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work off twice in twelve hours; distilling 2400 The cost of these two stills is described as gallons of the same gravity as above, into 960 double that of the new still. gallons of low wine; and a low wine still con Taking, next, the diameters and superficies of taining a charge of 480 gallons, will produce, at the stills on both systems, it will be found that, twelve per cent. on the wash, the same quantity, on the old plan, a wash still to contain a charge or 288 gallons of proof spirit.

of 1200 gallons, will have A diameter of seven feet, and an area of about

38feet And a low wine still of 480 gallons, will have a diameter of five feet, and an area of 19) Making a total superficial area in the two stills of

58 feet

13. fee

The diameter of a still to contain a charge of 560 gallons on the patent principie

will be about fifty inches, and its area Being less than one fourth of the superficial area, It may be shown that, from the union of these exposed to the action of the fire, as compared with considerations, results the fact (proved in practhe two stills on the old plan.

tice), that the patent still does not consume, in The consequences of these diminished propor- any case, more than one-third, and, probably, tions, are —

less than one-fourth, of the fuel that is employed First.--That the construction of the furnace by the others. To present this more intelligibly for the patent still, does not cost above one-third, always bearing in mind the respective superor one-fourth, that of the two furnaces on the ficies of 134 and 58 feet), the different quantities old plan.

of vapor passed through the worins, aud there Secondly.—That the consumption of fuel is condensed on the two plans, may be stated. For proportioned to the areas of the respective stills, this purpose, taking the average volumes of vapor combined with the quantities of liquid raised generated by the various liquids distilled, when into vapor, and the economy of caloric, or heat, entirely evaporated, to be in the proportion of in that operation, resulting from their different 1500 to 1, it will be seen that, by the old plan, principles of construction.

there is produced :Of low wines

960 gallons Of spirit, (at proof)

288 Of feints, (one fourth)

72

Making

1320 gallons x 1500 = 1,980,000

being the gallons of vapor passed through the refrigerator on the old plan.—On the patent principle there is produced :Of spirit, (35 over proof)

213 gallons X 1500 = 319,500 being the gallons of vapor passed through the vapor, equivalent to one gallon of liquid, will refrigerator on that principle; or less than one communicate to five gallons of water, caloric to sixth of that produced by the principle now in the extent of 162° ; but as the temperature of practice.

water, for the purpose of condensation, will be In pursuing this enquiry to the consumption in a great measure ineffectual, when raised above of water, which is necessarily proportioned to 104°, it follows, that the absorption of caloric, the quantity of vapor condensed, it is assumed, by the water, to bring it to that point, is only that the vapor necessary to produce one gal- 51°, or one-third of 162o—and, therefore, three lon of liquid will raise to the boiling point, times five gallons, or fifteen gallons of water, in its condensation, five gallons of water—and will be necessary to condense the vapor, which taking 50° of Fahrenheit as the mean temperature will produce one gallon of liquid. of water, it will be found that 1500 gallons of Thus, on the old plan, (as shown before)

1320 X 15—19,800
And on the patent plan, (as shown before)

213 x 15= 3195
To which must be added, for the water consumed in the upper-
most copper of the still

600
Making a total quantity of

3795

Which two sums of 19,800 and 3,795 are the A variety of estimates are given, exhibiting the respective numbers of gallons of water employed Jiminished size and cost of the necessary buildto condense the vapor, on the two principles; ings, and the decrease, in number and expense, or, in the same proportion for any increased or of the various descriptions of vessels, pumps, diminished consumption, arising either from em- pipes, &c., employed in one, as compared with ploying the water at a lower or higher tempera- the other, system. These, though essential to ture, or from the repeated use of the standing the distiller, are not necessary parts of our view contents of the worm-tub, in consequence of its of the question. becoming cool when not worked.

