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One younger man amongst the rest would take upon DIOCLESIANUS (Caius Valerius Jovius), him to defend that every diocesan bishop was pope. a celebrated Roman emperor, born of an obI answered him with some scorn.

scure family in Dalmatia, in 245. He was first Bp. Hall's Hard Measure.

a common soldier, and by merit and success he Although he (the bishop) had not all the diocess gradually rose to the office of a general; and at actually in communion and subjection, yet his charge, the death of Numerian, in 284, was invested his diocess was so much. Just as with the Apostles, with imperial power. In this high station he to whom Christ gave all the world for a diocess, yet at first they had but a small congregation. Bishop Taylor. shared with him all the subordinate offices in the

rewarded the fidelity of Maximian, who had I have heard it has been advised by a diocesan to his inferior clergy, that they should read some of throne. He created two subordinate emperors,

army, by making him his colleague on the the most celebrated sermons printed by others.

Constantius and Galerius, by the title of Cæsars, Tatler.

whilst he claimed for himself and his colleague This realm has two divisions, one into shires or counties, in respect of temporal policy; another into

the superior title of Augustus. Dioclesian has dioceses, in respect of jurisdiction ecclesiastical. been celebrated for his military virtues; and

Cowell. though he was not polished by education, was, Oblige him to a longer residence in his diocese than is nevertheless, a patron of learning. He was bold, usually practised, that he may do the proper work of resolute, and active; but his cruelty to the a bishop ; that he may direct and inspect the flock of Christians has been deservedly branded with inChrist; confirm the unstable, reclaim the reprobate, famy. After he had reigned twenty-two years in &c.

Bishop Watson.

the greatest prosperity, he publicly abdicated the Diocese is also used in ancient authors for the crown at Nicomedia, in 305, and retired to a province of a metropolitan. Diocesis meant, private station at Salona. Maximian, his coloriginally, a ciril government, composed of di- league, was compelled to follow his example ; vers provinces. The first division of the em- and when he, some time after, endeavoured to pire into dioceses is ordinarily ascribed to Con- rouse the ambition of Dioclesian and persuade scantine, who distributed the whole Roman state him to re-assume the imperial purple, he received into four: viz. those of Italy, Illyria, the east, for answer, that Dioclesian took now more deand Africa. And yet, long before Constantine, light in cultivating his little garden, than he forStrabo, who wrote under Tiberius, takes notice merly enjoyed in a palace, when his power was (lib. xii. p. 432) that the Romans had divided extended over all the earth. He lived nine years Asia into dioceses; and complains of the con- after his abdication ir the greatest security and fusion such a division occasioned in geography, enjoyment at Salona, and died in 314, in the Asia being no longer divided by people, hut by sixty-eighth year of liis age. His persecutior. of dioceses, each of which had a tribunal or couri, the Christians forms a chronological era, called where justice was administered. Constantine, the era of Dioclesian, or of the Martyrs. It was then, was only the institutor of those large dio- long used in theological writings, and is still folceses which comprehended several metropoles lowed by the Copts and Abyssinians. It comand governments, the former dioceses only com- menced August 29th, A. D. 284, prehending one jurisdiction, or the country under DIOCTAHEDRIA, natural history, a one judge, as appears from this passage in genus of pellucid and crystalliform spars, comStrabo, as well as from Cicero himself; lib. iii. posed of iwo octangular pyramids, joined base to epist. ad famil. 9. and lib. xiii. ep. 67. Thus, at base, without any intermediate column. Of these first, a province included diverse dioceses; and some bave long pyramids, others short and afterwards a diocese came to comprise divers sharp-pointed ones, and others short and obtuse provinces. In after times the Roman empire pointed ones; the two former species being became divided into thirteen dioceses or pre- found in the Hartz, and the last in the mines fectures; though, including Rome and the of Cornwall. suburbs, there were fourteen. These fourteen DIODATI (John), a Protestant divine, and dioceses comprehended 120 provinces; each professor of theology at Geneva, who was bom province had a proconsul, who resided in at Lucca in 1579, and died at Geneva in 1652. the capital ; and each diocese of the empire He is distinguished by his translations: 1. Of had a consul, who resided in the princi- the Bible into Italian, with notes, Geneva, 1607, pal city of the district. On this civil constitution 4to. This work is, however, rather a paraphrase the ecclesiastical one was afterwards regulated : than a translation, and the notes, divine meditaeach diocese had an ecclesiastical vicar or pri- tions more than critical reficctions. 2. Of the mate, whose judgment determined all the con- Bible into French, Geneva, 1644; and 3. Of cerns of the church wit' in his territory. At pre- Father Paul's History of the Council of Trent sent diocese is confined to a single province, into French. under a metropolitan, or more commonly to the DIODIA, in botany, a genus of the monogysingle jurisdiction of a bishop. Brito affirms via order, and tetrandria class of plants; natural diocese to be properly the territory and extent of order, forty-seventh, stellatæ : cor. monopetalous a baptismal or parochial church; whence the and funnel-shaped : CAPs. bilocular and disperword is used by divers authors to signify a sim- mous. Species six, natives of the West Indies ple parish.

and of Mexico. DIOCLEIA, Alokleta, in antiquity, a solem DIODON, the sun-fish, in ichthyology, a nity kept in the spring, at Megara, in memory of genus belonging to the order of branchiostega. the Athenian hero, who died in the defence of There are three species : viz. the youth he loved.

