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kind as those marked 0.), which are tightly fixed water from the surface, in proportion as the pipe on the centres of the roofs of the coppers Nos. 3 a furnishes cold water. to 7, and stand within the domes last described. c. A PIPE AND Cock placed in the bottom of The vapor described above (0) to have reached the copper No. 8, for the purpose of entirely the copper No. 3, becomes condensed in the drawing off, at pleasure, the water which may wash contained therein. The vapor generated in have been employed for additional condensation. this copper passes through the double tube Q d. A PIPE AND Cock by which a stream of into the dome which encloses it, and so in suc water may be thrown into the vessel D, and cession, through the several tubes and domes thence conveyed, by the valve or plug F, and above, until it reaches the dome on the roof of pipes I or II, into the lowest vessels, either to the copper No. 7, where it finally passes off into be used as an occasional condensing power, or

R. A LARGE Pipe, which conveys it to for the purpose of washing the still.

S. A WORM TUB, or REFRIGERATOR (of which e. A PIPE AND Cock, by which a stream of an elevation or outside view only is given in clear water may be thrown into the uppermost of the drawing), through

the domes P, and thence descend through the T. A Wonm contained therein; and runs it other domes below, in order to cleanse them off as alcohol, at the bottom thereof into

from impurities. U. A Spirit RECEIVER. (For the plan of B. 8, Plan of the copper B. 8, as shown in the coppers containing the domes P, and double section in fig. 1. tubes Q, above described, as well as the reversed D. Plan of the exterior vessel D, fig. 1. double tubes V, and the safety pipes W, both E. Plan of the charging pipe E, fig. 1. hereafter described, vide fig. 4, and the explana F. Plan of the valve or plug F, fig. 1. tions of it given below).

G. Plan of the lever or fulcrum G, fig. 1. V. Five REVERSED or DESCENDING DOUBLE P. Plan of the dome P, fig. 1. Tubes or Pipes (constructed on the same prin R. Plan of the pipe R, fig. 1. ciple as those already described, but of smaller X. Plan of the pipe X, fig. 1. diameter), which are suspended, reversed, from

FIGURE III. the roofs of the several coppers from No. 7, down to No. 3, both inclusive. Of these reversed

(Referred to above, after the explanation of the tubes the four uppermost pass through the domes

spirit pipe T, fig. 1.) P, to which they are tightly fixed; and they serve B. PLAN OF THE COPPERS or BOILERS from to return to the lower domes in succession, the B, No. 4 to 7, as shown in section in fig. 1. phlegms, or such results of the vapor, in a liquid H. PLAN OF THE Pipes II, fig. 1, through form, as may have been condensed in its passage which the liquor flows from copper to copper upwards through these several domes. These from No. 7 to No. 2, as it is displaced by the phlegms, or condensed liquids, are partially re- discharge from vessel D. distilled in their progress; and the remainder

P. Plan of the Domes or semispherical vespass through the fifth, or lowest, of these reversed sels P, fig. 1, fixed in the centre of each copper tubes, into the copper No. 3, where they become

Q. PLAN OF THE DOUBLE ASCENDING TUBES mixed with the wash contained therein, and are

OR PIPES Q, fig. 1, fixed upon the centre of the again distilled with it.

domes P. W. Four Safety Pires, fixed in the roofs of

V. PLAN OF THE DOUBLE REVERSED, OR DEthe several coppers, Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, which SCENDING Tubes or Pipes V, fig. 1, through are intended to carry off' such vapor as may rise which the liquor produced by condensation of from the wash in those coppers, and terminate in the vapor in its passage through the domes, falls

X. A Pipe, which passes on to the worm-tub back into copper No. 3. or refrigerator S, and hy a separate worm

W. Plan OF THE SAFETY Pipes W, fig. 1, Y. of two or three coils only, runs off the fixed upon the roofs of the coppers from No. 4 small portion of spirit it produces into the spirit- upwards, for the purpose of carrying off the little receiver U.

vapor generated in those coppers. 2. A Pipe communicating between coppers No. 1 and 2, having its upper end carried about

