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after the building of Rome, under the consulship vorce his wife the third time (for he may divorce of M. Attilius and P. Valerius, was the first who her twice without being obliged to part with her) put away his wife because she was barren; if he repent of what he has done, it shall not be though Plutarch, in his Roman questions, main- lawful for him to take her again, until she has tains that Domitian was the first who permitted been first married and bedded by another, and divorce. Justinian afterwards added impotence, divorced by such second husband. (Koran, ch. is. a row of chastity, and the profession of a p. 27). The precaution, on the whole, has had monastic as valid reasons of divorce. The so good an effect, that the Mahom medans are Roman lawyers distinguish between repudium seldom known to proceed to the extremity of diand divortium; making the former to be the vorce, notwithstanding the liberty given them; it breaking of a contract or espousal, and the latter being reckoned a great disgrace so to do: and separation after matrimony. Romulus enacted a there are few, except those who have little or no severe law, which suffered not a wife to leave her sense of honor, that will take a wife again on husband, but gave the man the liberty of turning the condition enjoined. (Seld. ubi. Sup. 1. iii. c. off his wife, for adultery, for poisoning her 21 ; Ricaut's Oitom. Emp. b. ii. c. 21). It must children, or counterfeiting his private keys. be observed, also, that though a man is allowed, However, in later times, the women as well as by the Mahommedan law, to repudiate his wife, the men might sue for a divorce. The common even on the slightest disgust, yet the women are way of divorcing was by sending a bill to the not allowed to separate themselves from their woman, containing the reasons of separation, and husbands, unless it be for ill usage, want of proa tender of all her goods which she brought with per maintenance, neglect of conjugal duty, imher; and this was called repudium mittere; or potency, or some cause of equal import; but else it was performed in her presence, and before ihen she generally loses her dowry, which she seven witnesses, and accompanied with the for- does not lose if divorced by her husband, unless malities of tearing the writings, refunding the she has been guilty of impudicity or notorious portion, taking away the keys, and turning the disobedience. (Koran, ch. iv. p. 62). When a woman out of doors.
woman is divorced she is obliged, by the direcThe Grecian Laws concerning divorces were tion of the Koran, to wait three months before different: the Cretans allowed divorce to any she marry another; after which time, in case she man who was afraid of having too many children. be not found with child, she is at full liberty to The Spartans seldom divorced their wives; and dispose of herself as she pleases; but if she prove held it extremely scandalous for a woman to de- with child she must wait till she be delivered : part from her husband. The Athenians allowed and, during her whole term of waiting, she may divorce on very small grounds, by a bill contain- continue in her husband's house, and is to be ing the reason of the divorce, and approved, it maintained at his expense; it being forbidden to the party appealed, hy the chief magistrate ; and turn a woman out before the expiration of the women also were allowed to leave their husbands term, unless she be guilty of dishonesty. (Koran, on just occasions. Persons divorcing, their ch. ii. p. 26, 27; ch. Ixv. p. 454). Where a man wives were obliged to return their portions; divorces a woman before consummation, she is otherwise the Athenian laws obliged them to not obliged to wait any particular time (Koran, pay nine oboli a month for alimony. The ch. xxxiii. p. 348); nor is he obliged to give her terms expressing the separation of men and more than one-half of her dower. (Koran, ch. ii. women from each other were different; the men p. 28). If the divorced woman have a young were said a FOTEMPELV Or Afolkveiv, to dismiss their child, she is to suckle it till it be two years old; wives; but wives, at olultav, to leave their hus- the father, in the mean time, maintaining her in bands.