1. D. trystrix, or the globe-fish, common to

Europe and South Carolina. The form of the and female flowers on separate roots. These last body is usually oblong; but when alarmed it only ripen the seeds; but require for that purhas the power of inflating the belly to a globular pose the vicinity of a male plant; for the aspershape of great size. This seems designed as a sion or sprinkling of the male dust. From the means of defence against fish of prey, as they seeds of the female flowers, thus impregnated, are have less means of laying hold of it, and are raised both male and female plants. The plants besides terrified by the numerous spines with in the class diæcia are therefore all either male which that part is armed, and which the animal or female, on separate roots; not hermaphrodite, can erect on every part. The mouth is small; as in the greater number of classes ; nor with the irides white, tinged with red; the back, from male and female flowers upon one root, as in the head to tail, almost straight, or at least very class monecia. See Botany. slightly elevated, of a rich deep blue color. It DIOGENES of Apollonia, in the island of has the pectoral, but wants the ventral fins: the Crete, held a considerable rank among the phitail is almost even, divided by an angular pro- losophers who taught in Ionia before Socrates apjection in the middle; tail and fins brown. The peared at Athens. He was the scholar and belly and sides are white, shagreened, or wrinkled, successor of Anaximenes, and in some measure and beset with innumerable small sharp spines, rectified his master's opinion concerning air being adhering to the skin by four processes.

the cause of all things. It is said that he was 2. D. mola, or the short sun-fish, differs from the first who observed that air was capable of the oblong, in being much shorter and deeper. condensation and rarefaction. He taught with The back and the anal fins are higher, and the great reputation at Athens; but was at length aperture to the gills not semilunar, but oval. banished for the freedom of his opinions. He The situation of the fins is the same in both. died about A.A.C. 450. Both kinds are taken on the western coasts of Diogenes the Cynic, an ancient philosopher, this kingdom, but in much greater numbers in the son of a banker of Sinope. Being banished the warmer parts of Europe.

with his father for coining money, he retired to 3. D. oblongus, the oblong sun-fish, grows to Athens, where he studied philosophy under Ana great bulk : one examined by Sylvianus was tisthenes. Here he added new degrees of ausabove 100 pounds in weight; and Dr. Borlase terity to the sect of the Cynics, and never did Mentions another taken at Plymouth in 1734, any philosopher carry contempt for the conthat weighed 500. In form it resembles a bream, veniences of life so far. He lodged in a tub; or some deep fish cut in the middle. The mouth and had no other property beside his staff, wallet, is very small, and contains in each jaw two and wooden bowl, which last he threw away, on broad teeth, with sharp edges. The eyes are seeing a boy drink out of the hollow of his hand. small; before each is a small semilunar aper- He used to call himself a vagabond, who had ture; the pectoral fins are very small, and placed neither house nor country; was obliged to beg betsind them. The color of the back is dusky, was ill clothed, and lived from hand to mouth and dappled; the belly silvery; between the Such singularity soon gained him reputation ; and Eyes and the pectoral fins are certain streaks, Alexander the Great condescended to visit the pointing downwards. The skin is free from philosopher in his tub. He asked if there was scales. When boiled, it has been observed to any thing in which he could oblige him : 'Gel turn into a glutinous jelly, resembling boiled out of my sunshine' was the only answer from starch when cold, and served the purposes the philosopher. The conqueror was so struck of glue on being tried on paper and leather. with the independence of mind thus exhibited, The meat of this fish is uncommonly rank: it that he declared, if he was not Alexander, he feeds on shell-fish. The sun-fish of the Irish, would choose to be Diogenes.' In reply to one the squalus of Gmelin, differs in all respects who asked at what time he ought to dine, Diofrom this.

