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boiler before it passes off; by which the whole quantity of soap is added, to prevent the stil! mass of fluid in the boiler is heated at once, from running foul; a desert spoonful of vitriol and the heat may be maintained with great regu- well mixed with oil is put into a puncheon of larity, while a much less quantity of fuel will spirits, to make them show a bead when reduced suffice. The brick-work surrounding the boiler with water: this is only done with spirits inreaches as high as the circle k k.

tended for home consumption, and no vitriol is The worm is generally made of tin or pewter, used in any other part of the process. In this and is the same as that in common use, except distillery, the former practice was to use about that at the commencement l, where it is con one-fourth part of malt, and the remainder a mixnected with the beak of the head of the boiler, it ture ground oats and barley, and oatmeal ; is wider than they were formerly made, and latterly the custom has been to use only as much tapers gradually towards the discharging extre as would prevent the kieve (mash-vat) from set. mity n.

The reason of this is evident, because ting. He had found that malt alone produced a vapor, only partly condensed, requires more

greater quantity of spirits, than the mixture of room than where the whole is fluid. The refri- malt and raw corn of the same quality with that geratory, or vessel A B, is kept constantly filled of which the malt had been made. He generally with cold water; this is effected by a rube n, put from fifty to fifty-four gallons of water 10 which descends and opens nearly at the bottom every barrel of corn of twelve stone (14 lb. to of it, and brings a supply of cold water from a the stone).

Each brewing was divided into gi zater elevation; while another tube, r, conveys three mashings, nearly equal : the produce of the hot water with equal rapidity from the top. the two first was put into the fermenting backs; By this means the condensation is so complete, and the produce of the last, which was small t' at the spirit discharged at m exhales little or worts, was put into the copper for the purpose 10 odor. As it is often not possible to have the of being heated, and used as water to the next water from a greater elevation than the refrige- day's brewing, when as much water was added as rator, without raising it by mechanical means, would make, with the small worts of the brewthe following plan, hy Alexander Johnston, is ing, fifty-four gallons to each barrel of the corn. highly entitled to attention, as in it the syphon is The kieves were so tabulated, that he always applied to the worm-tube as a refrigerator; and knew the quantity of worts which would come water is conveyed in any quantity to a worm-tub off at each mashing. Their strength he ascerof the largest dimensions, if perfectly air-tight; tained by Saunders's saccharometer, and at the it is represented at in the same plate A, is the feed above proportions he obtained, from a mixture pape of cold water. B, the hot water, or waste of the two first worts, an increase of gravity pipe, the end of which must be abouttwo feet be- from twenty pounds to twenty-two pounds per low the feed pipe, to make it act with full effect. barrel, of thirty-six gallons, above water-proof,

When the work is commenced, the cocks must at a temperature of about 88°. The small worts be shut, and the tub filled through a hole at the gained ai the same temperature about six pounds. top, and of course, both pipes : and when full, the The grain, after the last worts were off, retained hole at the top is to be stopped, and the cocks nearly the same bulk as when put into the kieve; opened together; the water will then commence the whole of the grain was put in at the first running, and continue as long as the supply mashing; he never knew any grain to be added holds good, as it acts in every respect on the to the second mashing. The worts of the first principle of a syphon. By this means pumps, and second mashing were run through the mashhorse-mills, and other machinery, are rendered kieve into the under-back, in which state they unnecessary for that purpose. The application were usually found to correspond with the comof this improvement is simple, and executed at a putation made in the mash-kieve and undervery little expense. The saving for the city of back, in the latter of which a correct gauge Dublin alone, is calculated at upwards of 100 might be taken of them. He usually commenced horses per annum.

