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DIVI Ν Α Τ Ι Ο Ν.
This topick was very fitly and divinely made use of Suggest vut truth to my divining thoughts,
hy our apostle, in his conference with philosophers, This pretty lad will prove our country's bliss. Id. and the inquisitive people of Athens. Bentley. By Jupiter, an angel ! or, if not,
Instructed, you'd explore
Divine contrivance, and a God adore.
Blackmore. Hear him but reason in divinity,
I reduced the study of divinity into as narrow a And, all admiring, with an inward wish
compass as I could ; for I determined to study nothing You would desire the king were made a prelate, but my Bible, being much unconcerned about the
Shakspeare. opinions of councils, fathers, churches, bishops, and Give Martius leave to proceed in his discourse; other men, as little inspired as myself. This mode of for he spoke like a divine in armour.
proceeding being opposite to the general one, and es. Bacon's Holy War. pecially to that of the Master of Peterhouse, who was The divinest and the richest mind, a great reader, he used to call me auto88axtos, the Both by art's purchase and by nature's dower, self-taught divine.
Bp. Watson. That ever was from heaven to earth confined.
Glowing, and circumfused in speechless love,
Their full divinity inadequate
That feeling to express, or to improve,
The gods bocome as mortals, and man's fate Divinity within them breeding wings,
Has moments like their brightest,
Byron. Wherewith to scorn the earth.
Milton. In the very shapes and colours of brute creatures
Divination, in antiquity, was divided by there is a divine hand, which disposeth them to his Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Cicero, and others, own ends. Bp. Hall. Contemplations.
into two species, viz. artificial and natural. ArThis man born and now up grown,
tificial divination was so called, because it was To shew him worthy of his birth divine
not obtained, or pretended to be obtained, by And high prediction, henceforth I expose
immediate inspiration, but proceeded upon cerTo Satan.
Milton. tain superstitious experiments and observations She fair, divinely fair! fit love for gods. I. arbitrarily instituted. Of this sort there were
various kinds, as by sacrifices, entrails, flame, The eternal cause in their immortal lines
cakes, four, wine, water, birds, lots, verses, Was taught, and poets were the first divines.
Denham. omens, &c. In the sacred writings nine different Her line
sorts of divination are mentioned. The first perWas hero-make, half human, half divine. formed by the inspection of planets, stars, and
Dryden. clouds. The practisers of this are supposed to His countenance did imprint an awe,
, And naturally all souls to his did bow;
anan, a cloud, Deut. xviii. 10. 2. Those whom As wands of divination downward draw,
the prophet calls in the same place unjo menaAnd point to beds where sovereign gold doth grow.
cheseh, which the vulgate and generality of inThe mad divineress had plainly writ,
terpreters render augur. 3. Those who in the A time should come, but many ages yet,
same place are called quos mecascheph, which In which sinister destinies ordain,
the septuagint and vulgate translate 'a man given A dame should drown with all her feathered train.
to ill practices.' 4. Such augurs whom Moses Id.
in the same chapter, ver. 11, calls na in hhober. If he himself be conscious of nothing he then thought on, he must be a notable diviner of thoughts, 5. Those who consult the spirits called Python ; that can assurc him that he was thinking. Locke.
or, as Moses expresses it in the same book, Faith, as we use the word, called commonly divine 3 bow those who ask questions of Python. faith, has to do with no propositions but those which 6. Witches or magicians, whom Moses called are supposed to be divinely inspired.
Id. 297, judeoni. 7. Those who consult the dead, When he attributes divinity to other things than necromancers. 8. The prophet Hosea, chap. iv. God, it is only a divinity by way of participation. 12, mentions such as consult staves, ospa Sno;
Stilling fleet. which kind of divination is called rhabdomancy. Is it then impossible to distinguish the divineness of 9. The last kind is hepatoscopy, or the conthis book from that which is human ?
sideration of the liver.* Divination of all kinds The excellency of the soul is seen by its power of being the offspring of credulity, nursed by imdivining in dreams : that several such divinations have
strengthened by superstition, was been made, none can question who believes the holy necessarily an occult science, retained in the writings.
hands of the priests and priestesses, the mal, 'Tis the Divinity that stirs within us,
the soothsayers, the augurs, and other like pro"Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter,
fessors, till the time of the coming of Jesus And intimates eternity to man.