all respects : a widow is also obliged to do the According to Ricaut (State, Ottom. Emp. ch. same, and to wait four months and ten days bexxi.) there are among the Turks three degrees of fore she marry again. (Koran, ch. ii. p. 27). divorce. The first only separates the man and The divine law to the Jews on this subject is wife from the same house and bed, the mainte to this effect (Deut. xxiv. 1, &c.): “When a nance of the wife being still continued : the se man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it cond not only divides them in that manner, but come to pass that she finds no favor in his eyes, the husband is compelled to make good her because he has found in her some uncleanness ;
kabin,' which is a jointure or dowry promised then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and at her marriage, so as to have no interest in him give it into her hand, and send her out of his or his estate, and to remain in a free condition to house. And when she is departed, she may go, marry another. The third sort of divorce, which and be another man's wife ; and if her second is called “Ouch Talae,' is made in a solemn and husband hate her, and write her a bill of divorce, more serious manner, with more rigorous terms or if he chance to die, her former husband shall of separation; and in this case the husband, re not take her again to be his wife, after she is depenting of his divorce, and desirous of retaking filed, for that is an abomination to the Lord.' his wife, cannot by the law be admitted to her A question has occurred respecting the interprewithout first consenting to, and contenting him- tation of this law, What is meant by the words, self with, her being temporarily possessed by * if he find any uncleauness, turpitude, or nakedanother man; which the law requires as a pun ness in her ?' and the critics are divided in opiishment of the husband's lightness and incon- nion about it. Dr. Geddes has rendered the stancy. These usages seem to have grown out of Hebrew words, 739 01ne, some defect,' but the laws of Mahomet, who, in the second chap- they are by Montanus rendered nuditatem verbi ter of the Koran, has ordered that if a man di- - by our translators,' something unclean.' Sept
to ערות דבר IHillel and his party extend the
aoxnov mpaypa. Vulg. aliquam fæditatem, ries. The feelings of the mind that preserve and so equivalently Onk. Syr. and both Arabs. that innocence, the very affections that prompt But Tharg. ngidy SIND, some transgression;' and support him in the path of duty, prepare and this transgression is supposed by Rabbi for him present sufferings, against which the Sammai and his followers to be adultery. R. criminal party must be hardened; and to the
same remote generations, that hear the tale of whatever may displease the husband ; and such delinquency on the one side, the humiliation, appears to have been the loose construction of and, generally, the groundless blame of the this law in our Saviour's time. The opinion of other, will be faithfully conveyed. the Sammaites is untenable ; for adultery was
As far as the immediate parties to a divorce punished with death; while that of the Hillelites
are concerned, all the objects and uses of marappears to be too lax. It was probably either riage are ruinously overthrown and defeated by some very great bodily blemish, or some base it. The husband (following the supposition of immoral habit
, that was meant by the legislator. his being the innocent party), can no longerThe form of the bill of divorce was to this effect :
never more, perhaps, can he-regard the charac‘Such a day, month, or year, I, such an one, of ter of woman in its true light. No longer has such a place, upon, or, near such a river, do, of she power to infuse a peculiar sensibility into his my own free consent and choice, repudiate thee, heart, to give candor and patience to his mind, such an one, my late wife, banish thee from me, lections of her influence are calculated to inspire
or sweetness to his disposition. All his recoland restore thee to thy own liberty; and thou mayest henceforth go whither, and marry whom just the opposite feelings. “More bitter than thou wilt: and this is thy bill of divorcement, death,' have been the consequences of his suband writing of expulsion, according to the law mission to it. And when the husband is the of Moses and Israel. This writing was signed guilty, and the wife the innocent party (for the by two witnesses, and delivered in the presence only just cause of divorce will compel the of as many, at least. From this time, the wife Christian moralist to hold the balance even bewas as much at her liberty, as if she had been tween the sexes), what must the widowed heart a widow; only, in both cases, she was obliged of an all-confiding female endure? It is hardly to stay at least ninety days, before she was mar- possible that she should ever more look up to ried to another, lest she should prove pregnant man; that she should again believe that his by the last. It does not appear that women judgment can strengthen hers, or his character were indulged by the law of Moses with the pri- become a safe pillar of her hope. vilege of divorcing their husbands upon the same
The mischiefs of divorce are but too often caground; unless in the case of a virgin betrothed pable of a still greater aggravation, i. e. when by her parents before she was twelve years of children are connected with its consequences. age, who might 'then refuse to ratify the contract for a father's authority (in our boyish days parwhich her parents had made, without giving any ticularly), it is as impossible to find a substitute, other reason than that she did not like the person as for a mother's care in earlier life. Let not designed for her; but this cannot be called a di- parents forget, that no hireling, however faithful vorcement, because there is no marriage in the or respectable, can do their duty to their chilcase. Josephus, therefore, thinks (Ant. lib. xv. dren-aduty ever, as a whole, intransferable, bec. 11 ; xviii: 7; xx. 15), that a divorce was so far cause he is a hireling;'but divorces generally break from being permitted to women, that, if the hus- into a family when all that is most important in band forsook his wife, it was not lawful for her the character of each parent should be in full exto marry another, till she had first obtained a di- ercise; when, if there are children, they are of vorce from him. He adds, that Salome, sister tender years, and every thing in relation to their of Herod the Great, was the first who took upon character and hopes is in the bud, or in blossom. her to repudiate her husband, whose example Now, either father,' or mother (names espewas soon followed by others, mentioned by the cially in conjunction, of greater moral power same author.