brewing at six o'clock in the morning: the first With respect to the usual mode in which dis- worts were run off into the under-backs, andi tillation is conducted in the great public distil- required from an hour to an hour and a half to leries, the most interesting account that has been be forced up into the cooler; the second worts communicated to the public, is that contained in came off at the end of two hours from the disilie deposition of James Forbes, of Dublin, who charge of the first, and required about the same was for many years concerned in a large distil- time to pass into the coolers. The small worts lery. It is from the Appendix to the Fifth Re were generally let off late at night; and being port of the Commissioners of Enquiry into the then, or early on the following morning, put Fees, &c., received in the public offices of Ire- into the copper to be used for the next brewing, land; which report was printed by order of the were seldom shown on the coolers. He thinks house of commons.

that any decrease of the worts by evaporation * The corn is first ground, then mashed with whilst on the coolers, must have been very inwater, and the worts, after being cooled, are set considerable; and that a correct gauge of the for fermentation, to promote which, a quantity of worts may be taken in the coolers as well as in barm is added to them, and they become wash; the underbacks. The quantity of wash in the the wash is then passed through the still, and backs was found to be nearly correspondent with makes singlings, and these, being again passed that of the strong waters which had been on the through the still, produce spirits ; the latter part kieve and in the cooler. The fermentation of the of this running, being weak, is called feints. worts was produced by means of yeast, and was When singlings are put into the still, a small in general so contrived as to be apparently kept

ap for the full time allowed by law (six days): spirits to dispose of for every gallon of water he has, however, usually had his wash ready for mixed with the spirits exported; besides this, the still in twenty-four hours from the time in the distiller draws back the allowance given in which it was set. Backs are renewed in two lieu of the malt-duty on every gallon of water ways; either by additions made to them from added : when he warehoused spirits with the inother backs in the distillery, each supplying a tention of afterwards using them for home concertain portion of wash to the back which is next sumption, he left them at their full strength.' before it in the order of fermentation, while the The absence of improvement in the process of newest and least fermented wash is replenished distillation, as well as in the apparatus for effectby worts, or, when the fermentation is down, by ing it, in this country, may be chiefly traced to the an entire substitution of worts. He has ordina- shackles which have proceeded from the regularily, in the course of work, charged a 500 gallon tions of excise, adopted and enforced for the still with wash, and run it off in twenty to protection of the revenue. Whether those regutwenty-three minutes : he has seen a 1000 gallon lations may have been indispensably requisite to still charged and worked off in twenty-eight or that end, is, perhaps, very questionable; but it thirty minutes. He understands that it is now is quite certain that they have had the effect of the practice of some distillers, to heat the wash restraining those extensive improvements in this nearly to the state of boiling before the still is branch of science and business, which have been charged with it; by which means he believes almost universally accomplished, where the inthe process to be accelerated by three or four ventive genius of our countrymen has had free minutes. He has seen a 1000 gallon still charged scope in the application of its powers to practical with singlings, and worked off in from forty to results. This is especially visible on a comparififty minutes, and thinks a 500_gallon still re son of the means employed in France for the imquires nearly an equal time. Feints from pot- provement of this branch. With an unlimited ale (the name given to completely fermented supply of the grape, a material certainly calcuwash) usually are run off in from six to seven lated to afford one of the finest spirits, they are minutes ; making allowance for every delay, enabled, almost at will, to effect such improveabout six charges of spirits may be run off from ments in its quality as result from changes of a still of 500 gallons' contents, each charge esti- process, and the adoption of superior apparatus; mated at 150 gallons. The feints were always since, although in some respects under certain put back into the pot-ale receiver; twenty gal- revenue regulations, they are not enforced in a lons of feints is the usual quantity run from a mauner calculated to prejudice the exercise of 500 gallon still charged with singlings; he talent, whether mechanically or chemically apthinks there is more spirit extracted from feints plied to the art. than from pot-ale; there was no delay between In the English language, too, there scarcely one charge of pot-ale and another, or between exists a treatise of any value on this subject; one of singlings and another; the still could be and that which has been published is little more cleansed in less than a minute; it very rarely than translations from works in the French lanoccurred that the ordinary accidents which hap- guage. There the scientific investigations of such pened to the still delayed the work to any con men as Lavoisier, Chaptal, Gay Lussac, and siderable degree. The still is never charged Thenard, have laid a sure foundation for the more with wash beyond about seven-eighths of the practical illustrations of Macquer, Dubrunfaut, still, nor with singlings beyond about four-fifths, Dubuisson, and others of less note, who have exclusive of the head. The estimated produce sent forth to the world the result of their lahors. (according to which the duty may be charged) With names as high on the list of science as is one gallon of singlings from three gallons of our countrymen Davy, Woollaston, Dalton, wash, and one gallon of spirits from three gal- Heury, Thomson, Ure, and Black, and with some lons of singlings, but it is very frequently some of the most important departments of the art of what more.