Christ. Since then the pure doctrines of ChrisVain idols, deities that ne'er before
tianity, and the spirit of philosophy, becoming In Israel's lands had fixed their dire abodes, Beastly divinities, and droves of gods.
every day more widely diffused have equally
concurred in banishing these visionary opinions. A divine has nothing to say to the wisest congregation, which he may not express in a manner to be un The following are the principal kinds of dividerstnod by the meanest among them.
nation practised among the ancients. For a God doubtless can govern this machine he could more minute description of which see their secrcate, by more direct and easy methods than employ- parate articles. 1. Aeromancy, the art of diing these subservient divinities.
vining by the air. 2 Astrology; divided into
אנן neonen , of מעונן be those whom Moses calls
natural astrology and judicial. 3. Augury con- winter months; a shoot that terminates, equally sisted in observing the flight, singing, &c., of forked, is to be preferred, about two feet and a birds. 4. Chiromancy, the art which pretends half long; but as such a forked rod is rarely to to discover, by inspecting the hand, not only the be met with, two single ones of similar length and inclinations of a man, but his future destiny also. size may be tied together with thread, and they 5. Geomancy was a divination made by observing will answer as well as the other. of cracks or clefts in the earth. 6. Haruspicy The most convenient and handy inethod of consisted in the inspection of the bowels of holding the rod, is with the palms of the hands animals, but principally of victims; and from turned upwards, and the two ends of the rod thence predicting incidents relative to the re- coming outwards: the palms should be held public, and the good or bad events of its enter- horizontally, as nearly as possible; the part of prises. 7. Horoscopy is a branch of AstroLOGY, the rod in the hand ought to be straight, and not which see.
8. Hydromancy is the art of di- bent backward or forward. The upper part of vining by water. The Persians, according to the arm should be kept pretty close to the sides, Varro, invented it; and Pythagoras and Numa and the elbows resting on them; the lower part Pompilius made great use of it. 9. Physiog- of the arm making nearly a right angle with the nomy, or physiognomancy, is a science that pre- upper, though rather a little more acute. The tends to teach the nature, the temperament, the rod ought to be so held, that in its working the understanding, and the inclinations of men, by sides may move clear of the little fingers. the inspection of their countenances, and is there The best manner of carrying the rod is with fore thought by many, to be little less frivolous the end extended in an angle of about eighty than chiromancy; though Aristotle, and the ce- degrees from the horizon, as by this method of lebrated Lavater, have written express treatises carrying it, the repulsion is more plainly perceived concerning it. But as it is an undeniable fact, than if it was held perpendicularly. But after that our passions, especially when frequently and all the directions that can be given, the adroit violently agitated, make indelible impressions use of it can only be attained by practice and
our features, by their repeated action on attention. particular muscles, insomuch that the tempers It is necessary that the grasp should be steady, of many people may be known at first view for if, when the rod is going, there be the least from their looks; and as it is not improbable, succussion or counteraction in the hands, though that certain habits of vice may make impres- ever so small, it will greatly impair, and, genesions equally iform and perhaps equally legi- rally, totally prevent its activity, which is not to ble, if we were accustomed to study them, phy- be done by the mere strength of the grasp; for signomy appears to be worthy of rather more provided this be steady, no strength can stop it. attention. 10. Pyromancy is a divination made JI. Properties observed in the Rod, and Direcby the inspection of a flame, either by observing tions for using it.-As soon as the person's foreto which side it turns, or by throwing into it some most foot comes near the attracting body (as far combustible matter, or a bladder filled with wine, as I can observe its semi-diameter), the end of or any thing else from which they imagined they the rod is repelled towards the face ; then open were able to predict. Natural"divination was the hands a little, replace the rod, and approach so called, because it was supposed to be not at- nearer, and the repulsion will be continued until tainable by any rules or precepts of art, but in- the foot is on or over the attracting body. When fused or inspired into the diviner, without his this is the case, the rod will first be repelled a taking any further care about it, than to purify little, viz. two or three inches, and then be atand prepare himself for the reception of the di- tracted towards the metallic body, viz. its end vine afflatus.