than any other that belong to creatures), becomes 3. Let us now regard the subject more particu- a term worse than unmeaning, worse than dead. larly in its various relations to society, and as a topic As soon as the mind can be influenced by the faof legislation with the great Christian lawgiver. tal example, it is weakened on the side of virtue,
Divorce is always an evil. The sufferings of and influenced to evil by one or other of these the innocent, the regrets of the wise and virtu- endearing and important names; which it conous, and the abhorrence of God, attend upon it; nects for life with the ideas of tyranny, and while it opens a breach in the foundations of cruelty, and profligacy-or with those of treahuman society to which no other domestic evil is chery, and folly, and female shamelessness. Nor comparable. That it may be the refuge of a is this all ; though one of the less direct, it is good man from the vices of an incorrigible com- not one of the least blessings of marriage to sopanion, and the prospect of indefinite future in- ciety, that it frequently draws together numerous juries, who can deny ? but never can it be his collateral parties into kindred, and, like a single remedy for the past; never will it offer any thing branch of an inland navigation, unites the reto his mind in the shape of compensation. It is sources and blends the interests of distant of that species of punishment on the guilty, of neighbourhoods. Imagine this one branch to which the innocent is compelled to share the be obstructed or annihilated, and the effect is shame and the suffering, in a peculiar manner; felt wherever its waters flow. Something like and to bear, perhaps, in this life the chief mise- this, or worse than this, occurs in every case of
divorce, however just. Amongst all the parties Cries the stall-reader, Bless us! what a word ou connected by affinity with the original tie, the A title-page is this !! And some in file annihilation of it distils evil. Where only ordi
Stand spelling false, while one might walk to Mile
End-Green. nary good wishes were increased by it, and approring aunts and smiling cousins felt it but In the other he is more serious :decent to remember the relationship when it did not infringe on their selfishness, or on prior I did but prompt the age to quit their clogs claims, the warmest discussion of the facts and
By the known rules of ancient liberty, circumstances, the merits and demerits of the
When straight a barbarous noise environs me
Of owls and cuckoos, asses, apes, and dogs : case, will spread; and wounded pride will be
As when those hinds that were transformed to frogs, far more productive of hatred and of falsehoods,
Railed at Latona's twin-born progeny, than any such ties ordinarily are of affection.
Which after held the sun and moon in fee. Every divorce is thus a party affair with a num But this is got by casting pearls to hogs, ber of families and individuals, an evil unseen, That bawl for frredom in their senseless mood, but increasing with the increasing intelligence of And still revolt when truth would set tnem free. the community—and proportionably destroying the safeguards of virtue amongst them, by fami A definition of marriage, which the poet furliarising them with the details of the worst of nishes in due form and order, certainly lies at crimes.
