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were always at a certain distance from them, the effect which ought to result from the action of inclination of the needle would be always the these centres upon any point of the earth's sursame at equal distances from the equator, and face, assuining the attractive force in the recipromight be very useful for determining the latitudes. cal ratio of the squares of the distances; he found But it would seem, that these poles are perpe- that his results approximated more and more to tually shifting their places, since both the incli- the truth in proportion as the distance between nation and horizontal direction of the needle are the magnetic poles was assumed less; and, incontinually varying even in the same place: so deed, hy supposing those two poles or centres that its quantity of inclination cannot be exactly to coincide, or the inclination of the magnetic calculated. Two general remarks may be made needle to be produced by an indefinitely small upon this subject. 1. That the inclination of magnet placed in the centre of the earth, his the needle does not alter regularly in going from theorem gave the same numbers as had been N. to S. or from S. to N. in any meridian. 2. observed by Humboidt both in Europe and in That its alteration in the same place, and at dif- America, as well as what had been observed in ferent times, is but small. Thus, in London, Russia, Lapland, and various other places in about the year 1576, the dip was 70° 50' below both hemispheres: the results of theory being the horizon, and in 1775 it stood at 72° 3'; the classed with those of observations in a comparaalteration in nearly 200 years, scarce amounting to tive table, which clearly evinces their near cointhree quarters of a degree, which may be attri- cidence. Let u be the angle included between a buted to the errors of the instruments; as these radius drawn from the earth's centre to any aswere at first exceedingly erroneous, and even sumed point on its surface and the magnetic yet are far from being perfect.
axis, ß, the angle comprehended between the line The general method of constructing dipping coinciding with the real position of the needle needles is, to pass an axis quite through the and the said magnetic axis, and I the inclination needle itself, and to let the extremities of the of the needle with the horizon of the place; then axis rest upon two supports, like the beam of a pair of scales, that the needle may move vertically
I. tan 8= round; and hence, when placed in the magnetic
cos. 2u + meridian, it will naturally assume that position whence B is readily determined ; and then we which is called the magnetic line, viz. the two shall have the inclination by means of the folends nearly north and south, and one of them lowing: inclined considerably to the horizon. The de II. I= 90° + u— - B. grees of this inclination are shown upon a gra Still it must be observed, that though these duated circle; and when the instrument is made formulæ, given by Biot, furnished in general reuse of at land it has a stand, but at sea a ring is sults very near the truth; yet when he attempted necessary to suspend it. When furnished with to represent the inclinations in different latitudes a stand, it has also a spirit-level; and the stand by the supposition of a magnet infinitely small, has three screws, by which the whole is adjusted very near the centre of the earth, and perpendiin such a manner as to let the centre of motion cular to the magnetic equator, he did not pretend in the needle, and the mark of 90° on the lower to consider the hypothesis as any thing real, but part of the divided circle, be exactly in the same solely as a mathematical abstraction. line perpendicular to the horizon. The greatest DÍPSACUS, teasel, in botany, a genus of the imperfections attending this instrument are the monogynia order, and tetrandria class of plants : balancing of the needle itself, and the difficulty cal. is polyphillous, proper above; the recepof knowing whether, after being made magnetic, tacle paleaceous. There are four species : the it be properly balanced or not. The inaccuracy most remarkable is the D. carduus fullonum, here indeed can be but very small, as arising only which grows wild in many parts of England. It from dust or moisture. The method recommended is of singular use in raising the knap upon by Mr. Cavallo, to obviate these inconveniences, woollen cloth. For this purpose the heads are is first to observe the dip of the needle, then tó fixed round the circumference of a large broad reverse its magnetism by the application of mag- wheel, which is made to turn round, and the cloth nets, so that the end of it which before was ele- is held against them. In the west of England, vated above the horizon may now be below it; great quantities of the plant are cultivated for and, lastly, to observe its dip again; for a mean this use. It is propagated by sowing the seeds of the two observations will be pretty near the in March, upon a well prepared soil. About truth, though the needle may not be perfectly one peck of seed is sufficient for an acre, as the balanced. See MAGNETISM, and MAGNETICAL plants must have room to grow; otherwise the NEEDLE.