will be drawn down towards it. DIVINING ROD. We have anticipated, in the When it has been drawn down, it must not be article BAGUETTE DEVINATOIRE, which see, all thrown back without opening the hands, a fresh that we feel disposed to give credence to on this grasp being necessary to every attraction, but subject : but an ingenious gentleman has lately then the least opening of the hand is sufficient. advocated the pretensions of the hazel or willow As long as the person stands over the attracting rod to be naturally, under proper management, body, the rod continues to be attracted; but as a discoverer of metals and springs of water, at soon as the forefoot is beyond it, then the rod is great depths; and we insert, just as they are drawn backward to the face. supplied to us, his directions for choosing the Metals have different degrees of attraction ; rods, and observations on their properties. gold is strongest, next copper, then iron, silver,
1. Directions for choosing the Rods.—The tin, lead, bones, coals, springs of water, and hazel and willow rods he has, by experience, limestone. found, will actually answer with all persons in a In using the rod to discover springs and megood state of health, if they are used with mo- tals, let the person hold the rod as already dideration, and at some distance of time, and rected, and then advancing north or south with a after meals, when the operator is in good spirits. slow pace, just one foot before the other, at first
The hazel, willow, and elm, are all attracted the rod may be repelled; but as the person adby springs of water. Some persons have the vances slowly, and comes over the spring or vein sirtue intermittently; the rod in their hands will of ore, the rod will be strongly attracted. attract one half-hour, and repel the next. The A person who, by frequent practice and exrod is attracted by all metals, coals, amber, and perience, can use the rod tolerably, may soon lime-stone, but with different degrees of strength. give the greatest sceptics sufficient satisfaction, Tlie best rods are those from the hazel or nut- except they are determined not to be contree, as they are pliant and tough, and cut in the vinced.
Some have supposed that the science called divisible, since it will consist of parts which wil Rhabdomancy (divination by a rod), is alluded be really distinct. To illustrate this by a famito in the following verse of Hosea : My peo- liar instance.--Let the least imaginable piece of ple ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff matter be conceived lying on a smooth plain declareth unto them.' ch. iv. As Europe re- surface, it is evident the surface will not touch ceived in very early times many superstitious it every where : those parts, therefore, which it customs from the east, together with many useful does not touch may be supposed separable from inventions, the conjecture is not improbable. the others, and so on as far as we please; and Divination by arrows, a method of a similar kind this is all that is meant when we say that matter mentioned in Ezekiel, chap. xxi., continued is infinitely divisible. The infinite divisibility of among the Arabs till the days of Mahomet, who, mathematical quantity is demonstrated geomein the Koran, forbade his followers this idle at- trically. All that is supposed, however, in strict tempt at prescience.
geometry, says Mr. Maclaurin, concerning the DIVIS’ION, n. s. Span. and Fr.division, divisibility of magnitude, amounts to no more Divisible, adj. from Lat. divisio, à di- than that a given magnitude may be conceived DivisóiBLENESS, n. s. videre, divisus. See Di- to be divided into a number of parts equal to any DIVISIBILITY, N. s.
The act of di- given or proposed number. The number of Divi'sor.
viding; state of being parts, into which a given magnitude may be condivided; the separated part, and that which ceived to be divided, is not to be fixed or limited, separates : hence disunion, discord, dispute; a because no given number is so great but a greater rule of' arithmetic: divisible is capable of di- may be conceived and assigned: but there is not, vision; divisibility, quality of admitting it. therefore, any necessity of supposing the number Divisor, an arithmetical term for a given num of parts actually infinite; and'if some have drawn ber by which another is divided.
very absurd consequences from such a supposition, I will put a division between my people and thy peo- yet geometry ought not to be loaded with them. ple.