FIGURE IV. four inches above the level of the liquor in copper No. 2, in order to admit of the increase of its (Referred to above, after the explanation of the volume by the condensation of the vapor which double tubes or pipes (), fig. 1.) passes into it from the copper No. 1 by the tubes B. Plan of the Two COPPERS OR BOILERS 0. It also serves to return from copper No. 2 B, Nos. 2 and 3, as shown in section in fig. 1. to the lower part of No. 1 whatever liquor may 0. PLAN OF THE FIVE DOUBLE TUBES OP pass up the tubes 0, by any sudden or excessive Pipes 0, fig. 1, standing within the coppers

Nos. action of the fire

2 and 3 respectively, but fixed tightly upon the

roofs of the coppers Nos. 1 and 2; through FIGURE II.

which the vapor passes from copper No. 1 to

No. 2, and from No. 2 to No. 3. a. A PIPE AND Cock for the supply of cold H and Z. Plan Of The Pipes H and 2, fig. 1, water into the copper No. 8, for the purpose of passing through the roofs of the coppers Nos. I additional condensation when the spirit is re and 2. The pipe II extends from the liquor level quired of high proof.

in copper No. 3 to nearly the bottom of No. 2, b. A Waste Pipe, fixed near the top of the and the pipe Z extends from about four inches uppermost copper No. 8, to carry off the heated above the liquor level in No. 2 to nearly the bot

tom of the lowest copper; as shown in section which makes a half revolution of the still, and is in fig. 1.

generally made of cast iron.

In this figure the various water pipes, deFIGURE V.

scribed in fig. No. 2, are not shown; as they Presents in perspective, on an increased scale, could only be represented in a very indistinct one of the tubes / or Q, fig. 1.

way. For the same reason the discharge pipes

M and N are not repeated; and the chimney is FIGURE VI.

omitted, which would have given the figure an Presents a front elevation of the still, as fixed, additional appearance of confusion; and is not exhibitiug the mode of putting together the dif- necessary to make it intelligible. The foregoing ferent compartments, constituting the several explanations have the advantage of being percoppers B, No. 1 to 8, in fig. 1, which are secured fectly clear and intelligible, a quality not comby flanches and bolts.

mon to descriptions of a mechanical nature ; A. The F18E-PLACE OR FURnace as shown in which are usually more adapted to the compresection in fig. 1.

hension of scientific, than to the understanding D. THE EXTERIOR OF THE Vessel D, fig. 1. of ordinary readers. Although in the descrip

F. The Plug or Valve F, fig. 1, with its tion of the different parts of the apparatus, the pipe conveying the wash from the vessel D to separate uses of each are well defined, the gethe copper No. 7.

neral effect of the whole combination is left unG. THE LEVER AND FULCRUM G, fig. 1, by explained. It may therefore be necessary to give which the valve or plug F is raised, to discharge an idea of the principles on which the advanthe contents of the vessel D into the copper tages to be derived from it are founded. No. 7.

The eight coppers, placed one upon the other, C. MANHOLE OR OPENING C, fig. 1, for the of which the seven lowest are intended to hold purposes there described. This figure only re- the wash, and the upper one to receive water,presents that in the copper No. 7; the remainder distil in the following manner :are shown in fig. 7.

The first three, of which the second and third I. Exterior Pipe I, fig. 1, for the purpose of alone are intersected by the double pipes, distil drawing off the wash from one copper to another. almost at the same time. The lowest, only, This figure only represents that communicating being submitted to the immediate action of the fror copper No. 2 to No. 1; the remainder are fire, is, consequently, the first whose wash enters shown in fig. 7.

into a boiling state. The vapor penetrates int) K. SMALL Trial or Gauge Cock, K, fig. 1, the second, passing through the wash which is to show when the wash is charged to the proper contained in it, by means of the above mentioned height, and to admit air when the liquor is pipes, and is there condensed, yielding up its drawn off. This figure only exhibits that in caloric to that liquid, which is thereby quickly copper 1; those in Nos. 2, and 3, are shown in brought into a boiling state; the vapor which fig. 7.

proceeds from the wash in the second boiler L. Swall Proof Cock, L, fig. 1, to deter- passes into the third, producing the same effects mine, by the application of a light, when all the as in the preceding. The new vapor, necessaspirit has distilled froin the wash in copper rily stronger than the first, rises and passes into No. 1.