heads will not be large enough, nor in great In order to determine the law that regu- quantity. When the plants come up, they must lates the inclination or dip of the needle, Biot, be hoed in the same manner as is practised for in a memoir delivered by himself and Hum- turnips, cutting down all the weeds, and thinning boldt to the French National Institute, on the the plants to about eight inches distant; and as Variations of the Terrestrial Magnetism in dif- they advance, and the weeds begin to grow again, ferent Latitudes, supposed in the axis of the they must be hoed a second time, cutting out magnetic equator, and at equal distances from the plants to a wider distance, so that they may the centre of the earth, two centres of at- finally stand a foot distant from each other. The tractive forces, the one austral and the other second year they will shoot up heads which may boreal, so as to represent the two opposite mag- be cut about the beginning of August. They are netic poles of the earth : he then calculated the then to be tied up in bunches, and set in the sun
if the weather is fair: or, if not, in rooms to dry carrying their food to the mouth like squirrels. them. The common produce is about 160 bun- 1. D. cafer, or the Cape jerboa, has four toes dles or staves upon an acre, which are sold for on the hind feet and five on the paws; the tail one shilling each. The leaves of the common is very hairy, and tipt with black. This species wild teazel, dried, and given in powder or infu- inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and is fourteen sion, are a very powerful remedy against flatuses inches long; the tail fifteen, the ears three. It and crudities in the stomach. There is also ano- is called aerdmannetje, or little earth man, and ther, though somewhat whimsical, use for which springen haas, or leaping hare, by the Dutch this plant is famous among the country people in at the Cape. It has a grunting voice; is very England. If the heads are opened longitudinally, strong, and leaps twenty or thirty feet at one about September or October, there is generally bound. It burrows with its fore feet; and sleeps found a small worm in them: one of these only sitting on its hind legs, with the knees separated, is found in each head, whence naturalists have the head between, and holding its ears with the Damed it the vermis solitarius dipsaci. They col- fore paws over its eyes. It is eaten by the natives; lect three, five, or seven of these, always ob- and is caught by pouring water into its hole, serving to make an odd number; and sealing them which compels it to come out. 2. D. jaculus, up in a quill, give them to be worn as an amulet the common jerboa, or leaping mouse of Linnæus, against the ague. This superstitious remedy is in has four toes on all the feet, and a claw in place much higher repute than the bark, in many parts of a thumb or fifth toe on each fore foot. "The of England.
body is somewhat more than seven inches long, DIP'SAS. n. s. Lat. from ditaw, to thirst. and the hind legs and thighs are longer than the A serpent whose bite produces the sensation of body. The upper parts are of a pale tawny counquenchable thirst.
lor, and the under parts white: the ears and feet Scorpion, and asp, and amphisbæna dire,
are flesh-colored. The female has eight teats disCerastes horned, hydrus, and ellops drear, tantly placed. These animals inhabit Egypt, And dipsas.
Milton. Arabia, Calmuck Tartary, and southern Siberia. DIPTERA, from ôs and arepov, wing, in They frequent firm hard ground, and fields coentomology, an order of insects, which have only vered with grass and herbs, where they form burtwo wings, and under each wing a style or ob- rows of several yards long in a winding direction, long body, terminated by a protuberance, and leading to a large chamber about half a yard becalled a balancer.
low the surface; and from this a second passage DIPTOTE, n. s. Διπτωτα. . A noun consist. is dug to within a very little of the surface; by ing of two cases only.
which they can escape when threatened with DIP
TYCH, n. s. Lat. diptycha (two leaves danger. When at rest, they sit with their hind legs folded together). A register of bishops and bent under their belly, and keep the fore legs so martyrs.
near the throat as hardly to be perceptible. They The commemoration of saints was made out of the eat grain and herbage like the hare. Their disdittechs of the church, as appears by multitudes of positions are mild, and yet they can never be places in St. Austin.