Exodus. How far matter may be divided, may, in some Thy tongue
measure, be conceived from this fact, that a Makes Welsh as sweet as ditties highly penned piece of wire gilt with so small a quantity as eight Sung by a fair queen in a summer's bower, grains of gold, may be drawn out to a length of With ravishing division, to her lute.
13,000 feet, the whole surface of it still remainShukspeare. Henry IV. ing covered with gold. We have also a surNaturalists disagree about the origin of motion, and prising instance of the minuteness of some parts the indefinite divisibleness of matter.
Boyle. This will easily appear to any one, who will let his Let a candle be lighted, and placed in an open
of matter from the nature of light and vision. thoughts louse in the vast expansion of space, or di- plain, it will then be visible iwo miles round, visibility of matter. Express the heads of your divisions in as few and
and consequently were it placed two miles above clear words as you can, otherwise I never can be able the surface of the earth, it would fill with lumito retain them.
nous particles a sphere whose diameter was four If we look into communities and divisions of men,
miles, and that before it had lost any sensible we observe that the discreet man, not the witty, part of its weight. A quantity of vitriol being guides the conversation. Addison's Spectator.
dissolved, and mixed with 9000 times as much The effects of human industry and skill are easily be divided into as many parts as there are visible
water, will tinge the whole; consequently will subjected to calculation : whatever can be completed in a year, is divisible into parts, of which each may be portions of matter in that quantity of water. performed in the compass of a day. Adventurer.
With respect also to coloring substances, partiWhen we frame in our minds any notion of matter, cularly carmine, which is a kind of powder obwe conceive nothing else but extension and bulk, tained from the insect commonly called cochiwhich is impenetrable, or divisible and passive. neal : dilute a small quantity of this powder, to
Bentley's Sermons. the weight of about three quarters of a grain, by In dread divisions marched the marshalled bands, putting it at the bottom of a vessel, in which is And swarming armies blackened all the lands.
afterwards poured nearly thirty pounds of water; Darwin.
the color will be so diffused as to be perceptible Divisibility, in physics, is that property by throughout the whole volume of the water. The which the particles of matter in all bodies are weight of this water being 300,000 times greater capable of a separation or disunion from each than that of five centigrammes of carmine, if it be other
. The Peripatetics and Cartesians hold divi- supposed that each centigramme of the fluid sibility to be an affection of all matter. The mixture contains only two moleculæ of the coEpicureans, again, allow it to agree to every loring principle, there will be 3,000,000 of vitriol physical continuum; but they deny that this af- parts in five centigrammes of carmine. Many fection agrees to all bodies, for the primary cor- perfumes also, without a sensible diminution of puscles or atoms they maintain to be perfectly their quantity, fill a very large space with their insecable and indivisible.
odoriferous particles; which must therefore be Divisibility of Matter. As it is evident of an inconceivable smallness, since there will that body is extended, so it is no less evident that be a sufficient number in every part
of that space it is divisible ; for since no two particles of mat- sensibly to affect the organ of smelling. Dr. ter can exist in the same place, it follows, that Keill demonstrates, that any particle of matter, they are really distinct from each other; which how small soever, and any finite space, low is all that is meant by being divisible. In this large soever, being given, it is possible for that sense the least conceivable particle must still be small particle of matter to be diffused through
all that space, and to fill it in such a manner, as Divisions OF A BATTALION are the several
Fr. divorcer; It. dielementary molecules, solid, hard, unchangeable, DIVORCEʻMENT, n. s.
dorzare ; from Barb. the figures and the different qualities of which Divor'cer.