the fourth, where it is received under a semiM. A DISCHARGE PIPE AND Cock, M, fig. 1. spherical dome (or calotte), which prevents it for the purpose of discharging the wash above from communicating directly with the cold wasli the crown or highest part of the copper.

contained in that copper. N. A Second DISCHARGE PIPE AND Cock, On arriving in this dome it is easily conceived N, fig. 1, for the purpose of discharging the that the inost watery portion of the vapor is wash entirely.

there condensed, giving up its caloric, which

contributes to heat the wash that surrounds the FIGURE VII.

dome. The most spirituous part, which passes Presents a back elevation of the still, as fixed, into the dome of the fifth copper, experiences exhibiting the manner in which the several re- the same effect on coming in contact with a maining pipes I, manholes C, and cocks K, re- cold body. The same operation takes place from ferred to, but not shown in fig. No. 6, are ar one dome to another up to the last. As the vapor ranged; the repetition of the description being which rises is exposed to a cold temperature it considered unnecessary. The lowest manhole in is condensed, ceding its caloric; and it is after this drawing is of a form different from the a succession of sufficient condensations, that the others; being on a scale to admit a person in- spirit is divested of all weak and watery particles, side the vessel for the purpose of cleaning the which, thus liquefied, return from one dome to bottom, the only part exposed to the action of another, being partially re-distilled in their prothe fire. The upper ones are of sufficient dimen- gress, according to their degree of gravity, until sion to admit a person's arm to clean the cop- the least spirituous reaches the third copper, pers. But when the diameter exceeds materi- there to undergo a new distillation. It has ally that of the present view (which is in the been observed that the upper copper is reserved nriginal four feet two inches) it is necessary to to contain cold water; it is by this means, and have large manboles, the same as that in the by renewing this water, keeping it in a higher or lowest copper, to admit a person into them all. lower temperature, according to circumstances, The command of all the pipes, cocks, and man- that the distiller can obtain :he spirit at the holes is arrived at by means of a spiral staircase, strength be desires.

To explain by what physical law the watery before they pass into the third copper. A third vapor is forced to return from dome to dome to distillation takes place in that copper before it the third copper, and is there found totally se- passes under the correcting influence of the sucparated from the alcohol, which arrives at the ceeding vessels. Thus he effects one distillation worm pure and free from any empyreuma, we by fire, which is immediately succeeded by two shall call to mind what all chemists and distil- vapor distillations; and, subsequently, by five lers are, doubtless, aware of. It is known that purifying processes, which divest the spirit of all water cannot boil under a heat of 212° of Pah- its impurities; and it comes over, at one operarenheit; while alcohol boils at about 173o. It tion, of the strength of thirty-five per cent. over is evident, therefore, that whenever the watery proof, according to Sikes's hydrometer, used by and alcoholic vapors rise, and are successively the Excise and English distillers; which is equireceived in one or more atmospheres of from ralent to bubble seventeen or eighteen in the 174° to 190° or 200°, the watery vapor becomes commerce of the West India Planter, and about separated from the alcoholic, and is condensed; 870 of the specific gravity of chemists. The and the last, only, passes out, and is received at strength at which M. Saintmarc brings over his the desired strength ; care being taken to regu- spirit by a still of eight compartments, is limited late properly the temperature of the water con to thirty-five or forty per cent. over proof; that tained in the uppermost copper, which is tra- being the highest degree generally required for versed by the strongest and most alcoholic vapor purposes of commerce. But, by the addition of before it passes into the worm.