Stilling fleet. perfectly tamed. This animal is roasted and eaten DIPTYCI, or DIPTYCHA, in antiquity, was a by the Arabs, who call it the lamb of the children public register, wherein were written the names of Israel. It has been particularly described by of the consuls, and other magistrates, among the Mr. Bruce in his Abyssinian Travels. 3. D. sagitta, heathens; and of bishops, and living as well as the Arabian jerboa, the mus ÕLTBS of the Greeks, dead brethren, among the Christians. The word and mus bipes of the Romans, has three toes on is Greek, OlaTvxa, the plural of Ortuxov, q. d. a the hind feet, and no thumb or fifth toe on the book folded in two leaves ; though there were fore paws. It is only about six inches long, and some in three, and others in four or five leaves. the tail rather shorter than the body; the soles of This name is supposed to have been first given the hind feet and bottom of the toes are covered them to distinguish them from the books that were with a very thick coat of hair ; the head is more molled, called volumina. There were profane rounded than that of the jaculus, and the ears are diptycha in the Greek empire, as well as sacred much longer than the head. It inhabits Arabia, ones in the Greek church.
and near the Irtish in Siberia, where it frequents DIPUS, Gr. oites, i.e. two-footed, in zoology, the sandy plains. 4. D. Canadensis, or Canadian the jerboa, a genus of quadrupeds, belonging to jerboa, is thus described by general Davies: the order of glires, in the class mammalia. These As I conceive there are very few persons, animals were ranked by Linnæus under the ge- however conversant in natural history, who nus mus; but Gmelin has, with great propriety, may have seen or known that there was an distributed the numerous and very different spe- animal existing in the coldest parts of Canada cies of that genus, into nine new divisions, form- of the same genus with the jerboa, hitherto ing so many distinct genera, of which the dipus confined to the warmest climates of Africa, I is one. The characters are these: there are two take the liberty of stating the following partifore-teeth in each jaw; the tail is long, and tufted culars. With respect to the food, or the mode of at the end; but the most striking characteristic feeding, of this animal, I have it not in my power of this genus is the enormous length of the hind to speak with any degree of certainty, as I could feet, and extreme shortness of the fore paws. by no means procure any kind of sustenance that From this conformation, instead of walking or could induce it to eat; therefore, when caught, running on all fours, they leap or hop on the it lived only a day and a half. The first I was so hind feet like birds, making prodigious bounds, fortunate as to catch, was taken in a large field and only use the fore paws for burrowing, or for near the Falls of Montmorenci, and, by its having
strayed too far from the skirts of the wood, al She nigher drew, and saw that joyous end; lowed myself, assisted by three other gentlemen, Then God she prayed, and thanked her faithful to surround it, and after an hour's hard chase, to
Faerie Queene. get it unhurt, though not before it was thoroughly
Direful hap betide that hated wretch fatigued, which might in a great measure acce That makes us wretched by the death of thee. lerate its death. During the time the animal re
Shakspeare. mained in its usual vigor, its agility was incre
Direness, familiar to my slaughterous thoughts,
Cannot once start me. dible for so small a creature. It always took
Shakspeare. Macbeth. progressive leaps of from three to four, and some Hydras, and gorgons, and chimæras dire.
Milton. times of five yards, although seldom above twelve
Or what the cross dire-looking planet smites, or fourteen inches from the surface of the grass;
Or hurtful worm with cankered venom bites. but I have observed others in shrubby places,
The voice of God himself speaks in the heart of and in the woods, among plants, where they chiefly
men, whether they understand it or no; and by secret reside, leap considerably higher. When found in such places it is impossible to take them, from intimations gives the sinner a foretaste of that direful
which he is like to drink more deeply of hereafter, their wonderful agility, and their evading all pur
South, suit, by bounding into the thickest part of the covert they can find. With respect to the figure Small at her birth, but rising every hour;
Discord ! dire sister of the slaughtered power, given of it, in its dormant state, I have to observe,
While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound, that the specimen was found by some workmen,
She stalks on earth, and shakes the world around. in digging the foundation for a summer-house in
Pope. a gentleman's garden, about two miles from Achilles' wrath, to Greeks the direful spring, Quebec, in the end of May, 1787. It was dis- of woes unnumbered, heavenly goddess ! sing. Id. covered enclosed in a ball of clay, about the size
Ah me! the dire effect of a cricket-ball, nearly an inch in thickness, per Of loitering here, of death defrauded long; fectly smooth within, and about twenty inches Of old so gracious, and let that suffice, under ground. The man who first discovered it My very master knows me not. not knowing what it was, struck the ball with his
I've been so long remembered I'm forgot. Young. spade, by which means it was broken to pieces,
Unnumbered maladies his joints invade, or the ball would have been presented to me.