the basis of the “Doctrine of Divorce.' It is rather remarkable that we have a most
• The material cause of matrimony,' says elaborate disquisition on this subject from the Milton, “is man and woman; the author and pen of Milton. As his prose writings generally, efficient, God and their consent. The internal and his theological sentiments in particular, have form and soul of this relation is conjugal love, recently attracted considerable public notice, we arising from a mutual fitness to the final causes may be allowed to notice his views of divorce of wedlock,-help, and society in religious, civil, somewhat in detail. He had made what he and domestic conversation, which includes, as an would call ' a disastrous and misyoked mar- inferior end, the fulfilling of natural desire and riage,' • a remediless mistake;' in which it were specifical increase; these are the final causes, 'as vain to go about to compel' the unhappy both moving the efficient and perfecting the pair into one flesh, as to weave a garment of form.' p. 272. sand, to compel the vegetable and nutritive Or again, and with all the eloquence of a dispowers of nature to assimilations and mixtures appointed lover: which are not alterable each by the other; or
Marriage is a divine institution, joining man force the concoctive stomach to turn that into and woman in a love fitly disposed to the helps flesh, which is so totally unlike that substance and comforts of domestic life. A divine instias not to be wrought upon.' In other words, tution. This contains the prime efficient the prince of poets had proved himself but man cause of marriage : ‘Joining man and woman in his choice of a wife; and because she was not in a love, &c. This brings in the parties' conmore than woman in bearing with his learned sent, until which be, the marriage hath no true peculiarities at home, and not a well advised or being. When I say. ' consent,' I mean not discreet woman, in refusing to return home after error: for error is not properly consent; and a short absence at her father's house, Milton why should not consent be here understood with branded her as 'no wife,'' an adversary,' 'a equity and good to either part, as in all other desertrice; and actually paid his addresses to friendly covenants—and not be strained and another lady with a view to supplying her place. cruelly urged to the mischief and destruction of The sequel of the poet's history speaks of a ro
both! Neither do I mean that singular act of mantic reconciliation taking place between them consent which made the contract; for that may She rushed to his feet in tears at the house of . remain, and yet the marriage not true nor lawrelative; and, after a short reluctance, he sacri- ful; and that may cease, and yet the marriage ficed his resentment to her entreaties, and the both true and lawful, to their sin that break it. solicitation of surrounding friends. To this event, So that either as no efficient at all, or but a tranaccording to Fenton, we owe much of the paint- sitory, it comes not into the definition. That ing in that pathetic scene in Paradise Lost, in consent I mean which is a love fitly disposed to which Eve addresses herself to Adam for pardon mutual help and comfort of life; this is that and peace. Now then, the mistake' was re- happy form of marriage, naturally arising from medied; the uncongenial “assimilations' mixed; the very heart of divine institution in the text, in and the champion of divorce and his “ adver- all the former definitions either obscurely, and sary became one flesh:' but he had published, under mistaken terms expressed, or not at all. in the interim, his work on Divorce, and This gives marriage all her due, all her benefits, others in defence of it; and he through all her being, all her distinct and proper being. life justified the theory he had, under these un This makes a marriage not a bondage-a blesstoward circumstances, espoused. Milton com- ing not a curse—a gift of God not a snare. posed two sonnets on the treatment he received Unless there be a love, and that love born of frorn the public, and particularly from the clergy, fitness, how can it last? Unless it last, how on account of these works. In one he says : can the best and sweetest purposes of marriage A book was writ of late, called 'Tetrachordon
be attained ? And they not attained, which And woven close, both matter, form, and style ;
are the chief ends, and with a lawful love conThe subject new : it walked the town awhile, stitute the formal cause itself of marriage, how Nombering good intellects ; now seldom pored on. can the essence thereof subsist? How can it be,
indeed, what it goes for ? Conclude, therefore, in particular, to be ato 'good,' perfect, complete. by all the power of reason, that where this es The male of the human species only was, at first, sence of marriage is not, there can be no true produced “alone;' perhaps to teach man more marriage; and the parties, either one of them or distinctly some of the lessons we are about to both, are free, and without fault, rather by a nul- consider. This was 'not good,' not a perfect lity than by a divorce, may betake them to a arrangement with regard to man; it did not prosecond choice, if their present condition be not vide for the complete development of the divine tolerable to them. If any shall ask, why do- plans concerning him. Marriage was accordingly mestic' in the definition ? I answer, that because instituted; and the nuptial benediction proboth in the Scriptures, and in the gravest poets nounced in these terms : · Be fruitful, and muland philosophers, I find the properties and ex- tiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; cellencies of a wife set out only from domestic and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and virtues; if they extend further, it diffuses them over the fowl of the air, and over every living into the motion of some more common duty than thing that moveth upon the earth.' Jehovah formed matrimonial.' pp. 276, 7.
