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likewise usually given, to effectuate and complete DISTRIB’UTE, d. a. Fr. distribuer ; Ital. the remedy. And in like marner, by several DISTRIB'UTER, n. s. and Span. distriacts of parliament (2 W. & M. c. 5., 8 Ann. c. DISTRIBUẤTION, adj. buere ; Lat. distri14., 4 Geo. II. c. 28, 11 Geo. II. c. 19), in all Distrib'UTIVE, adj. buere ; dis, diversely, cases of distress for rent, if the tenant or owner DISTRIB'UTIVELY, adv.) and tribuo, to bedo not, within five days after the distress is taken, stow. To divide among several; to deal forth; and notice of the cause thereof given to him, dispense. Distributer is, he who deals out; and replevy the same with sufficient security, the dis- distribution, the act of distributing; hence chatrainor, with the sheriff or constable, shall cause rity. Distributive, that which assigns the due the same to be appraised by two sworn appraisers, portions of things Distributively, proportionand sell the same towards satisfaction of the rent ally; singly; particularly. and charges ; rendering the overplus, if any, to

She did distribute her goods to all them that were the owner himself. And, by these means, a full

nearest of kindred.

Judith xvi. 24. and entire satisfaction may now be had for rent

The king sent over a great store of gentlemen and in arrear, by the mere act of the party himself, warlike people, amongst whom he distributed the land. viz. by distress, the remedy given at common

Spenser. law, and sale consequent thereon, which is added

Although we cannot be free from all sin collecby act of parliament. If any distress and sale tively, in such sort that no part thereof shall be found shall be made, for rent in arrear and due, when inherent in us; yet, distributively at the least, all done is really due, the owner shall recover double great and grievous actual offences, as they offer themvalue, with full costs. 2 W. Sess. 1 c. 5. selves one by one, both may and ought to be by all The taking of a distress was formerly reckoned means avoided.

Hooker. a hazardous proceeding, on account of the many

The spoil got on the Antiates particulars that attended it: for if any irregularity Was not distributed. Shakspeare. Coriolanus. was committed, it vitiated the whole, and made Of great riches there is no real use, except it be in the distrainors trespassers ab initio (1 Ventr. 37). the distribution.

Bacon's Essays. But now, by the statute 11 Geo. II. c. 19, it is

If Justice will take all, and nothing give, provided, that for any unlawful act done, the

Justice methinks is not distributive. Dryden. whole shall not be unlawful, or the parties tres Observe the distributive justice of the authors, which passers ab initio; but that the party grieved shall is constantly applied to the punishment of virtue, and only have an action for the real damage sustained; the reward of vice, directly opposite to the rules of

their best criticks.

Swift. and not even that, if tender of amends is made before any action is brought. Blackst. Comm.

There were judges and distributers of justice ap

pointed for the several parts of his dominions. Book iii.

Addison on Italy. Distress, Personal, is made by distraining

Let us govern our charitable distributions by this a man's moveable goods, and seizing the profits pattern of nature, and maintaiu a mutual circulation of his lands and tenements, from the teste, or of benefits and returns.

Atterbury. date of the writ, for the defendant's contempt in

As an integral whole is distinguished into its seve. not appearing to an action brought against him ral parts by division, so the word distribution is most when he was summoned, or attached ; and the properly used, when we distinguish a universal whole issues so returned by the sheriffs, are forfeited to into its several kinds of species.

Watts. the king, and estreated into the exchequer.

There remains yet to be considered the distribution DISTRESS, Real, is made on immoveable of words into their proper classes, or that part of lexigoods. It differs from an attachment in this, that cography which is strictly critical.

Johnson. it cannot be taken by any common person, with The Latin language, long the vehicle used in disout the compass of his own fee; except it be tributing knowledge among the different nations of presently after the cattle, or other things are Europe, is daily more and more neglected. driven, or borne off the ground, on purpose to

Franklin. avoid distress.

DISTRIBUTION, in printing, the taking a form Distress has been termed either finite or infinite. asunder, separating the types, and disposing Distress finite, is that which is limited by law, them in the cases again, each in its proper cell. in regard to the number of times it shall be See Printing. made, in order to bring the party to a trial of the DI'STRICT, n. s. Fr. district ; Ital. disaction. Distress infinite, is that which is without tretto; Span. districto ; Lat. districtus, from disany limitation being made till the person ap- tringo, to bind, as with limits. The limit, or pears. It is fariher applied to jurors that do not circuit, of a given authority : hence, a region, apptar: as, upon a certificate of assise, the pro- country, or portion of a country. cess is venire facias, habeas corpora, and distress infinite. It is also divided into grand distress and example of their grand monarque, practised all the

His governors, who formed themselves upon the ordinary distress : of these the former extends to

arts of despotick government in their respective disall the goods and chattels that the party has tricts.