Another statement is given of the powers of

a still on M. Saintmarc's principle, which, were science), and, especially, in the production, by it not, as is stated, demonstrable in practice, one operation from the wash, of a spirit, exceedwould exceed belief.

ing in strength and purity all those which have A still of eight feet six inches diameter, con- hitherto been obtained in this country, by any taining 350 gallons of wash in each of the seven single process. To these important consideralower compartments, or a total charge of 2450 tions, which are alike applicable to the united gallons, will run off in the day of twenty-four kingdom and the colonies, may be added, as hours, at least 30,000 imperial gallons of wash, especially so to the latter, the no less important and produce between 3000 and 4000 gallons of points of the production of rum one-third higher spirit; a quantity unprecedented in the annals proof than the average of what is now obtained of distillation.

in many of them; and the extensive saving in The results of some experiments are given, puncheons, freight, and charges, when shipped in which were made in the presence of the officers that concentrated state.' of the board of excise in May 1826, by which, • It is unnecessary to go into details of the sarat one operation, some spirit was produced as high ing in puncheons, freight and charges, when rum as fifty-eight per cent. over proof, and the mean is shipped at a high proof. It is a matter of too strength of the whole day's distillation was forty- much importance, and too easily estimated by a three per cent. over proof. The produce in quan- planter, to require figures in confirmation of the tity exceeded by ten per cent. what was required statement. But the actual saving to him in by the excise, according to the attenuation of the these items, however considerable, is only a part wash. A surplus to this extent, however, cannot of the advantage. The spirit thus obtained, from be calculated upon; but it is manifest, that the its greater purity, bears a value in the market evaporation and loss consequent upon one sin- much above that determined by the relative degle distillation, is small as compared with that gree of strength, as compared with rum of a lower which results from three distillations, and two standard. And as this improvement in strength pumpings, or other removals from vessel to ves- and quality is effected, not at an augmentation, sel, as hitherto practised. By experiments on

but at a considerable diminution of expense,

it this head made with the same wash, on the two is unquestionable, that, when employed for purmodes of distillation, the result has shown a poses of barter, according to the practice of the surplus product, in favor of M. Saintmarc's colonies, at a reduced strength, that reduction plan, varying, according to the delicacy of ma from the high strength at which it is brought over nagement, from three to six per cent.

by this apparatus, may be made consistently with M. Saintmarc and M. Alégre, have also a preservation of its purity; and its value, as an introduced into practise in distillation, some article of barter, thus enhanced in a considerable changes in the previous process of fermentation, degree.' which effect an improvement in the quality of They concludethe wash, and give an increase in the quantity of • It must be recollected that this is not an apspirit. See article FERMENTATION.

paratus the principle of which is untried. For They have likewise constructed an apparatus, some years a still of the same kindless perfect

, secured by patent, for improving the rectification it is true, but still embodying the main principle of raw or feint spirits, by which a greater degree of this, has been used in France, by the inventor of purity is attained than by the common recti- there (who is also one of the proprietors of the fying stiil; and the fine flavors necessary for present patent), with the most entire success. making compounds are employed more bene- This has, therefore, the great advantage of having ficially and delicately than by the existing pro- corrected, in its construction, whatever defects cess. For a description of this still, see article were found in the original invention, from which RECTIFICATION.

no new invention is entirely exempt; suci We have devoted a large space to the examin- corrections being founded on eighteen months' ation of this question. But the apparatus and experience in France. And the opinion is warprocess united, present loo interesting a subject ranted, that the apparatus constituting the subject of enquiry and investigation, as compared with of this patent, and of the present remarks, is, in the existing systems, to admit of its being slightly its principle, the most sound and scientific, and passed over.

the most sure and perfect in its operations, of We shall conclude with a few observations of any that has been adapted to the art of distillation the proprietors of the patent, addressed alike to in this country.' the interest of the British distiller and the West The practical uses of distillation in chemistry India planter. They say, when speaking of the are too numerous to be mentioned. By it the advantages the still offers :— These advantages volatile part of any substance is separated from consist, shortly, in the comparatively low price that which is fixed, as in the distillation of turpenof the still-the trifling expense of erecting the tine, in which the essential oil rises and the rosin furnace—the small consumption of fuel and is left behind; the more evaporable is separated water—the diminished number, dimensions, and from the less evaporable, as in the preparation cost of the necessary vats, pumps, pipes, &c., con or rectification of ardent spirit; liquids are freed nected with the still—the limited space required from foreign or accidental impurities, as in the for its erection—the saving of time in the process distillation of common water: volatile substances of distillation resulting from its use-its uniform are united in an easy and commodious manner, applicability to every liquid that has undergone, as in preparing the odorous distilled waters of or is susceptible of, vinous fermentation (as well aromatic vegetables: bodies are decomposeu

other branches of chemical and analysed, new compounds are formed, and a

as to numerous

care,

the top:

knowledge is gained of the native and chemical liquor coming out at the bottom of the worn., properties of natural substances.

