queene.

nature for which he was designed, and his origiHigher concoction is required for sweetness, or pleasure of taste, and therefore all your dainty plumbs nal companion, when a good housewife, is almost are a little dry.

Bacon.

more than a help meet' for him. She is gene

rally, and for the great benefit of both parties, enTruth is a naked and open day-light, that doth not trusted with the practical management of this shew the masks and mummeries and triumphs of the

department, even of extensive farming establishworld, half so stately and daintily as candlelight. Id.

ments; and so large a portion of skill, frugality, My house, within the city, cleanliness, and industry,' is required, as a moIs richly furnished with plate and gold,

dern author well observes, in hardly any other of Basons and ewers to lave her dainty hands.

the duties of a farmer's wife. Shakspeare.

In our articles AGRICULTURE and Bos we have Which of you all

entered pretty largely into the natura, history Will now deny to dance ? She that makes dainty,

and peculiarities of the only animal whose milk I'll swear hath corns. Id. Romeo and Juliet.

is extensively used in this country; we shall, in Therefore to horse ;

this paper, principally advert,-i. To the selecAnd let us not be dainty of leave-taking, tion and general management of cows kept for But shift away.

Id. Macbeth,

the dairy,

and by cow-keepers, as they are termed. Why, that's my dainty ; I shall miss thee; 2. To the operations of the regular dairy in our But yet thou shalt have freedom. Id. Tempest. cheese and butter counties, particularly the for

What should yet thy palate please ? mer : for in our article BUTTER will be found Daintiness and softer ease,

many useful directions with regard to that imSleeked limbs and finest blood ? Ben Jonson. portant manufacture. 3. We shall offer a few reThe duke exceeded in the daintiness of his leg and marks on the structure of the dairy-house and its foot, and the earl in the fine shape of his hands.

furniture.

Wotton. i. Of the selection and management of cows.It was more notorious for the daintiness of the pro. In and about London the Holderness cows, a vision which he served in it, than for the massiness variety of the short-horned breed, are preferred. of the dish.

Hakewill on Providence.

They have large carcases and yield a great quan

tity of milk. They take their name from a disWhy should ye be so cruel to yourself,

trict in Yorkshire, where, as well as in the county And to those dainty limbs, which nature lent

of Durham, they are extensively bred; but most For gentle usage and soft delicacy? Mil!on.

English counties have cultivated the breed in She then produced her dairy store,

some degree. The Edinburgh dairy-men select And unbought dainties of the poor. Dryden.

the short-horned cow of Roxburghshire for simiYour dainty speakers have the curse, lar reasons.

Ayrshire has also a celebrated To plead bad causes down to worse. Prior. breed. In Lancashire (and in the neighbourhood The shepherd swains, with sure abundance blest, of Liverpool this topic has been well canvassed) On the fat flock and rural dainties feast. Pope. a native long-horned cow is said to have a ge

neral preference. The Guernsey breed is also DAI'RY, n. s. ? From dey, says Lye, an highly valuable for its rich and abundant milk.

Dai'ry-MAID. Sold word for milk. The Ai Caton, in Lancashire, in Mr. Hodgson's milk-house, or place where it is managed. A dairy establishment, a long-ho.ned cow yielded dairy-maid and milk-maid, are nearly synony, eight quarts of milk a day and four pounds of mous. In Gloucestershire, the dairy is still called butter per week on an average of twelve months, a dey-house. Yet we supply a very early use of during which period one of the short-horned • dairies.'

breed gave nine quarts per day and four pounds Citees and burghes, castles high and towres, and a half of butter per week, both having what Thorpes and barnes, shepenes and dairies,

they chose to take of exactly the same kind of This maketh that thir ben no Faeries.

food. But the quantity each consumed was not

Chaucer. Cant. T'ales. noted. Dr. Anderson's strong recommendation Dairies being well housewived, are exceeding com of the Alderney cows, as affording the richest medious,

Bacon. milk hitherto known; though there are many

individuals of different kinds which afford much months, during the best of the grass season;

but richer milk than others,' as he says, seems long even then a certain number must be kept in the to have kept up the public preference for them house, for consuming the grains, which are purin many districts.