Addison. within the county. A person, of common right,

With stern distate avowed, may distrain for rents and all manner of services; To their own districts drive the suitor crowd. and wbere a rent is reserved on a gift in tail, lease for life, or years, &c., though there be no

Those districts which between the tropicks lie, clause of distress in the grant or lease, so as that

The scorching beams, directly darted, fry.

Blackmore. he has the reversion : but on a feoffment made in fee, a distress may not be taken, unless it be ex DISTRINGAS, in English law, a writ directe pressly reserved in the deed.

to the sheriff, or other officer, commanding liim



to distrain for a debt to the king; or for his ap He stands in the sight both of God and men most pearance at a certain day. There is a distringas justly blameable, as a needless disturber of the peace of against peers, and persons entitled to privilege of God's church, and an author of dissensions. parliament, under statute 10 Geo. III., cap. 50;

Hooker. by which the effects, in law called issues, levied

Where love reigns, disturbing jealousy

Doth call himself affliction's sentinel; may be sold to pay the plaintiff's cost, and it has

Gives false alarms, suggesteth mutiny, been held that ihis statute extends to all writs of

And in a peaceful hour doth cry, kill! kill! distringas. In detinue, after judgment, the plain

Shakspeare. tiff may have a distringas to compel the defendant

Instant without disturb they took alarm, to deliver the goods by repeated distresses of his

And onward move embattled.

Milton. chattels. See Distress, EXECUTION, and Par

This mischief had not then befallen,

And more that shall befall: innumerable DISTRINGAS JURATORES, a writ directed to a

Disturbances on earth through female snares. sheriff, whereby, he is commanded to distrain

Id. upon a jury to appear and to return issues on

He that has his own troubles, and the happiness of their lands, &c. for non-appearance. Where an his neighbours, to disturb him, has work enough. issue in fact is joined to be tried by a jury,

Collier on Envy. which is retained by the sheriff in a pannel upon His youth with wants and hardships must engage; a venire facias for that purpose ; there goes

Plots and rebellions must disturb his age.

Prior. forth a writ of distringas juratores, for the sheriff Ye great disturbers, who in endless noise, to have their bodies in court, &c. at the return In blood and horror, seek unnatural joys : of the writ. This writ ought to be delivered to For what is all this bustle, but to shun the sheriff in such time, that he may warn the Those thoughts with which you dare not be alone ? jury to appear four days before the writ is

Granville. returnable, if the jurors live within forty miles of They can survey a variety of complicated ideas the place of trial; and eight days if they live without fatigue or disturbance.

Watts. farther off. There may be an alias, or pluries Thrice round the grave Circæa prints her tread, distringas jur', where the jury doth not appear.

And chaunts the numbers which disturb the dead. See Jury, and TRIAL.

Darwin. DISTRU'ST, v. a. & n. s.

Dis and trust.

DISTUʻRN, v.a. Dis and turn. To turn DistrU'STFU1., adj. To regard with off; turn aside. Not in use. DistryʻSTFULLY, adv. diffidence or sus He glad was to disturn that furious stream DISTRU STFULNESS.

picion; not to Of war on us, that else had swallowed them. trust.

Daniel. He sheweth himself unto such as do not distrust him.

DISVAL'UE, v a. 2

Dis and value. To Wisdom.

DISVALUATION, n. s. S estimate below worth; To me reproach

disgrace : diminution of reputation. Rather belongs, distrust, and all dispraise.

What can be more to the disvaluation of the power

Milton. of the Spaniard, than that eleven thousand English Common swearing, if it have any serious meaning should have marched into the heart of his countries?

Bacon. at all, argues in man a perpetual distrust of his own reputation, and is an acknowledgment that he thinks Her reputation was disvalued his bare word not to be worthy of credit.

In levity.

Shakspeare. Measure for Measure. Tillotson.

The very same pride which prompts a man lo vaunt You doubt not me; nor have I spent my blood, and overvalue what he is, does as forcibly incline To have my faith no better understood :

him to contemn and disavow what he has. Your soul's above the baseness of distrust;

Government of the Tongue. Nothing but love could make you so unjust.