Lay siege to life, and press the dire blockade ; How long it had been under ground it is im
But unextinguished avarice still remains
And dreaded losses agravate his pains. possible to say; but, as I could never observe these
Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. animals in any part of the country after the be.
A brave man knows no malice, but at once ginning of September, I conceive they lay themselves up some time in that month, or beginning
Forgets in peace the injuries of war,
And gives his direst foe a friend's embrace. of October, when the frost becomes sharp. Nor
Couper. did I ever see them again before the last week in May or beginning of June. From their being
DIRECT', v. u. & adj. Fr. diriger; Span. enveloped in balls of clay, without any appear
DIREC'TER, n. S. and Ital. dirizzar ;
DIRECTOR, ance of food, I conceive they sleep during the
Port. dirigir, from
DIRECTION, winter, and remain for that term without suste
Lat. dirigo, directus, As soon as I conveyed this specimen to
Direc'tive, adj. à de and rego, to
DIRECT'LY, adv. my house, I deposited it as it was, in a small
govern. To aim or
DIRECT'NESS, n. S. chip box in some cotton, waiting with great
project in a straight DIRECTORY.
line; to order, reguanxiety for its waking, but that not taking place at the season they generally appear, I kept it until late, prescribe: a directer, or director, he who they found it begin to smell; I then stuffed it, orders or commands ; also a rule or ordinance, as and preserved it in its torpid position. I am led well as any instrument that guides an operation, to believe its not recovering from that state arose
as in surgery: direction is having the power from the heat of my room during the time it was
to guide or rule; directly is, rectilineally; in a in the box, a fire having been constantly burning straight course or line; apparently; immediately. in the stove, and which in all probability was too Directness, straightness ; plainness of conduct. great for its respiration.'
See the following articles for particular uses of DIRÆ, the general name of the three furies directory. in the Pagan mythology. They were so called as The nobles of the people digged it, hy the direction being quasi Deorum iræ, the ministers of Divine of the lawgiver.
Numb. xxi. 18. vengeance in punishing guilty souls after death. It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps. They were the daughters of Acheron and Night.
Jer. x. 23. DIRCA, in botany, a genus of the monogynia Infidels, being clean without the church, deny die order and octandria class of plants : CAL. none: rectly, and utterly reject, the very principles of Chriscor. tubular, with the limb indistinct : stay. tianity, which hereticks embrace erroneously by mislonger than the tube : ber. monospermous. Spe- construction.
Hooker. cies one, a Virginian shrub.
They are glad to nse counsellors and directors in all DIRE, adj. Lat. dirus. Dreadful; their dealings of weight, as contracts, testaments.
Id. Dire'FUL, terrible; dismal; extremely
A law, therefore, generally taken, is a directive rule Dire'ness, n. s. ) evil.
unto goodness of operation.
II. But yet at last, whereas the direful fiend
Even now She saw not stir, off shaking vain affright,
I put myself to thy direction. Shakspeare. Macbeth.
There be, that are in nature faithful and sincere, Call your light legions, tread the swampy heath, and plain and direct, not crafty and involved. Pierce with sharp spades the tremulous peat beneatk;
Bacon. With colters bright the rushy sward bisect, Men's passions and God's directions seldom agree. And in new veins the gushing rills direct. Darwin.
Direction, in mechanics, signifies the line or The liker any thing is to wisdom, if it be not plainly path of a body's motion, along which it endeathe thing itself, the more directly it becomes its oppo
vours to proceed according to the force impressed
Direction, ISLANDS OF, four small islands at
the west entrance of the straits of Magellan, in Dryden's Fables.
the South Pacific Ocean. Long. 77° 19' W., The spear few hissing thro’ the middle space,
lat. 52° 27' S. And pierced his throat, directed at his face.