chased by contract for a whole year.' Cows known to afford milk and butter of the "With regard to management, the cow-keepers best qualities, will of course be selected; but begin with grains, dreg, and bran, mixed togeDeither size nor breed seems to be a uniform ther, at five o'clock in the morning; feed a secriterion. Respectable cow-keepers rarely breed cond time at one o'clock in the afternoon; and cattle, so that actual experience of the animal is a third from seven to eight in the evening. Grass the only tinal test; and the quantity of milk in summer, and turnips or potatoes in winter, yielded seems to be, in this case, the sole ground are given at both intervals. A small quantity of of favoritism. Those who supply the metropolis straw is laid below the grass. which absorbs its with milk generally purchase their cows at from moisture, and is eaten after the grass; and, in three to four years old, and in calf, at Islington, winter, straw or hay is given after the turnips. or Smithfield. Some of them own several hun- Part of the turnips or potatoes are boiled, partidreds. The number scattered in and about cularly when there is a scarcity of grains, and London is calculated at about 9000. Ten bulls intermixed with them. The expense in summer are generally allowed to a stock of 300 cows, and is said to be 28. 104d., and in winter 3s. 7fd. the calves are sent to Smithfield market at one, per day, for each cow. The cows are seldom two, or three days old. The quantity of milk milked more than twice a-day: for about a month given on an average, by each cow, is said to be after being bought, it is sometimes necessary to dine quarts a day, or 3285 quarts per annum. milk them three times. The common periods of The weekly expense of their food is estimated milking are six o'clock in the morning, from in the Middlesex Report at 10s. 3d., and the three to four in the afternoon, and, when milked other charges about £5. 7s. per annum.

a third time, nine in the evening. Their produce These cows are often confined in the cow- in milk, when fed as already stated, may average house, or the premises adjoining, during the about seven Scotch pints, or nearly twelve quarts whole time of their being devoted to the pur- and a half daily, per cow.

When the cows are. poses of the cow-keeper; but respectable esta- smaller, and not so well fed, five pints, or about blishments turn them out to grass in the spring; nine quarts, are said to be the average. The price In the night they are turned into their stalls, and of milk in Edinburgh used to be 6d. per pint, fed at about three in the morning with half a bit of late it has been sometimes lower in sumbushel each of grains. From four to half-past mer. This is said to be very little more than the six or seven they are milked for the retail dealers; price of the food. For interest of money, risk, then they receive a bushel each of green food or expenses of management, and profit, there is the turnips, and soon after at the rate of a truss or dung, worth £3. 10s. for each cow; some savings meadow hay to ten cows. They are now turned on the cows while at grass, which costs only 18. 8d. out into the cow-yard, from eight to twelve per day; and, probably, a small advance of price o'clock, and about half-past one to three are may be commonly got from the hutcher, when milked and fed again as in the morning. This the cows are skilfully selected and well managed. is the regular plan from September to May at There have been instances of cow-feeders conleast, or during the turnip season. At other tracting with others to retail their milk; but the parts of the year cabbages and tares diversify practice is not common. The cow-keepers getheir food until they are turned out to grass nerally retail it themselves. Iu one instance a (where that change of food is supplied to them), guinea a-week for the milk of each cow was and now they remain in the field all night; but paid by retailers to a farmer in the vicinity of are frequently fed with grains to increase their Edinburgh.' milk, even at this period.

Comparing the London and Edinburgh The cox-feeders of Edinburgh, according to dairies,' continues the above writer, 'there seems the Supplement of the Encyclopædia Britannica, to be a difference in favor of the best of the do not find it for their interest to keep their cows latter of no less than three quarts and a half per for more than one year, or even so long, if they can day. If this be the fact, perhaps it is owing to be fartened sooner. • Their object is to have as the whole of the Edinburgh cows being always great a quantity of milk as possible in the first in milk; none of them being kept for years, and instance; and when the cows fall off in milking, bred fron, as in the London dairies.' as they almost always do from between four and Dr. Andersons's general aphorisms on the six months after calving, to prepare them spee- subject of the qualities of milk cannot be too dily for the butcher. Most of the cows continue well impressed on all dairy and cow-keepers. He in give a good deal of milk while they are fatten- says, 1. Of the milk drawn from a cow at any ing, and even until they are sent to the shambles. time, that which comes first is always thinnest, It is expected they should sell to the butcher at and continues to increase in thickness to the last the price paid by the cow-keeper. Their food drop. This is proved by experiment; and so in summer is brewers' and distillers’ grains and great is the importance of attending to it, that the dreg, wheat shellings or small bran, grass and person who, by bad milking of his cows, loses straw; and in winter the same grains, dreg and but half a pint of his milk, loses, in fact, as much bran, with turnips and potatoes, and hay instead cream as would be afforded by six or eight pints of grass. When grains are scarce, cut or chopped at the beginning, and loses besides that part of bay is mixed with them. Sume of them are sent the cream which adone can give richness and high to pasture in fields near the city, for about two flavor to his butter. 2. When milk throws up