DISVEʻLOP, 0.a. Fr. developer. To un

Dryden. Generals often harbour distrustful thoughts in their breasts.


DISUNITE', v.a. &n. s. Dis and unite. How frequently is the honesty and integrity of a

Disu’NITION, n. s. To separate ; diman disposed of, by a smile or a shrug ;-how many


vide; part union. good and generous actions have been sunk into obli While every particular member of the publick provion by a distrustful look, or stampe with the imputa. vides solely for itself, the several joints of the body tion of proceeding from bad motives, by a mysterious politick do separate and disunite, and so become unand seasonable whisper.

able to

port the whole. DISTUʻRB, v. a. & n. s. Span. disturbar ; Disunity is the natural property of matter, which DISTUʻRBANCE, n. s.

Ital. and Lat, dis- is nothing else but an infinite congeries of physical monads.

More. DistU'RBER,

turbare, from dis DISTU'RBED, part. adj. expletive, and tur Rest is must opposite to motion, the immediate

Glanville's Scepois. bo to disorder, à turba a crowd. To perplex; cause of disunion. disquiet; confound; interrupt; turn off attention, Disunion of the corporeal principles, and the vital, or aim Milton uses disturb as a substantive for causeth death.

Grew's Cosmologia Sacra. confusion or tumult, or synonymous with dis The strength of it will join itself to France, and turbance.

grow the closer to it by its disunion from the rest. And thei seynge him walkinge on the see weren

Addison on the War. distublid and sciden that it is a fantum.

The beast they then divide, and disunite
Wiclif. Matt. 14. The ribs and limbs.

Pope's Odyssey.




a tune.

DISU'SAGE, n. s. Dis and usage. The

Up again! for every warrior gradual cessation of use or custom.

Slain, another climbs the barrier.

Thicker grows the strife; thy ditches They cut off presently such things as might be ex

Europe's mingling gore enriches. Byron. tinguished without danger, leaving the rest to be abolished by disusage through tract of time.

Ditch, in fortification, called also the foss and

Hooker. moat, is a trench dug round the rampart, or wal DISUSE, 0.a & n. s. Dis and use. To cease of a fortified place, between the scarp and counto make use of; to disaccustom : with from or terscarp. Ditches are either dry or wet, that is, to; more properly from.

having water in them; both of which have their Disuse me from the queasy pain

particular advantages. The earth dug out of the Of being beloved and loving.

Donne. ditch serves to raise the rampart. The ditch in

front should be of such breadth as that tall trees *Tis law, though custom now diverts the course : As nature's institute is yet in force,

may not reach over it, being from twelve to Uncancelled though disused. Dryden's Fables. twenty-four fathoms wide, and seven or eight

feet deep. But the most general rule is, perhaps, The disuse of the tongue is the only effectual re

that the dimensions of the ditch be such as that medy against these.

Addison's Guardian.

the earth dug out may be sufficient to build thu That obligation upon the lands did not prescribe,

rampart of a proper magnitude. or come into disuse, but by fifty consecutive years.


Ditch is a common fence in inaishes, or

other wet land, where there are no hedges. DISVOUCH', 0.a. Dis and vouch. To des. They allow these ditches six feet wide against troy the credit of; to contradict.

high ways that are broad; and against conEvery letter he hath writ hath disvouched another.

mons, five feet. But the common ditches about Shakspeare.

enclosures, dug at the bottom of the bank on DISWITTED, adj. Dis and wit

. De which the quick is raised, are three feet wide at prived of the wits; mad; distracted. A word the top, one at the bottom, and two feet deep: not in use.

By this means each side has a slope, which is of She ran away alone,

great advantage; for where this is neglected, and Which when they heard, there was not one But hasted after to be gone,

the ditches dug perpendicular, the sides are As she had been diswitted. Drayton's Nymphid.

always washing down, besides, in a narrow-bot

tomed ditch, if cattle get down into it, they DIT, n. s. Dutch dicht. A ditty; a poem; cannot stand to turn themselves to crop the Obsolete.

quick: hut where the ditch is four feet wide, it No bird but did her shrill notes sweetly sing ;

should be two feet and a half deep; and where No song but did contain a lovely dit.

Faerie Queene.

it is five feet wide, it should be three feet deep;

and so in proportion. DITA’TION, n. s. Lat. ditatus. The act of enriching.