Directors, in commercial polity, are conside
Id. Æneid. rable proprietors in the stocks of their respective I am her director and her guide in spiritual affairs. companies, being chosen by plurality of votes
Dryden. from among the body of proprietors. The Dutch He that does this, will be able to cast off all that is East India Company has sixty such directors; superfluous; he will see what is pertinent, what co that of France, twenty-one; the British East herent; what is direct tu, what slides by, the question. India Company has twenty-four, including the
Locke. chairman, who may be re-elected for four years All that is in a man's power, is to mind what the successively. These last have salaries of £150 ideas are that take their turns in his understanding ; a year each, and the chairman £200. They or else to direct and sort, and call in such as he de meet at least once a week, and commonly oftener, sires.
being summoned as occasion requires. The diSuch was as then the state of the king, as it was no
rectors of the Bank of England are twenty-four time by direct means to seek her. And such was the
in number, including the governor and deputystate of his captivated will, as he would delay no time of seeking her.
Director, in surgery, a grooved probe, to On the directive powers of the former, and the regularity of the latter, whereby it is capable of direction, ing sinuses or fistulæ, that the adjacent vessel,
direct the edge of the knife or scissars, in opendepends the generation of all bodies.
Grew. His work directly tends to raise sentiments of ho
nerves, and tendons, may not be hurt.
The DIRECTORY or Public WORSHIP was a Doar and virtue in his readers. Addison. Freeholder.
celebrated book drawn up by the assembly of If the refracted ray be returned directly back to the divines at Westminster, and established by an point of incidence, it shall be refracted by the incident ordinance of parliament in 1644, repealing the
Newton's Optics. The direction of good works to a good end, is the uniformity in the common prayer. The Direc
statutes of Edward VI. and of Elizabeth, for enly principle that distinguishes charity. Smalridge. The manner of opening with a knife, is by sliding of 'no church-music besides that of singing the
tory set aside the use of the liturgy, and allowed it on a director, the groove of which prevents its being Psalms. The Directory was so called, in part, misguided.
because it only points out certain topics of They argued from celestial causes only, the constant vicinity of the sun, and the directness of his rays; ne
prayer, on which the minister might enlarge. ver suspecting that the body of the earth had so great private baptism and lay baptism, with the use of
The whole apocrypha was rejected; and both an eficiency in the changes of the air. No particle of matter, nor any combination of par- godfathers and godmothers, and the sign of the
cross. ticles, that is, no body, can either move of itself, or
In the sacrament of the Lord's supper, of itself alter the direction of its motion. Cheyne.
no mention is made of private communion or Common forms were not designed
administering it to the sick. The altar with rails Directors to a noble mind.
was changed into a communion table, about No reason can be assigned, why it is best for the
which the people might stand or sit; kneeling world that God Almighty hath absolute power, which
not being thought so proper a posture. Lightdoth not directly prove that no mortal man should foot, Selden, and others, were for open comkave the like.
Id. munion, to which the parliament also most Tro eagles from a mountain's height,
inclined, in opposition to those presbyterians By Jove's command, direct their rapid flight. Pope.
who were for granting powers of admission or
rejection to the ministers and elders, and to the All nature is but art unknown to thee,
independents who were for committing them to All chance, direction which thou canst not see.
the whole brotherhood; but it was agreed, that Nor visited by one directive ray,
the minister, before the communion, should From cottage streaming, or from airy hall.
warn, in the name of Christ, all such as are
Thomson. ignorant, scandalous, profane, or that live in any That revelation, which God hath been pleased to
sin or offence against their knowledge or conmake of his will to mankind, was designed rather to
science, that they presume not to come to that át us for the future happiness, and direct our way
holy table, showing them, that he that eateth and to it, than open to us the particular glories of it, or drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgdistinctly show us what it is.
Mason. ment to himself. The prohibition of marriage It is better to fail, if fail we must, in the paths of in Lent, and the use of the ring, were laid aside. Cirect and manly, than of low and crooked wisdom. In the visitation of the sick no mention is made
Burke. of private confession, or authoritative absolution. Vor. VII.