two or three more coppers or compartments to It may be affirmed that the advantages of this his still, he would succeed in obtaining, by one apparatus are the greatest that have, as yet, been operation, the pure alcohol of the chemist, of the obtained. There is a great economy in fuel, as gravity of •820 or •825. well from the small surface exposed to the action It has been observed that only the first charge of the fire, and productive employment of every of the lowest copper is entirely distilled by the portion of the caloric, as by the simplicity and direct action of the fire; and that is the only rapidity of the operation. To the saving of fuel portion of a distillation, however prolonged, we shall shortly advert more particularly. It which is exposed to the injury of burning. By will be perceived that a large portion of the making the first charge of the lowest copper spirit is distilled by vapor; and it is, conse- water, instead of wash, even this small risk will quently, much parer than that obtained by the be totally avoided; since the wash, when once ordinary apparatus. It is to the immediate heated, comes down invariably into the lowest contact with the fire of the material to be dis- copper in a boiling state ; and during the short tilled, that distillers owe the greater portion of time that it remains there, being kept in a conthose injurious flavors and qualities with which stant state of ebullition, it is not subject to the spirits are frequently impregnated. Those bad disadvantage of burning. flavors are acquired chiefly by the length of time We speak of the shortness of the time during that the wash remains exposed on the bottom of which the wash remains in the lowest copper. the still; for during the period requisite to bring As soon as the whole of the spirit bas distilled it up from the cold state to that of ebullition, at from the lowest copper, which is proved by the which distillation commences, deposits of the application of a light to the small proof heavier particles contained in the wash are made cock L, fig. 6, already described, the wash is dison the bottom, which, being rather absorbents charged from that copper and the cock I, comthan conductors, prevent that constant and uni- municating from copper No. 2 to No. 1, is form transmission of caloric which is essential to immediately opened, which discharges the whole good and pure distillation. It is in the earlier contents of No. 2 into No. 1, without at all stages of the application of fire that this effect is suspending the distillation. In order to replace mainly produced; for, as the wash approaches a the wash drawn from copper No. 2, that conistate of ebullition, the struggles, to reach the sur- tained in the vessel D is discharged, by raising face, of those parts of the wash which are impreg- the valve or plug F by means of the lever and nated with caloric, and consequently decreased fulcrum G, which displaces the same quantity in gravity, and which, in the first instance, are down the pipes H, until the copper No. 2 is resluggish in their motion, gradually bring the plenished. A fresh charge of wash is then mass into a state of ebullition, which counter- drawn by the pipe E into the vessel D, ready for acts the tendency to burn, or otherwise acquire the next supply. injurious flavor. Once arrrived at the boiling It is easy to conceive, that, when the first coppoint, the risk of this evil is almost entirely re- per has furnished all the alcohol it contains, the moved. But as, on the common principle of wash of the second is chiefly distilled; and, distillation, the still is every time charged with therefore, when brought down into the lowest cold wash, so every distillation is equally exposed copper, in a state of perfect ebullition, and thus to the recurrence of the evil.

far advanced in the process, it remains for so It is one of the peculiar merits of M. Saint- short a time in contact with the fire, that it not marc's still to have effectually provided against only does not acquire any bad taste in consethis disadvantage. In his apparatus, only the quence, but its perfect distillation is completed first charge of the lowest copper is entirely dis- within fifteen or twenty minutes; the depth o tilled by the direct action of the fire. The the liquor being no more than ten or twelve inaqueous and alcoholic vapors, which rise together, ches. The process may thus be carried on ad on arriving in the second copper, become mixed infinitum, or so long as wash is furnished to feed with the wash contained in it and are re-distilled the still. The supply displaced from the third

10 the second copper has been already stated to power is acting in that copper for a few minutes; ve partly distilled; and the quantities contained and the product in spirit, during that period, in the copper with the domes have acquired a will be somewhat diminished in quantity, but of considerable degree of heat; graduated from a higher strength. One of the effects of discharging little below the boiling point in copper No. 4, the wash from the vessel D into the bottom of down to 160° or 170° in copper No. 7. In im- the copper No. 7 is that, to a certain extent, an bibing the caloric brought by the vapor through equalisation of temperature takes place, by the the domes, which is continually renewed, the admixture of the two bodies, in the act of diswash in the fourth and succeeding coppers becomes placing, by the pipe H, a quantity equal to that the first agent which contributes to divest the al- admitted from above. The more immediate obcohol of the watery parts that rise with it. ject of fixing the vessel D round the uppermost