Previous to the regulation (of Ex- distillation, up to the point of fermentation, as cise) which took place in June, 1806, from a well understood, and as extensively practised as still of 540 gallons, which is charged with 2075 in France, the paucity of information on the subgallons of spirits weekly, he has frequently ject generally, in this country, is not a little sur drawn-530 gallons in one week, and thinks 500 prising. The French distillers have brought ta gallons to be a fair average. He usually made notice several stills of curious construction, which spirits about fourteen per cent. above proof, by have had for their object the saving of time and Saunders's hydrometer. Spirits exported by him fuel, and the production of a spirit of superio. from twelve to fourteen per cent. above proof by strength and good quality. In some of these perSaunders' and Hyatt's hydrometer, were charged petual distillation has been aimed at, but it canno! in London at from twenty-four to twenty-six gal- be said with success. Indeed, it is difficult to lons per cent. Before he sent them to the cus conceive that the elements to be converted, and tom-house, he either reduced them with water, the practice necessary for their conversion, can or drew them at that strength from the still. To be so nicely combined and adjusted as to bring every six gallons of strong spirits, one gallon of about such a result, without a most elaborate and water was added in the distillery, which reduced expensive series of machinery and vessels; costly them to the strength usual for exportation. The in themselves, not easy of management, and reduced spirits are permitted to the king's ware- leading to the risk of considerable loss, from houses, and the distiller given a credit for a de some of those inconveniences and irregularities crease of stock equal to the quantity so permite to which all complicated apparatus are subject. ted; by these means he has one gallon of private A still has lately been brought forward, which

is stated to be coming into extensive use, and to H. Five Pipes, communicating from the copcomprise all the advantages of perpetual distilla- per, fig. 7 to fig. 6, and so on in succession, from tion without its disadvantages; uniting moderate vessel to vessel, down to fig. 2, extending from cost, the employment alike of a single vessel and the level of the wash in one copper, marked by a single operation, and the most perfect facility dotted lines to nearly the bottom of the copper of management, with great economy of time, fuel, - below, in order to displace the warmest liquor, and other items of expense; and, which must be as shown in the description of G. a primary object with all distillers, with the pro I. (Vide figs. 6 and 7), Sıx PIPES FURNISHED duction of a fine and potent spirit. It has been WITH Cocks, communicating respectively from introduced by two French gentlemen, M. Alégre, one copper to that next below, by which all the and M. Saintmarc; and is patented in this coun wash in the several coppers, from fig. 7 downtry in the name of the latter.

wards, may be conveyed into the lower coppers, On a view of the plans and descriptions of and finally drawn off from the lowest vessel. this apparatus, there seems little reason to doubt K. (Vide figs. 6 and 7), SMALL Trial Cocks its powers and advantages, as described; and, in Coppers 1 and 2, which, on being turned, assumiug the truth of the facts stated with regard indicate when those coppers are charged to the to those powers as proved in practice, the inven- proper height, as denoted by the dotted lines on tion is entitled to great praise; and must effect the same level as these cocks. They serve also an extensive revolution in distillation, both in this as valves to admit air when the liquor is drawn country and in its colonies.