DITHYRAMBICK, n. s. & adj. Lat. dithy

rambus. A song in honor of Bacchus; in which Those eastern worshippers intended rather homage among the stalians, the distraction of ebriety is than ditation; the blessed virgin comes in the form of still imitated. Wild; distracted. poverty. Hall's Contemplutions.

Pindar does new words and figures roll DITCH, n s. & v.a.


Down his impetuous dithyrambick tide.
Ditch-DELIVERED, part. adj. (digue : Ice.

Dich-DOG, n. s.

diki ; Belg. Ditch'ER.

dijck. See DITHYRAMBICS were songs in honor of Dike. The verb comes from the noun. Ditcher Bacchus, which first gave birth io dramatic repreis one who makes ditches: the compounds of sentations, and are as ancient as the worship of Shakspeare explain themselves.

Bacchus in Greece. Many of the most splendid In the great plagues there were seen, in divers ditches

exhibitions upon the stage, for the entertainment and low grounds about London, many toads that had of the people of Athens and Rome, being perails three inches long.


formed upon the festivals of Bacchus, gave The ditches, such as they were, were altogether dry, occasion to the calling all those that were emand easy to be passed over.

Knolles. ployed in them, whether for singing, dancing, or Poor Tom, when the foul fiend rages, eats cow-dung reciting, servants of Bacchus. The dithyrambus for sallets, swallows the old rat, and the ditch-dog. owes its birth to Greece, and to the transports of

Shakspeare. wine. Horace and Aristotle tell us, that the Finger of birth-strangled babe,

ancients gave the name of dithyrambus to those Ditch-delivered by a drab.

verses wherein none of the common rules or To some men the wide seas are but narrow ditches, measures were observed. As we have now no and the world itself too limited for their desires.


remains of the dithyrambus of the ancients, we Yon merit new employments daily,

cannot exactly tell what their measure was. Our thatcher, ditcher, gardener, baily. Swift.

DITMARŠEN, a district of Holstein, DenI have employed my time, besides ditching, in the Eyder, and from Bremen on the south-west

mark, separated from Sleswick on the north by foishing my travels.

Sudden the ditches swell, the meadows swim.

by the Elbe; and having Holstein Proper to the Thomson.

east, and the German Ocean to the west. It is I have no more pleasure in hearing a man attempt- marshy, and frequently inundated : yet by means ing wit, and failing, than in seeing a man trying to of the internal navigation, a number of tracts leap over a dit:h, and tumbling into it. Johnson, have been drained, and are highly productive.



Its length is thirty-two miles, and its breadth His annual wound in Lebanon, allured twenty-seven.

The chief towns are Meldorf The Syrian dainsels to lament his fate, and Lunden. It is fertile in corn and pastu

In amorous ditties, all a summer's day. rage.

They will be sighing and singing under thy inex. DITONE, in music, an interval comprehend- orable windows lamentable ditties, and call thee cruel. ing two tones. The proportion of the sounds

Dryden. that form the ditone is 4:5, and that of the

DIU, or Divipa, the Island, an island and seiniditone is 5 : 6.

harbour at the southern extremity of the Gujrat DITRIHEDRIA, in mineralogy, a genus Peninsula, in lat. 200 43' N., long. 71° The of spars with twice three sides, or six planes; island is not above four miles long by one being formed of two trigonal pyramids joined broad, but formerly contained a Hivdoo temple, base to base, without any intermediate column. dedicated to Somnath, celebrated for its sanctity See SPAR. The species of ditrihedria are dis- and riches. This was plundered in 1025 by tinguished by the different figures of these pyra- sultan Mahmood of Ghizni, who sent the fragmids.

ments of the image to Mecca and Medina. The DITTA’NDER, n. s. The same with pepper- Portuguese obtained possession of Diu in 1515, wort. See LEPIDIUM.

and were allowed by the sultan of Gujrat to DI'TTANY, n. S. Lat. dictamnus.

fortify it, about twenty years after. In 1670, Dittany hath been renowned, for many ages, upon however, their establishment was surprised and the account of its sovereign qualities in medicines. plundered by the Muscut Arabs, and has since It is generally brought over dry from the Levant.

dwindled away. The island has a good port.