No service is appointed for the burial of the same time, nor succeed one another in it, till dead. All particular vestments for priests or after an interval of five years. 8. In case of ministers, and all saints’-days, were discarded. death, removal, or resignation of a member of It has been remarked, as a considerable omission, the Directory, his successor was elected within that the Directory does not enjoin the reading of ten days. The Council of Five Hundred were the apostles' creed, and the ten commandments. obliged to propose the candidates within the However, these were added to the assembly's first five days, and the Council of Ancients to confession of faith, which was published a year complete the election within the last five. The or two afterwards. This Directory continu in new member uld only continue in office for the uise till the restoration of king Charles II., when, remaining period of the persou he succecded, unthe constitution being restored, the old liturgy less it did not exceed six months, in which case, cook place again; the ordinance for its repeal he continued five years and a half in office. 9. having never obtained the royal assent. The Each director was to preside in rotation for revolution, thus occasioned in the form of public three months only. 10. The president was to worship, did not take place for a considerable sign and keep the seal. 11. The laws and time over the whole kingdom. In some parts of acts of the legislative body were addressed to the country the churchwardens could not pro- the Directory, in the person of its president. cure a Directory; and in others they despised it, 12. The Directory could not deliberate unless and continued the old common prayer book; three members were present. 19. A secretary some would read no form, and others used one was chosen (not one of its members), who of their own.
In order to enforce the use of the countersigned despatches, and drew up delibeDirectory, the parliament, hy au ordinance, dated rations, in a register, wherein each member August 23rd, 1645, called in all common prayer might also enter his opinion, with his reasons. books, and imposed a fine upon those ministers 14. The Directory could deliberate without the who should read any other form than that con- aid of the secretary, and one of the directors tained in the Directory. By the same ordinance, might record its resolutions in a particular regiswhich continued till the Restoration, to preach, ter. 15. The Directory provided for the security write, or print any thing in derogation or de- of the public according to the laws, issued propraving of the Directory, subjected the offender, clamations; &c. It disposed of the armed force; upon indictment, to a discretionary fine, not but none of its members could command it, exceeding £50.
either while they continued in office, or for two Directory, in a more modern sense, was years after. 16. The Directory, upon hearicg of used as the title of the supreme executive power, any conspiracy against the republic, might order according to the new constitution, formed by the the supposed authors or accomplices to be appreFrench convention after the fall of Robespierre, hended, and interrogate them; but were bound, and presented to the primary assemblies for ac- under the penalty of arbitrary imprisonment to receptance in August, 1795. By this constitution mit them to an officer of police, within two days, the legislative body was composed of what they to proceed with them according to law. 17. The called a Council of Ancients and a Council of Directory nominated the generals, but could not Five Hundred. The whole of this fabric, it is choose them among the relations of its members, well known, was overturned by the successful within the degrees above-mentioned. 18. It suambition of Napoleon : but as it directed the perintended the execution of the laws by commisenergies of a numerous, if not a great, people saries of its nomination. 19. It nominated the for a considerable period, we may here perpe- general agents of execution, but not of its own tuate its forms. The executive power was en- members, and recalled them at pleasure. 20. It trusted to a Directory of five members, nomi- determined their number and functions. 21. It nated by the legislative body as follows:-1. nominated all receivers of direct taxes. 22. As The Council of Five Hundred formed a list by well as the superintendants of indirect contribuhallot of three times the number to be nomi- tions, and the administration of national domains. nated, and presented it in the Council of An- 23. It superintended the coinage of money, and cients, which chose out of this list by ballot. nominated the officers charged with it. 24. No 2. The members of the Directory were to be Director could go out of the territory of the reforty years of age at least. 3. After the ninth public, till two years after he was out of office; year of the republic, they were to be chosen only but was obliged to certify his place of residence from among those citizens who had been mem- during that interval to the legislative body. 25. bers of the Legislative Body, or the Administra- The Directory was responsible for the non-execution, or General Agents of Execution. 4. Mem- tion of laws, and for the abuses which it did not bers of the legislative body could not be elected denounce. 26. Its agents were respectively remembers of the Directory, either during the sponsible for the non-execution of the laws, and continuance of their legislative functions, or orders of the directory. 27. Its members might during the first year after their expiration. 5. be tried by the legislative body for acts of treaThe Directory was partially renewed by the son, corruption, embezzlement of public money, annual election of a new member. 6. No ci- and all capital crimes as to their official conduct. devant director could be re-elected till after an 28. They were subject to the jurisdiction of the interval of five years. 7. The ascendant and tribunals for ordinary and private offences; but descendant in the direct line; the brother, uncle, they could not be arrested except in the case or and nephew; connexions by marriage in the flagrans delictum, or brought to trial without the same degrees, and cousins in the first degree, authority of the legislative body. could not be members of the Directory at the Every denunciation against the Directory, or