not in a clear uniform streamlet, but by gushes Common distillation of aromatic vegetables is and starts, with a gurgling noise, and fouled or a simple process, but gives room for some nicety colored. When this accident happens, the fire of management, particularly in the regulation of should be entirely slacked, the capital taken off, the heat and the quantity of water, which can the liquor already come over returned into the only be learned by experience. As an example, still, and the distillation begun again with more common peppermint water may be given, and is When the stream of distilled water flows thus made : put a pound and a half of dry pep- evenly, and the boiling liquor is heard to simmer permint in a still, cover it with water, put on the moderately in the boiler, the operator will know capital, luting the joints with wet bladder or that the process is going on properly. pasted paper ; bring the liquor 10 boil quickly, The quantity of aromatic water to be obtained and keep it just boiling till about a gallon of from a given weight of any vegetable cannot be water has run over. The residue in the still is laid down with accuracy, so as to obtain a liquor then thrown away as useless. The water that of uniform strength, as (independently of any comes over first is somewhat turbid, owing to the difference in conducting the operation) the seaexcess of essential oil that it contains, and in son of the year, the length of drying, and other consequence is by much the strongest. By rest it causes, will materially affect the intensity of becomes clear, and a fine pellicle of oil rises to aroma in the vegetable. The taste, therefore, is

a better criterion to judge when to stop the proThe following circumstances are chiefly obser- cess, as the liquor will run nearly tasteless long vable in common distillation :—The substance before the water has all boiled away. Some adfrom which the distillation is made in some vantage is gained by mixing all the distilled cases requires previous treatment, in others none. liquor together, as the first portion has generally The petals of Howers, such as roses and jasmine, rather more essential oil than it can retain, and may be used immediately, or only after the gen- the last portion has less. tlest drying. The aromatic herbaceous vegetables, The laws which relate to the management of such as peppermint, may be used indiscriminately a distillery are numerous and important; we fresh or dry, observing, that as the plant is much subjoin a brief abstract. By 43 Geo. III. c. 69, more watery when fresh than when dry, more every distiller or maker of low wines or spirits water may be added in the distillation of the latter for sale, or exportation, within England, shall than of the former. Hard woods should be take out a licence, which shall be charged with rasped or bruised, and, as they are less easily pe- the yearly sum of £10; and every rectifier of Detrated by the water, they should be macerated spirits within England, shall pay for such liin it without heat for from one or two days to as cence a duty of £5; and such licence shall be many weeks, before distillation.

renewed annually before the end of the year, on The quantity of water to be used varies much pain of forfeiting, if a common distiller, £200 ; according to circumstances. It should be always if a molass distiller or rectifier, £30. (24 Geo. so much as during the whole process to cover all III. c. 41.) No person shall be deemed a rectithat part of the still which is immediately fier or compounder who shall not have an entered over the fire, otherwise the vegetable matter will still capable of containing, exclusive of the head, scorch, and give a very disagreeable burnt taste 120 gallons, which shall have suitable tubs and and smell, or empyreuma, to the distilled liquor. worms, and be used for rectifying British spirits On the other hand, too much water makes the for sale, (26 Geo. III. c. 73. By 19 Geo. III. c. distilled liquor unnecessarily dilute. In general, 50,) every such distiller shall cause to be put up fresh vegetables require about thrice their weight in large characters, over the outward door of of water; and when dry, five or six times. The every place used for making or keeping of Bristill should never be more than about three- tish-made spirits, the words Distiller, Rectifier, fourths full, or even less when succulent vegeta or Compounder of Spirituous Liquors, on pain bles are used, to prevent boiling over. The ma- of £100; and if any person shall buy any such nagement of the fire is of some consequence, to spirits of any person not having such words over prevent boiling over and empyreuma on the one his door, he shall forfeit £50 By 21 Geo. III. hand, and on the other to give heat enough for c. 55, if any distiller or dealer shall buy any extraction of the aromatic principle. Where a British-made spirits (except, as in the former water bath is used (which, however, is tedious, case, at the public sales of condemned spirits by and seldom if ever necessary), all danger of ex- the commissioners of excise) he shail forfeit cess of heat is avoided, but it is often requisite £500. By 19 Geo. III. c. 50, no person shall be to increase the heat of the bath by adding salt to permitted to make entry of any work-house or the water. When, in distilling without a bath, place, or of any still or'utensil for making, distoo much heat is used, there is danger either of tilling, or of keeping low wines or spirits, unless blowing off the capital, not without risk to the he shall occupy a tenement of £10 a year, asbye-stander, when the liquor boils with extreme sessed in his own name, and paying the parishvehemence (which is particularly likely to occur rates ; and by 21 Geo. III. c. 55, in order to prewhen the still is too full of bulky herbaceous ve vent private distillations, every person who shall getables, that rise in the capital and partly choke make or distill any low wines or spirits, whether up the opening into the worm-pipe), or else the for sale or not for sale, shall be deemed a comliquor boils over into the worm-pipe, and mixes mon distiller for sale, and shall enter his still and a decoction of the vegetable with the distilled vessels at the next office of excise; and every water. This is soon perceived by the condensed person making or keeping any wash fit for dis