for man “a companion, a covenanted wife.' ‘Did We have but one objection to both these defi- he not make (two) one flesh? And is there not nitions. They envelope in a cloud of words the one spirit thereto? And what doth he seek? A chief design of marriage ; or rather they wholly godly seed.' Abp. Newcome's version of Mal. mis-state its chief design to be the personal com- ii. 15. The endearing names of husband and fort of the immediate parties. ' Help and society wife are subordinated by revelation to the in religious, civil, and domestic conversation;' important duties of parents. It is truly sur
a love fitly disposed to the help and comfort prising to see so accurate a textuary, so good a [of each other] in domestic life.' The relative moralist, and so profound a divine, as Milton bearing of the institution, or its aspect towards unquestionably was, bringing together a ponsociety at large, is almost wholly overlooked. derous volume on marriage and divorce, in which Now we are not about to tempt an unequal war- this consideration does not occupy the extent of fare with the able quills, or still more formidable one page. frowns, of our fair countrywomen, by denying The parties then, as we contend, who are in for one moment the reality of the only want the first instance capable of forming a good and of our primitive sire; or disputing the superior binding marriage, are incapable afterwards of personal comforts he enjoyed, after the forma- dissolving the contract. The will that binds betion of his bride. But cven a Milton must not comes bound by its own act, and the tie can be allowed to stigmatise, in prose, the dearest neither be less strong nor less reasonable on that hope of the marriage state, the possession of account. Too common is the notion of measurchildren, as an inferior end' of marriage. ing the obligation of this, the most important of We contrast such a sentiment with the nobler
our voluntary engagements, by the same sort of views of the author of Paradise Lost, and smile capricious feeling in which it often originates. at the versatility of our nature :
With regard, indeed, to the particular person we Hail wedded love, mysterious law, true source marry, we are and may justifiably be directed by Of human offspring, sole propriety
our own inclinations and preference; but if hence In Paradise, of all thiugs common else!
it is assumed, that inclination rather than duty By thee adulterous lust was driven from men may be a safe future rule, a decent recollection Among the bestial herds to range; by thee,
of the ends of marriage will show the fallacy of Founded in reason, loyal, just, and pure,
the conclusion ; while to the Christian, who sinRelations dear, and all the charities
cerely feels that the way of man is not in himOf father, son, and brother, first were known.
self,' it will appear perfectly monstrous. Various The Roman moralist (Cicero) understood the are the contracts that bring us into such new matter better than either of these definitions state relations to others, that, after having once volunit: or rather, unbiassed by his private grievances tarily engaged in them, no power of withdrawin respect to marriage (for he too had them, it ment is reserved to us. The formal promises will be remembered), he expressed its great ob- and promissory undertakings of the merchant, jects far more correctly, when he called it " The most of the actual engagements of the learned beginning of a city, the seminary of the com- professions, the acceptance of political office and monwealth.' In fact, if either the Mosaic narra- military rank, but all marriages pre-eminently, tive of the original institution, or the positive are contracts of this description. 'They bring us declaration of the almighty Author, is to be held into a new moral state ; we disengage ourselves decisive on the subject, the relative objects of from one class of duties, and undertake another; marriage, as a source of human offspring,' and and our good or evil conduct supports the good a natural guarantee of their education, far from or evil, promotes the prosperity or adversity, of being subordinate to any other, constituted his all men of our class. If we would retreat, we principal design in it. Every other part of cannot replace numerous other interested parcreation is represented by the sacred historian asties, nor can we be ourselves replaced in our containing, at its birth, some provision for its respective situations before contracting. Amongst perpetuity. Light is divided into successive days; these other interested parties to marriage, the the gramineous tribes are secured against destruc- appointment of God and nature places protion in the seed which they yield, and the fruits in minently-children. Their being is to be conthat which they contain; all the inferior creatures sidered as a matter of course, and the promoof the deep, the earth, and the air, are created tion of their moral well-being as a matter of after their kind :' and God saw this arrangement, duty, attendant upon every marriage ;-a seed,
and a godly seed.' The cases in which this iquity, as he terms it, of the canon law, prorelation may be lawfully entered into, without viding for the right of the body in marriage, but any view to the obtaining a family, are to be nothing for the wrongs and grievances of the regarded as exceptions to the general purposes mind. He contends, that the ordinary conof the institution; they are clearly out of ana struction of Matt. v. 32, as repealing the Mosaic logy with what we have seen to be its chief de- law, in reality charges that law with conniving at sign.