creans to the surface, that portion which rises first Keep your hands and arms clean. Milk each will be thicker, and of better quality, as well as cow as dry as you can, morning, and evening, in greater quantity, than that which rises in a se- and when you have milked each cow, as you cond equal portion of time. 3. Thick milk throws suppose, dry, begin again with the cow you first up a smaller quantity of cream to the surface than milked, and drip them each; for the principal such as is thinner; but that cream is of a richer reason of cows failing in their milk is from negquality. If water be added to that thick milk, it ligence in not milking each cow dry, particularly will afford a considerably greater quantity of at the time the calf is taken from the cow. Sufcream than before, but its quality is at the same fer no one to milk a cow but yourself, and have time greatly debased. 4. Milk when carried in no gossiping in the stall. Every Saturday night vessels to any distance, so as to suffer considerable give in an exact account of the quantity of milk agitation, never throws up cream so rich, nor in each cow has given in the week. such quantity, as if the same had been put into “Where butter is the principal object,' says the milk-pans without any agitation. From these Mr. Loudon, such cows should always be chosen aphorisms, the following corollaries are deducible. as are known to afford the best and largest quan1. The cows ought always to be milked as near tity of milk and cream, of whatever breed they the dairy as possible. 2. The milk of different may be. But the quantity of butter to be made cows should be kept by themselves, that the from a given number of cows must always degood cows may be distinguished from the bad. pend on a variety of contingent circumstances; 3. For butter of a very fine quality, the first- such as the size and goodness of the beasts, the drawn milk ought always to be kept separate kind and quantity of the food, and the distance from the last.

of time from calving. As to the first, it need The Farmers' Magazine, vol. xv. supplies the scarcely be mentioned that a large cow will give following directions on the subject of feeding greater store of milk than one of a smaller size; stalled cows, as those which are practically given though cows of equal size differ as to the quantity by a very intelligent dairy-man, to his cow- of cream produced from the milk of each: it is, feeder and milkers, at Farnham, in Surrey : therefore, on those cows whose milk is not only

1. To the feeder. "Go to the cow-stall at six in large abundance, but which, from a peculiar o'clock in the morning, winter and summer; inherent richness, yields a thick cream, that the give each cow half a bushel of the field-beet, butter dairy-man is to place his chief dependence; carrots, turnips, or potatoes cut; at seven o'clock, and where a cow is deficient in either of these, the hour the dairy-maid comes to milk them, she should be parted with, and her place supgive each some hay, and let them feed till they plied by one more proper for this use. As to the are all milked. If any cow refuse hay, give her second particular, namely, the kind and quality something she will eat, such as grains, carrots, of the food, those who would wish to profit by a &c., during the time she is milking, as it is abso- dairy, ought to provide for their cows hay of a lutely necessary the cow should feed whilst milk- superior goodness, to be given them in the depth ing. As soon as the woman has finished milking of winter, and this in an unlimited degree, that in the morning, turn the cows into the airing they may always feed till they are perfectly satisground, and let there be plenty of fresh water in fied. And, when the weather will permit, the the troughs; at nine o'clock give each cow three cows should be indulged with an outlet to gallons of a mixture composed of eight gallons of marshes or low meadow-grounds, where they may grains and four gallons of bran or pollard; when feed on such green vegetables as are present; they have eaten that, put some hay into the cribs; which is far preferable to the practice of conat twelve o'clock give each three gallons of the fining them the whole day on dry meat, will enmixture as before; if any cow looks for more, able them to yield greater plenty of milk, and give her another gallon; on the contrary, if she will give a fine yellow color to the butter even in will not eat what you give her, take it out of the the winter season.' manger, never at one time letting a cow have ii. The operations of the regular dairies of the more than she will eat up clean. Mind and keep cheese and butter counties have been justly stated your mangers clean, that they do not get sour. to be very little improved by the application of At two o'clock give each cow half a bushel of modern science to farming. Dr. Anderson and carrots, field-beet, or turnips; look the turnips, Mr. Marshall are the only scientific writers whose &c., over well before you give them to the cows, attention seems to have been turned to the subject. as one rotten turnip, &c. will give a bad taste to The latter, in his Rural Economy of Gloucesterthe milk, and most likely spoil a whole dairy of shire, has registered a number of observations on butter. At four o'clock put the cows into the the heat of the dairy-room, and of the milk when stall to be milked ; feed them on bay as you did the rennet was applied in cheese-making; on the at milking time in the morning, ever keeping in time required for coagulation; and the heat of mind that the cow whilst milking must feed on the whey after: but the chemistry of these arts something. At six o'clock give each cow three and productions has been wholly neglected ar gallons of the mixture as before. Rack them up present. We cannot therefore do better than at eight o'clock. Twice in a week put into each present the reader with the following popular accow's feed, at noon, a quart of malt dust.' count of the cheeses best known in this country.

2. To the dairy-maid. "Go to the cow-stall at Cheshire cheese is prepared in the following seven o'clock; take with you cold water and a manner :-The evening's milk is not touched till sponge, and wash each cow's udder clean before the next morning, when the cream is taken off. milking ; dowse the udder well with cold water, and put to warm in a metal pan heated with winter and summer, as it braces, and repels heats. boiling water. The cows being milked early in

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