tillation, and having in his custody any still, shall from charging the still with any other, under & be deemed a common distiller for sale, and be penalty of £100. 24 Geo. II. c. 40; 12 Geo liable to the several duties, and subject to the III. c. 46; 14 Geo. III. c. 73. survey of the officers. No common distiller or Distillers, in preparing grist for wash, that use maker of low wines, spirits, or strong waters, more in the proportion of one quarter of wheat for sale, shall set up any tun, cask, wash-back, to two quarters of any other grain, forfeit £50. copper, still, or other vessel, for making or keep- 33 Geo. II. c. 9. ing any worts, wash, low wines, spirits, or strong If any coru distiller, or maker of low wines or waters; nor alter, nor enlarge the same, nor spirits from corn or grain, shall make use of any have any of them private or conccaled, or any molasses, coarse sugar, honey, or any composi private warehouse, cellar, &c., for making or tion or extract of sugar, in brewing or preparing keeping any of the said liquors, without first give his wash for distillation, or receive such materials ing notice at the next office of excise, on pain of into his custody, exceeding 10 lbs. in weight, he £20; and he in whose occupation any of the same shall forfeit £100; and officers may take samples shall be, shall forfeit £50 ; 8 and 9 Wil.c. 19. of the wash in any vessel, paying for the same at And by 24 Geo. II. c. 40, every distiller shall, the rate of 1s. 6d. a gallon ; and if the distiller ten days before he distils or makes any spirituous shall obstruct him, he shall forfeit £100. 23 Geo. liquors, enter every vessel, &c., at the next office III. c. 70. of excise, on pain of £50 for every still or vessel Officers are to attend at the still-houses, after used and not entered. And every distiller shall, due notice, to see that the wash-stills are properly four days before he begins to brew any grain, filled, and when they are fully charged to lock &c., make entry at the next excise office, of all and secure them. And if any person shall open coppers, vessels, &c., inserting in such entry the any still-head, &c., after they have been so locked day on which he intends to begin, and the use to and before they are opened by the officer of exwhich such vessel is to be applied, which shall cise, or shall wilfully damage any lock or fastennot be altered on pain of forfeiting £100, with ing, he shall forfeit £200. 12. Geo. III. c. 46. the liquor, which may be seized by any officer Removing or concealing wash, &c., in the of excise, 26 Geo. III. c. 73. And by 21 Geo. III. possession of any distiller, incurs a forfeiture of c. 55, no person shall make use of any vessel, the same; and such distiller, and the person emroom, &c., for making wash for the distillation ployed to remove, or who shall receive the same, of low wines and spirits, without giving a notice shall severally forfeit 10s. for every gallon of it; at the next office of excise, on pain of £50 for and no wort, wash, &c., shall be put into the every vessel, room, &c., used without notice. still or removed from the back or vessel in which Nor shall any person withdraw his entry whilst it was fermented, till the same has been gauged, any duty is depending, or any vessels are stand- in the penalty of £200 and double duty. ing, except by changing it on the day of its being The officer shall every three months, if rewithdrawn, (23 Geo. III. c. 70. ; 26 Geo. III. quired, take an account of the stock of all disc. 73.) No person is allowed to have any stillor tillers and rectifiers, and, if any unfair increase number of stills, which singly or together contain shall be found, the same shall be forfeited and less than 100 gallons, under the penalty of £100 may be seized; and the person in whose stock for every still; and the wash-still shall contain such excess shall be found shall forfeit £50. Recat least 400 gallons, exclusive of the head, under tifiers are to mark the strength and quality of the same penalty. 2 Gev. III. c.5; and 14 Geo. mixed spirits on the outside of the cask, and in III. c. 73.