open and common adultery among the chosen We would press particularly on the considera- people of God. Nine reasons are given (chap. tion of the moral reader, married or unmarried, ii. to xiii.) for the Mosaic precept, thus assumed the divinely established connexion between mar to be still in force. 1. A meet and proper conriage and education. Men and women are versation is the chiefest end of marriage. 2. united, when God is duly acknowledged to join Without this law, marriage, as it happens oft, is them together, for objects worthy their own fu not a remedy of that [kind) which it promises ture destiny. A new tribe of creatures, wearing [to be]. 3. Without it, he who finds nothing the image of our Almighty Maker, is designed but remediless offences and discontents, is in to spring from the union-creatures whose duties, greater temptations than ever before. 4. God and whose happiness, whose temporal, and regards love and peace in the family more than whose everlasting destiny, will be more materially a compulsive performance. 5. Nothing more affected by the conduct of their parents, as such, hinders and disturbs the whole life of a Chrise than by that of any other human beings. These tian, than a matrimony found to be incurably are the parties, for the sake of whom Christianity unfit. 6. To prohibit divorce sought for natural' has banished polygamy, and restrained divorce; causes is against nature. 7. Sometimes the confor the sake of whom, even the course of nature tinuance in marriage may be evidently the shortseems to dictate the expediency of pairing, and ening or endangering of life. It is probable, the permanency of the marriage tie, all animals, or rather certain, that every one who happens to whose care is necessary for the rearing of their marry hath not the calling. 9. Marriage is not young, having a similar instinct; and none dis- a mere carnal coition, but a human society. carding them while their parental care is im- Such are the contents of book I. of the Doctrine purtant :- but what animal has eternal destinies and Discipline of Divorce. connected with that care, except man? In an He examines, in his second book, the Chris. age greatly distinguished for the promotion of tian doctrine on the subject. Christ, it is ineducation hy substitute, we have never seen these sisted, neither did nor could' abrogate the law considerations sufficiently insisted upon in print. of divorce, but only reproved the abuse thereof. Let us educate by substitute, we say, and let He afterwards combats the common exposition any adequate moral superintendence be intro- of divorce being permitted to the Jews, ' beduced, when there are no means (from whatever cause of the hardness of their hearts,' and incause) of bringing the parent to watch over and sists, that the law cannot permit, much less enact control the machinery of education. But where a permission of, sin; that to allow sin by law is this can be done, let it be done. It ought to against the nature of law; that if divorce be no be done. It is the Divine appointment that it command, neither is marriage; and that divorce should be done; and in those classes of society could be no dispensation, if it were sinful. that have so laudably stood forward for the be He further objects, that if a dispensation of nefit of others, it is ever practicable—it should the real law of marriage be supposed, Christians erer be borne in view.
need it as much as the Jews did, and that the Our poet's ‘ Doctrine of Divorce,' proportion- gospel is apter to dispense than the law. In ably defective with his definition of marriage, defining (chap. viii.) the true sense in which would place the most important of our voluntary Moses suffered divorce for hardness of heart, he contracts on the weakest of all possible grounds. says :With him, the peculiar temperament of mind Moses, Deut. xxiv. 1. established a grave and and character which first determines us to marry prudent law, full of moral equity, full of due cona particular person may, if afterwards reversed, sideration towards nature, that cannot be resisted, reverse and annul the bond. • Indisposition, a law consenting with the laws of wisest men unftness, or contrariety of mind! It would be and civilest nations; that when a man hath marirreverence to the memory of this great man, to ried a wife, if it come to pass that he cannot love multiply quotations from his mode of reasoning her, by reason of some displeasing natural quality on the subject.
or unfitness in her, let him write her a bill of Milton defends his doctrine by contending divorce. The intent of which law undoubtedly that the law of Moses on this subject is not, in was this, that if any good and peaceable man point of fact, repealed by Jesus Christ; and that should discover some helpless disagreement or as other reasons of divorce than actual adultery dislike, either of mind or body, whereby he were allowed by the Jewish legislator, the Chris- could not cheerfully perform the duty of a hustian magistrate should yet admit of them. He band, without the perpetual dissembling of ofminutely examines the celebrated text, Deut. fence and disturbance to his spirit; rather than sxiv. 1; and comparcs it with the original in to live uncomfortably and unhappily, both to stitution of marriage ; insisțing that no covenant himself and to his wife; rather than to continue whatever obliges against the main end of itself undertaking a duty, which he could not possibly and the parties covenanting, which main end he discharge, he might dismiss her whom he could calls, in marriage, the ó remedy of loneliness' in not tolerably, and so not conscionably, retain.
He then objects to the ignorance and in- And this law, the spirit of God by the mouth of