It is among the advantages of this apparatus, compartment of the still, rather than as a dethat the continual and regular supply of wash, tached vessel, is also to encrease the temperature and the gradually advancing heat which it ac of its contents, by contact, during the period quires in the manner just described, are calcu- occupied in working off a charge below, with a lated to prevent the occurrence of those acci- body at a much higher degree than the wash dents which arise in distilleries, chiefly from the which it contains. By the union of these two mismanagement of the workmen employed: we advantages, the diminution of temperature in mean by explosion or collapsion. When a large copper No. 7, only produces a slight effect, as quantity of liquid, of a turbid and heavy nature, already observed ; and nothing like a vacuum is, is collected in a body, and subjected to the or can be, formed in consequence; which is furaction of a powerful fire, it happens, not unfre- ther provided against by the connexion of the quently, that, before it arrives at the boiling dome in copper No. 7, with those both below point, it forms a strong head, which fills the and above: and, through the latter, with the space in the upper part of the still, and passes large pipe leading to the worm-tub. We have even down the worm; and, on some occasions, been thus particular in detailing these parts of has caused an explosion of the still. The same the case, as it is of high importance in distilleresult would follow the want of a proper outlet ries to be independent both of ignorance and for the vapor. But the accident which more carelessness on these points. frequently occurs is collapsion. When a charge The first impression on our minds, on a view is worked off in the common still, it has fre- of the drawing of the still, was that it was comquently happened, that whilst it remains filled plex in its nature and construction, and must be with vapor, a new charge of cold wash is thrown difficult to manage. It requires, however, but in for distillation, or of water for cleansing, little attention to discover that such is not the without the precaution of opening the man-hole, case. On the contrary, it is entirely self-acting or other aperture in the breast of the still, to as to all its interior arrangements, and so simple admit air. A sudden condensation follows the and unerring in its principle and operation, that admission of the cold liquor; and, a vacuum any person, whether previously conversant with being formed, the still immediately collapsez. distillation or not, will be quite competent to its

Against both these accidents, M. Saintmarc's management, with a few days' practice; a point still affords complete protection. If the wash of great importance, where the indifference or acquire a head, which is only likely to happen ignorance of the parties employed to work the with the first charge of the lowest copper, (and stills (as is the case, particularly in the West Inthat may be prevented by using water for the first dies), renders all complexity unadvisable. The charge, as before stated), it can never penetrate mere stirring of a fire, and the turning of two or further than the second copper ; and is imme- three cocks, is the utmost extent of attention rediately returned by the pipe Z into the lower quired to conduct its operations. copper again. The pipes 0 and Q are ample The construction of the still has been already security for the free passage of vapor which has spoken of, in the description of its various parts; to pass up them; and the safety-pipes W equally and care seems to have been taken, in this resecure the coppers on which they stand, against spect, to meet all reasonable emergencies. The all possibility of injury from the generation of diameter of the still being small, in proportion vapor upon the surface of the wash in those to its powers, as compared with the common coppers.

stills in use; and each compartment being sepaAgainst the risk of collapsion the same security rately manufactured, and finally put together by seems to exist. The liquor brought down into flanches and bolts, M. Saintmarc generally the lowest copper being always at the boiling makes a spare lower compartment, precisely point, and that in the vessels above graduated adapted to the higher part, which goes with the below that point, the descent from vessel to still; and especially to the West Indies. It vessel is accomplished without any material does not appear that this still will be of change in the temperature, which is acting upon less duration than any other in use, or rethe vapor within the domes ; and, consequently, quire more repairs than the most simple ones. without, in any important degree, changing the On the contrary, the lowest copper is the only course of condensation which is going forward. one which is submitted to any severe action; From this observation, in its strict sense, must be and if, either by lapse of time or constant (se, or excepted the copper, No. 7; where a supply of by any accident, to which carelessness equally wash being introduced from the vessel D, of a exposes stills of all sorts, the bottom should be temperature considerably lower than that already injured, a period of two or three days would exisung in the copper, an additional condensing suffice for iaking away the lower compartment,

fixing the spare new one, and replacing the still still, being that in which the first operation takes in its position ready for work, as sound and per- place; of distilling the wash, the vapor proceedfect as when quite new. This must be of great ing from which, being of a weak nature, the proimportance to a West India planter, who, if the duct is an imperfect body, of about half the same thing were to happen with a common still, strength of proof spirit, and technically called at the beginning of a crop, would, in all proba- low wine. This product is then conveyed bility, be deprived of the means of working during to the smaller still called the low wine still, the whole season; as the consequence of such where it is subjected to a second distillation, an accident to a common still is, generally, the from which results a spirit. A portion, hownecessity for a new one ; so difficult and expen- ever, of this latter product is separated from sive is the repair. In like manner the principle the remainder, it being of a weak and impure of the construction of this still affords easy access character; it is denominated feints by the exto any copper or compartment, in the event of a cise laws and by the distillers, and is either sublittle repair being necessary. But it would ap- mitted to a third distillation per se, or is mixed pear to be little liable to derangement in its up- with the wash of the next distillation; being, per compartments; the only action there being however, generally separately distilled. These an equable and quiet transmission of vapor up- constitute three distinct operations. By M. wards, and of wash downwards; neither of them Saintmare's still, all this is effected at one operacalculated to injure the interior works.