default thereof, or if untruly marked, the same Distillers are to show to the officer every still shall be forfeited, and also the casks, and may be or other vessel entered ; and the vessels are to be seized; and the rectifier shall forfeit £50. 26 Geo. marked by the gauger; and defacing the mark, III. c. 73. or rubbing out, incurs a penalty of £20. 26 By 27 Geo. III. c. 31, made perpetual by 41 Geo. II.c. 40.

Geo. III. c. 97, it was enacted, that all spirits Distillers who use private pipes, &c., for con should be deemed and taken to be of the strength voyance of distilled liquors, forfeit £100. (10 and indicated by Clarke's hydrometer; but, by 43 11 Wil.c. 4.) They shall also make holes in the Geo. III. c. 97, the lords of the treasury may breast of the still for taking gauges and samples, discontinue the use of this hydrometer, and direct and provide locks on the still-heads, the holes, any other to be used in lieu of it. All British discharge-cocks, and furnace-door, under a pe- spirits of the third extraction, or which have been nalty of £50, and of £200 for breaking or wil. twice distilled from low wines, and had flavor fully damaging such lock or fastening, after it communicated them, shall be deemed has been secured by the officer. 12 Geo. III. ‘British brandy;' if no flavor has been commuc. 46; 14 Geo. III. c. 73.

nicated to them, the same shall be deemed 'tecThe distiller shall provide proper ladders for tified British spirits. If of the second extraction, the officer to examine each still, and assist in or once distilled from low wines, the same shall setting them up, on pain of £200. 23 Geo. III. be deemed 6 raw British spirits.' And all British

spirits distilled with juniper berries, caraway Distillers are required to give notice to the officer seeds, anise seeds, or other seeds, or ingredients rfexcise before they receive any wine, cyder, &c., used in the compounding of spirits, shall be or any kind of fermented wash, on pain of £50, deemed « British compounds. And all British and also before they charge or open the still, ex- spirits of a greater strength than one to two over pressing and describing the number and marks hydrometer proof shall be deemed spirits of of the wash-batches used and they are prohibited wine.' Officers shall take an account of the

to

c. 70.

stock of rectifiers and compounders every three rituous liquors shall be brought into a place of months at least, and if any increase of quantity, sale without previous notice to the officer of exunder certain limitations, be found, the quantity cise, and leaving with him a certificate, expressin excess shall be forfeited, and may be seized; ing that all the duties are paid, the quantity and and such person shall forfeit £50.

quality, the name of the seller, &c., on pain of And if any British spirits or compounds are sent forfeiting £20, and also the liquor and casks. 9 out of a greater strength than one in five under Geo. II. c. 23. Retailers shall not increase the hydrometer proof, the same shall be forfeited, and quantity of their liquors, on pain of 40s. a galtreble value, or £50 in the whole; and the same lon; and the liquors so mixed with water, or any may be seized, with the casks and vessels contain- other liquors, shall be seized and forfeited. 9 Geo. ing it. 30 Geo. III. c 37. The distiller shall II. c. 23. By 21 Geo. III. c. 55, the stock inweekly make entry of all wash by him used for creased shall be forfeited, a quantity equal to the the making of low wines and spirits within each increased quantity shall be seized by the officer, week, on pain of £10; and within a week after and the person offending shall forfeit £20. The shall pay off the duties, on pain of double duty. officer may at all times, by day or night, enter 19 Geo. III. c. 50. All permits for removing into warehouses, shops, or other places, to take British spirits shall correspond with the request an account of the quantity and quality; and if potes, and be delivered with such spirits to the any retailer hinder the officer he shall forfeit £50. buyer, on the forfeiture of the same to such 9 Geo. II. c. 23. No licensed retailer shall have buyer and double the price, including the duties': any share in a distillery or rectifying house, or and such buyer may be admitted to prove that be concerned in such trade, on pain of £200. 26 such spirits were delivered without a lawful per- Geo. III. c. 73. mit; but no buyer shall be allowed to avail him Hawkers of spirituous liquors in the ctreets, self of such forfeiture unless complaint is made &c., are liable to a forfeiture of £10. 9 Geo. II. within fourteen days after the delivery of the spi- c. 23. 11 Geo. II. c. 26. Persons giving away rits. 26 Geo. III. c. 73.