Lat, divortere ; dis were appropriated to the respective ends they and vertere, à marito, to turn, from her husband. were proposed to answer. But such is the fixity The legal separation of a husband and wife, the of these molecules that no process of art, nor verb being derived from the noun : hence diseven any force existing in nature, can either di- union, or separation generally; and separation vide or alter them, unless the essence of the body by authority or force. Divorcement seems syshould be changed with time. Thus all the mo nonymous with the substantive; and a divorcer difications experienced by bodies depend solely is, he who causes or procures a divorce. upon this, that these durable molecules separate Write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her the one from the other, and then become re
hand, and send her out of his house. Deut. xxiv. 1. united in various ways forming new combina
If so be it were possible, that all other ornaments tions. These different molecules are, hence, the of mind might be had in their full perfection, neversimple substances of chemistry; and the results theless the mind that should possess them, divorced of the operations which they would present from piety, could be but a spectacle of commiseration. singly, should be the design of the efforts of this
Hooker. science; in the mean time we may consider as
To restore the king, simple the substances which we have not yet been He counsels a divorce, a loss of her, able to decoinpose, and wisely imagine simpli
That like a jewel has hung twenty years city to reside at the place where observation
About his neck, yet never lost her lustre. stops. See the article INFINITE.
Shakspeare. Henry VIII. Division, in sea affairs, a select number of Go with me, like good angels, to my end; ships in a fleet or squadron of men of war, dis
And, as the long divorce of steel falls on me, tinguished by a particular flag or pendant, and
Make of your prayers one sweet sacrifice,
Id. usually commanded by a general officer. A
And lift my soul to heaven. squadron is commonly ranged into three divi
The continent and the island were continued togesions, the commanding officer of which is always but are now divorced by the downfallen cliffs.
ther within men's remembrance by a drawbridge ; stationed in the centre. When a fleet consists of
Carew's Survey of Cornwall. sixty sail of the line, that is, of ships having at
Such motions may occasiou a farther alienation of least sixty cannon each, the admiral divides it mind, and divorce of affections, in her, from my reliinto three squadrons, each of which has its divi
King Charles. sions and commanding officers. Each squadron So seemed her youthful soul not easily forced, has its proper colors, according the rank of Or from so fair, so sweet a seat divorced. Waller. the admiral, and every division its proper mast. Divorce is a lawful separation of husband and wife, Thus in Britain, the first admiral, or the admiral made before a competent judge, on due cognizance of the fleet, displays the union flag at the main- had of the cause, and sufficient proof made
thereof. top-mast head; next follows the white flag with
Drummond's Cyprian Grove.
Blackmore. Divisions Of An Army, in the military art, Divorce. This is a topic connected with the several brigades and squadrons into which it many moral and legal considerations; and those is cantoned.
of sufficient importance, we apprehend, to justify
. our entering upon it at some length. Scarcely spiritual court. This divorce enables the parties has the country survived the moral effects of a to marry again. recent discussion of it in the highest quarters, In regard to the former case, it is the practice and in the inner sanctuary of British justice. It in the higher walks of life to apply to parliament will be sufficient to remark, with regard to that to complete the divorce by an ex post facto law, unhappy circumstance, that both the learned pro- when, if the divorce is grounded, as it almost fessions appeared in a state of even unusual ob- invariably is, on adultery, it is necessary that a scurity and doubt upon the subject. Lawyers, clause be inserted in the proposed bill, interdictunquestionably well versed in the institutions of ing the offending parties from intermarrying. their country, were as singularly divided with Evidence must be given, on the bill, that an acregard to the fair effect of some of our statutes tion for damages has been brought against the and usages respecting divorce, as the learned seducer, and judgment for the plaintiff had prelates were disagreed among themselves re- thereon, or a sufficient reason given why such specting what was really the law of God. action was not brought, or judgment obtained.