tion; the weaker vapor, which constitutes the A question suggested itself to us, as to the low wine of the first, and the feints of the second, power of introducing into the lower compartment distillation, on the old plan, being strengthened of M. Saintmarc's still, the machinery employed and purified by the subsequent processes to in most malt distilleries, for Jisturbing the heavier which it is subjected in the higher parts of his ingredients in the wash, which may settle on the still ; and all the weak part of the vapor, which, if bottom. We have already shown that such a passed into the worm, and there condensed, casc may be prevented here; but, supposing our would be in the state of low wines or feints, being view of the non-liability of the wash to be burnt condensed within the still, long before it reaches should be erroneous, there does not appear any the summit, and returned into the lowest coppers. difficulty in introducing the chains, or other pro- This is the basis of one of the important savings per machinery, for that purpose. In the com- of the still. On the old plan, the vapor generated mon still it is fixed vertically, through the upper by the first distillation is passed off immediately part of the still, and worked through a stuffing to the refrigerator or worm-tub, and there conbox. In this it would also be required to be densed; the vapor of the second distillation, the worked through a stuffing box, but horizontally, result of a new application of fuel, is again sent through the side of the lowest copper, by the aid to the worm-tub and there condensed ; and the of a pair of bevil wheels in the interior.

third distillation, by the aid of a third fire, is A series of experiments and calculations have again treated in the same way. M. Saintmarc heen made for the purpose of demonstrating the makes the first application of fuel to his still efpowers of M. Saintmarc's still, and proving the fect all these objects. The vapor of the first allegations with regard to its saving of fuel, copper heats the second; that of the second heats water, and many other points of economy, ad. the third ; that, again, passes through the several vanced in its favor. These experiments and upper compartments, disttributing a portion of its statements are of a sufficiently interesting charac- caloric to the wash in each of them, thus preparler to induce us to add them to the preceding ing them for distillation, in which process the observations, as they are calculated to carry con- vapor has the benefit of those condensing powers viction to the mind, from the plain and simple which each body of wash contains, for the sepamanner in which they are advanced. They are ration, by liquefaction, of its aqueous or weaker, made in a way likely to attract notice; the from its alcoholic or stronger, portions. powers of the patent still being placed in juxta The advantages here described are demonposition or contrast, with those of the common strated by experiments, showing the actual powers still. As far as our means extend of judying of of a still on this principle, as compared with the correctness of the statement with regard to those of the two stills in use on the old plan, of the powers of the old still, we should be in- equal powers of production; in which are shown clined to think them not unfairly put. The data the relative areas or superficies of each exposed to on which some of them rest are admitted by the action of the fire; the generation of vapor chemists, having been proved by the experiments on both plans; and the quantity of water emof some of the ablest men in that branch of science, ployed in condensing that vapor. both in this country and in France. The deduc A still on M. Saintmarc's principle, contain-, tions, therefore, are easy on those parts of the ing 560 imperial gallons of wash, in seven cop

With regard to many points, such as cost pers of eighty gallons each, estimated to work and number of apparatus and vessels, space re off thirty charges of one copper, amounting to quired, savings, and other considerations of a 2400 gallons, will produce supposing the wash commercial nature, and some other points, they to be attenuated sixty degrees, and, consequently, are not susceptible of check by any but practical capable of yielding twelve per cent. of proof spirit persons.

on the wash), 213 gallons of spirit at thirty-five It is of course, well known, that the ordinary per cent. over proof, equal to 288 gallons at proof process of distillation consists of three operations, in a day of twelve hours. A common still of the and is usually performed in two stills of differ- total contents of about 1700 imperial gallons (10 ent dimensions; the larger one called a wash contain a charge of 1200 gallons of wash), will


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