spirituous liquors, or paying wages in them, Retailers of distilled liquors, or such as sell the shall be deemed retailers. 9 Geo. II. c. 23. same in less quantity than two gallons, must take Keepers or gaols, workhouses, &c., selling spiout a licence, for which they are to pay annually rituous liquors, or knowingly suffering them to a sum corresponding to the rent of the premises be sold, except such as are prescribed by a phywhich they occupy; if the rent of such retailersician, surgeon, or apothecary, forfeit for the first be £15, or upwards, £5. 2s.; at £20, and up- offence £100, and for the second their office. wards, £5. 10s.; at £25, and upwards, £5. 185. Persons bringing any such liquors into any place at £30, or upwards, £6.6s.; at £40, or upwards, of that kind may be apprehended, and on con£6. 14s.; and at £50, or upwards, £7. 2s. This viction committed to the house of correction, or licence, which is to be renewed annually, on the prison, for any time not exceeding three months, penalty of £50, is to be granted only to those unless they immediately pay a fine, not exceedwho keep taverns, victualling-houses, inns, coffee- ing £20, nor less than £io. Debts for spirituous houses, or ale-houses; who, within the limits of liquors cannot be recovered, unless they have the office of excise in London, pay £10 a year been contracted, or the liquors delivered at one rent, and parish rates, and in places where the time to the value of 20s. or upwards : and disoccupiers are not rated £12 a year; and who, in tillers knowingly selling or delivering distilled other parts of the kingdom, pay to church and liquors to unlicensed retailers, forfeit £10, and poor. They must first be licensed to sell ale in treble their value; and the retailer, convicting the places where they dwell.

the distiller, is entitled to a share of the penalty, By 16 Geo. II. c. 8, retailers of spirituous li- and is himself indemnified. Persons riotously quors, without licence, were subject to a penalty rescuing offenders, or assaulting informers, and of £10; and by 24 Geo. II. c. 40, all liquors their aiders or abettors, are guilty of felony, and found in the custody of such persons, or within liable to seven years' transportation. 24 Geo. II. six calendar months after conviction, were c. 40. If any person shall obstruct any officer to be seized. And by 13 Geo. III. c. 56; in the execution of his duty, in relation to this and 30 Geo. III. c. 38, such retailers are to act, he shall forfeit £200. 23 Geo. III. c. 81. forfeit £50, subject to mitigation so as not No liquor exceeding one gallon shall be removed to be reduced below £5. Every person who without a permit. 6 Geo. I. c. 21.

British spishall retail less than two gallons shall enter his rits made from corn are allowed on exportation warehouses, shops, &c., and his spirituous liquors, as merchandise, a bounty or drawback of £3. 128. on pain of £20-for every place, and 40s. for every per ton. 5 Geo. III. c. 5; 27 Geo. III. c. 13. gallon not entered; and also the liquors and And by 6 Geo. II. c. 17. for spirits drawn from casks. 9 Geo. II. c. 23; 30 Geo. III. C. 38. By British corn, a drawback was to be allowed at 19 Geo. III. c. 69, every importer or dealer in the port of shipping, of £4. 18s. per ton, in full spirituous liquors, shall cause to be painted on of all drawbacks: and by 23 Geo. II. c. 9, there a conspicuous part of the house, shop, or cellar, was to be an additional drawback of £24. 10s. a &c., used by him, the words Importer of, or ton, on all British-made spirits exported; proDealer in, Spirituous Liquors, on pain of £50. vided that they are not exported in casks conAny importer or dealer buying of a person who taining less than 100 gallons, and in vessels of as not these words over the door of his shop, less burden than 100 tons, except to Africa and &c., shall forfeit £100. Any person who hath not Newfoundland, whither they may be exported in nade entry of his liquors, and who hath these any vessels not less than seventy tons. 6 Geo. words over his door, shall forfeit £50. No spi- III. c. 46. The 43 Geo. III. c. 69, which conVol. VII.

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