The writer of this paper has had occasion to Upon the second reading of the bill in the house pay considerable attention to this subject, both of lords (where, indeed, it usually originates), it in a moral and legal point of view. He has is necessary that an official copy of the proceedseen the laws of his country to be in a remark- ings, and definitive sentence of divorce à mensa able state of confusion respecting it; he is con et thoro, in the ecclesiastical court, at the suit of vinced that their ordinary course, with regard to the petitioner, be delivered at the bar on oath; divorces, is opposed to the simple provisions of and that the petitioner attend the house to be the law of Jesus Christ. He would therefore examined, if the house think fit, whether there offer to the reader a brief statement of the actual be any collusion respecting the act of adultery, or laws and practices of this country on the subject, the divorce, or any action for criminal converwith a view to the examination of their moral sation; and whether the wife was living apart effect and propriety; then compare them with the from her husband under articles of separation. provisions and usages of antiquity generally : If after a divorce à mensa et thoro, either of and finally, with the express injunctions of Holy the parties marry again, the other being living, Writ.
such marriage is a mere nullity; and by sen1. There are many kinds of divorce, say the tence to confirm the first contract, she and her law authorities mentioned in our books; as causâ first husband become husband and wife to all pracontractûs; causâ frigiditatis ; causâ consan- intents, without any formal divorce from the guinitatis ; causâ affinitatis; causâ professionis, second. Also on this divorce, as the marriage &c. But the usual divorces are of two kinds, continues, marrying again while either party is i. e. à mensa et thoro, from bed and board; living, hath been held to be bigamy within the and à vinculo matrimonii, from the very bond of stat. 1 Jac. c. 11. marriage. A divorce à mensa et thoro does A divorce for adultery was anciently à vinculo not dissolve the marriage ; for the cause of it matrimonii; and therefore in the beginning of is subsequent to the marriage, and supposes the the reign of queen Elizabeth the opinion of the marriage to be lawful: this divorce may be by church of England was, that after a divorce for reason of adultery in either of the parties, for adultery, the parties might marry again; but in cruelty of the husband, &c. And as it does not Foliambe's case, H. 44 El. in the star-chamber, dissolve the marriage, so it does vot debar the that opinion was changed; and archbishop Banwoman of her dower, or bastardise the issue, or croft, by the advice of divines, held, that adultery make void any estate for the life of husband and was only a cause of divorce à mensa et thoro. wife, &c. Co. Lit. 235; 3 Inst. 89; 7 Rep. Sentence of divorce must be given in the life of 43. The woman under separation by this di- the parties, and not afterwards : but it may be vorce must sue by her next friend; and in her repealed in the spiritual court, after the death of own name she may sue her husband for alimony. the parties.
A divorce à vinculo matrimonii, absolutely It should be added that divorce is, according dissolves the marriage, and makes it void from to our law, a judgment spiritual; hence it must the beginning, the causes of it being precedent to be sued for and pronounced in the spiritual the marriage; as præcontract with some other court, where also, says Coke upon Littleton,' if person, consanguinity or affinity, within the Le- there be occasion, it ought to be reversed: and vitical degrees, impotency, impuberty, &c. On that the canon law, by which these courts are this divorce dower is gone; and if, by reason of regulated, is followed by the common law, in præcontract, consanguinity, or affinity, the child considering the nuptial tie o strong as not to be dren of the marriage are bastards. But in these capable of being unloosed for any cause whatdivorces, the wife, it is said, shall receive all Our law, in fact, refers throughout to the again that she brought with her, because the nul- Romish notion of the sacrament of marriage, lity of the marriage arises through some impedi- and its utter indissolubility. Such, without ment; and the goods of the wife were given for entering into minute provisions, is the law and her advancement in marriage, which now ceases: practice of our enlightened country on this imbut this is where the goods are not spent; and portant subject. if the husband give them away during the cover 2. Divorce was allowed in much greater freeture, without any collusion, it shall bind her: if dom in all the celebrated nations of antiquity; she knows her goods unspent, she may bring At Rome, barrenness, age, disease, madness, and action of detinue for them; and as for money, bani nent, were the ordinary causes of divorce. &c., which cannot be known, she must sue in the Spurius Carvilius, between 500 ard 600 years