Miller. Virgil reports of dittany, that the wild goats eat it used by such as blazon by flowers and herbs,

DIVAL, in heraldry, the herb nightshade, when they are slut with darts. More's Antidote against Atheism.

instead of colors and metals, for sable or black. Dittany, Bastari), a species of marrubium. in honor of the goddess Angerona ; also

DIVALIA, in Roman antiquity, a feast held DITTANY, OF CRETE. See ORIGANUM.

called ANGERONALIA. Sce these articles. DITTANY, WITE. See DictAMNUS.

DIVA'N., n. s. Arab. deuan; Turk. dovan, DITTEAH, a town and fortress of Bundelcund, Ilindostan, about a mile and a half long, probably from Heb. 17, to judge. The council and nearly as much in breadth. It is populous of Oriental princes : any council assembled. and well-built; the houses being chiefly of Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers, stone, and tiled. It is surrounded by a stone Raised from the dark divan, and with like joy wall and gates. On an eminence, which over Congratulant approached him.

Milton. looks a handsome lake, stands the rajah's palace. Swift to the queen the herald Medon ran, The surrounding district yields an annual reve Who heard the consult of the dire divan. nue of between £12,000 and £15,000 sterling.

Pope's Odyssey. This place is mentioned in early history, and the Divan, a court of justice among the eastern rajah, who is one of the British allies, boasts of nations, particularly the Turks. The word sig. its having belonged to his family for several cen- nifies the same with sofa in the Turkish dialect

. turies. During the reign of Aurenzebe, Ditteah There are two sorts of divans; that of the grand was the capital of Dhoolput Roy, a Bondelah signior, called the council of state, which conrajah of some celebrity.

sists of seven of the principal officers of the emDITTO, in hooks of accounts, usually written pire; and that of the grand vizier, composed of Do, signifies the aforementioned. The word is six other viziers, or counsellors of state, the corrupted from the Italian detto, “the said:' as chancellor, and secretaries of state, for the disin our law-phrase, the said premises,' meaning tribution of justice. the same as were before-mentioned.

DIVANDUROW, the name of seven Islands Di Teren, wud; } Getar

, and is utch, licht,

frem Sax. tetit; Swed. dickt; in the Indian Ocean, three miles north of the

Maldives, and twenty-four from the coast of Goth. tia to show, or, acoording to Minsheu, from Malabar, almost opposite to Cananore. Lat. dictum, a thing said or delivered as an ora DIVAʻRICATE, v.a.&v. n.

Lat. dirarition. A poem to be sung; a song. Adapted to DIVARICA'TION, n.s

} music. Although we lay altogether aside the consideration bifid. Divarication is, division into two or more.

vide into two; to be parted into two; to become of ditty or matter, the very harmony of sounds being framed in due sort, and carried from the ear to the To take away all doubt, or any probable divaricaspiritual faculties of our souls, is by a native puis- tion, the curse is plainly specified. sance and efficacy, greatly available to bring to a per: '

Browne's Vulgar Errors. fect temper whatsoever is there troubled. Hooker. Dogs running before their masters, will stop at a Being young, I framod to the harp

divarication of the way, till they see which hand their Many an English ditty lovely well,

masters wil, take.

Ray. And gave the tongue a helpful ornament.

A slender pipe is produced forward towards the

Shakspeare. throat, whereinto it is at last inserted, and is there Strike the melodious harp, shrill timbrels ring, divaricated, after the same manner as the spermalick And to the warbling lute soft ditties sing. Sandys. vessels.

Grex. He, with his soft pipe, and smooth dittied song, The partitions are strained across : one of them diWell knows to still the wild winds when they roar. varicates into two, and another into several small ones. Milton.


DIVE, v. a. & v. n. ? Sax. dippan; Teut. air that can be contained in the pores cf the

Di'ver, n. s. tufan ; Ital. toffo, froin sponge, and how much that little will be conGr. ČUTTW, to dip. To explore by diving: as a tracted by the pressure of the incumbent water neuter verb, to sink, or go under water; such a supply cannot long maintain the respihence, to enter deeply into a question, or into ration of the diver. It is found by experiment, business, and to go beyond sight or observation. that a gallon of air included in a bladder, and Dive, thoughts, down to my soul.

by a pipe reciprocally inspired and expired by

Shakspeare. the lungs, becomes unfit for respiration in little Sweet prince, the untainter virtue of your years more than one minute : for though its elasticity Hath not yet dired into the world's deceit,

be but little altered in passing the lungs, yet it Nor can distinguish.