off. A similar cock is likewise placed in copper, The plate of DISTILLATION presents a series fig. 3, for the purpose last mentioned. of figures, exhibiting the construction and prac L. (Vide fig. 6), A SMALL Proof Cock, tical operation of this interesting combination of placed vertically near the roof of the copper, No. chemical and mechanical power.

i, which, on being turned, determines by the Fig. 1 represents a sectional view of the still, application of a lighted taper or candle, whether with its furnace, and an elevation or outside view or not there remains any portion of alcohol in of the refrigerator, or worm tub. Figs. 2, 3, and this copper or boiler. 4, are plans of three portions of the still. Fig. 5 M. A DischaRGE PIPE AND Cock to carry off is a perspective view of one of the double tubes the spent wash from the copper, fig. 1, when the or pipes. Fig. 6 is an elevation of its front ex- spirit has distilled from it. This cock discharges terior, and fig. 7 is an elevation of its back ex- down to about one inch above the crown, or terior.

highest part of the copper; and, in consequence, FIGURE I.

it is not necessary to damp the fire when it is A. THE FIRE-PLACE or Furnace, above which opened. tie still is placed.

N. A Second DISCHARGE PIPE AND Cock in B. Eight Coppers or Boilers, surmounting the lowest part of the bottom, which carries each other, constituting the apparatus or still, in off the whole contents of the copper; and, when the form of a column or cylinder, and numbered opened, will generally require the fire to be 1 to 8; the different coppers or compartments damped, to prevent burning the bottom. being put together by flanches and bolts.

0. TEN DOUBLE TUBES or Pipes, of which C. (vide fig. 6 and 7), OPENINGS or MANHOLES. five are fixed on the roof of copper 1, and five tightly closed by screw boxes, or otherwise, cal- on that of 2. These pipes are closed at the top, culated, when the still is of large diameter, to and have openings in the upper part of the inadmit a person into the several coppers, No. ner, communicating with the outer one. The 1 to 7, for the purpose of cleaning or repairing vapor produced from the wash in copper 1, them; or, when on a smaller scale, intended to passes through the five double tubes on the roof admit a person's arm for the same object. of that copper into the copper 2, by rising up

D. AN EXTERIOR Vessel, or INTERMEDIATE the inner tubes, passing therefrom through the WASU CHARGER, surrounding the upper compart- openings at the upper part thereof, and descending ment of the still; and calculated to contain a down the outer tubes, discharging itself into the quantity of wash equal to the proper charge of liquid in copper No. 2, where it becomes con

densed. In like manner the vapor produced in E. SUPPLY Pipe communicating from the ge- the last mentioned copper passes up the double neral wash charger, or vessel containing the tubes on the roof thereof, into the copper fig. 3. liquid to be distilled, to the exterior vessel D; (For a better description of these double tubes, and furnished with a cock for the purpose of vide the perspective view of one of them in fig. turning the wash into that vessel.

5; and for the plan of the coppers containing F. A Plug or Valve fixed in the head of a them, vide fig. 4, and their respective explanations pipe extending from the bottom of the vessel D given below). into the lower part of the copper, 7; which plug

P. FIVE SEMISPHERICAL VESSELS or Domes O valve is raised by the aid of

(in French, CALOTTES), constructed upon, and G. A LEVER AND Fulcrum for the purpose tightly jointed to, the centres of the roofs of the of discharging the wash contained in the vessel D several coppers, No. 3 to 7, both inclusive. into the copper 7; from whence, as it reaches the These domes, except the highest, are surrounded upper end of the pipes H, it Hows down from with wash ; but have internal communication copper to copper, until it reaches No.2; a quan- only with each other, by means of pipes fixed on tity being displaced from the surface of the liquor their centres, which nass into the pipes Q, next in each copper equal to that which is thrown in described. from the copper next above.

Q. Five Double Tubes or Pipes (of the same

one copper.

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