Id. Richard III.

loses its vivifying spirit, and is rendered effete. Crocodiles defend those pearls which lie in the A naked diver, Dr. Falley assures us, without a lakes : the poor Indians are eaten up by them, when they dive for the pearl.

Raleigh's History.

sponge, cannot remain above a couple of minutes I am not yet informed, whether, when a diver di

enclosed in water, nor much longer with one, veth, having his eyes open, and swimmeth upon his

without suffocating : nor, without long practice, back, he sees things in the air greater or less. near so long: persons not accustomed to dive, Bacon's Natural History.

beginning to be stifled in about half a minute. The wits that dived most deep, and soared most Hence, where there has been occasion to continue high,

long at the bottom, some have contrived double Seeking man's powers, have found his weaknes such. flexible pipes, to circulate air down into a cavity,


enclosing the diver as with armour, both to furHe #uld have him, as I conceive it, to be no su nish air and to bear off the pressure of the water, pertrial and floating artificer; but a diver into causes,

as well as to give room to his breast to dilate and into the mysteries of proportion.

Wotton's Architec'ure.

upon inspiration; the fresh air being forced down He performs all this out of his own fund, without the other. But this method is impracticable when

one of the pipes with bellows, and returning by diting into the arts and sciences for a supply.


the depth surpasses three fathoms; the water Whensoever we would proceed beyond those simple embracing the bare limbs so closely as to obstruct ideas, and dire farther into the nature of things, we

the circulation of the blood in them; and presfall presently into darkness and obscurity. Loche. sing so strongly on all the junctures where the You should have dived into my inmost thoughts. armour is made tight with leather, that, if there

Philips. be the least defect in any of them, the water Then Brutus, Rome's first martyr, I must name; rushes in, and instantly fills the whole engine, to The Curtii bravely dived the gulph of fame.

the great danger of the diver's life. People heing Denham,

accustomed to the water from their infancy, will Perseverance gains the diver's prize.

however at length be enabled, not only to stay

Pope's Dunciad. That the air in the blood-vessels of live bodies bas much longer under water than the time above a communication with the outward air, I think, seems

mentioned, but put on a kind of amphibious plain, from the experiments of human creatures being nature, so that they seem to have the iise of all able to bear air of much greater density in diving, and

their faculties as well when their bodies are imof much less upon the tops of mountains, provided mersed in water as when on dry land. Most the changes be inade gradually.

Arbuthnot. savage nations are remarkable for this. The But dive into this subject as deep as thon canst. inhabitants of the South Sea islands are such Examine thyself; and this knowledge of that which expeit divers, that, when a nail or any piece of passcs within thee will be of more use to thec than iron is thrown overboard, they instantly jump the knowledge of all that passes in the world. into the sea after it, and never fail to recover it,

Mason. Led by the sage, Lo! Britain's sons shall guide

notwithstanding the quick descent of the metal.

Even among civilized nations, many persons Jluge sea-balloons beneath the tossing tide; The diving castles, roofed with spheric glass,

have been found capable of continuing an increRibbed with strong oak, and barred with’ bolts of dible length of time below water. The most brass.


remarkable instance of this kind is the fainous To be the Table Talk of clubs up stairs,

Sicilian diver Nicolo Pesce. See Pesce.
To which th' unwashed artificer repairs,

To obviate the inconveniences of diving dif-
To indulge his gonius after long fatigue, ferent instruments have been contrived, of

By diving into cabinet intrigue. Cowper. which the chief is the diving bell. The comDiver, in ornithology. See COLYMBUS. mon bell is made in form of a truncated cone,

DIVING, the art or act of descending under the smaller base being closed, and the larger water to considerable depths, and remaining there open. It is poised with lead; and so susfor some time. The uses of diving are very pended, that the vessel may sink full of air, with considerable, particularly in the fishing for its open basis downward, and as near as may pearls, corals, sponges, &c. Various methods be in a situation parallel to the horizon, so as to have been proposed, and machines contrived, to close with the surface of the water all at oncé. render the business of diving more safe and easy. Under this covercle the diver sitting, sinks down The great point is to furnish the diver with fresh with the included air to the depth desired : and air; without which he must either make a short if the cavity of the vessel can contain a tun of stay under water or perish. Those who dive for air, a single man may remain a full hour, withsponges in the Mediterranean, assist themselves out much inconvenience, at five or six fathoms by carrying down sponges dipt in oil in their depth. But the lower he goes, the more the mouths. But considering the small quantity of included air contracts itself, according to the

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