genes said, “If you are a rich man, when you DIODORUS, surnamed Siculus, an ancient will; if you are poor, when you can.' 'Would historian, born at Argyra, in Sicily. He wrote a you be revenged upon your enemy,' said Diogenes, history of Egypt, Persia, Syria, Media, Greece, be virtuous, that he may have nothing to say Rome, and Carthage; and it is said that he vi- against you. As Diogenes was going over to the sited all the places mentioned in his history, which island of Egina, he was taken by pirates, who was the labor of thirty years. He is, however, carried him into Crete, and there exposed him to too credulous in some of his narratives; and sale. He answered the crier, who asked him often dwells too long upon fabulous reports and what he could do, that he knew how to comtrifling incidents; while events of the greatest mand men:' and perceiving Xeniades, a Corinimportance to history are treated with brevity, thian, going by,' he said, “Sell me to that and sometimes passed over in silence. He lived gentleman, for he wants a master.' Xeniades, in the age of Cæsar and Augustus, and spent struck with the singularity of Diogenes, bought much time at Rome to procure information, and him and carried him to Corinth, appointed him authenticate his history. This important work, tutor to his children, and soon entrusted him which he composed in Greek, contained forty with the management of his house. Diogenes's books of which there are only fifteen remaining. friends being desirous of redeeming him, You The best editions are that of Amsterdam, 1745, are fools,' said he; "the lions are not the slaves in 2 vols. folio, and lleyne, 10 vols. 8vo. 1793. of those who feed them, but they are the servants

DICCIA, the twenty-second class in Lin- of the lions.' Some say that Diogenes spent the Deus's sexual system, consisting of plants which, remainder of his life in Xeniades's family; but having no herniaphrodite flowers, produce malé Dio Chrysostoin asserts that he passed the winter

at Athens, and the summer at Corinth. He died proached the Greeks, and for the horror with at Corinth when he was about ninety years old: which they shunned all other nations. They are but authors are not agreed either as to the time called the birds of Diomedes. Altars were raised or manner of his death. The account of Jerom to Diomedes, as to a god, one of wbich Strabo is, that as he was going to the Olympic games, a mentions at Timavus. fever seized him; upon which he lay down under DIOMEDIA, in ornithology, a genus belonga tree, and refused the assistance of those who ing to the order of anseres. The bill is strait; accompanied him. "Go you to the games,' said the superior mandible is crooked at the point, he, and leave me to contend with my illness. and the lower one is truncated; the nostrils are If I conquer, I will follow you: if I am con- oval, open, a little prominent, and placed on the quered, I shall go to the shades below.' He des- sides. There are four species: the principal are: patched himself that very night; saying, that 'be 1. D. demersa, has no quill-feathers on the did not so properly die, as get rid of his fever.' wings ; and the feet have four toes, connected to He had for his disciples Onesicritus, Phocion, gether by a membrane. It is the black penguin Stilpo of Megara, and several other great men. of Edwards, about the size of a goose, and is His works are all lost.

found at the Cape of Good Hope. It is an exDIOGENES, surnamed Laertius, from Laerta in cellent swimmer and diver; but hops and flutCilicia, his birth place, an ancient Greek author, ters in a strange aukward manner on the land; who wrote ten books of the Lives of the Philoso- and, if hurried, stumbles perpetually, and frephers, still extant. In what age he flourished is quently runs for some distance like a quadruped, not determined. The oldest writers who mention making use of the wings till it can recover its him are Sopater of Alexandria, who lived in the upright posture, crying out at the same time like time of Constantine the Great, and Hesychius a goose, but in a much hoarser voice. It is said Milesius, who lived under Justinian. Diogenes to clamber some way up the rocks in order to often mentions Plutarch and Phavorinus; and make the nest; in doing which, it has been obMenage has fixed the period of his appearance at served to assist with the bill. The eggs are two the time of Severus, or about A.A. C. 200. He in number, white, as large as those of a duck, divided his Lives into books, and inscribed them and reckoned delicious eating, at least are thought to a learned lady of the Platonic school, as he so at the Cape, where they are brought in great himself intimates in his Life of Plato. There numbers for that purpose. At this place the birds have been several editions of his Lives of the are often seen kept tame; but in general they do Philosophers; but the best is that printed in 2 not survive the confinement many months. vols. 4to., at Amsterdam, 1693.

2. D. exulans, has pennated wings, and three DIOMEDES, in fabulous history, a tyrant of toes on each foot. It is the albatross of EdThrace, who is said to have fed his horses with wards; and is about the size of a pelican. These the flesh of men. Hercules killed him, and birds are found in the ocean betwixt the tropics, threw him to be eaten by his own carnivorous and at the Cape of Good Hope. They are also horses ; llyginus says there were four of them, often seen in vast flocks in Kamtschatka, and the and that the hero afterwards killed them, along adjacent islands, about the end of June, where with Abderus, their groom.

they are called great gulls; but it is chiefly in Diomedes, king of Ætolia, the son of Tydeus the bay of Penschinensi, the whole inner sea of and Deiphyle, one of the bravest of the Grecian Kamtschatka, the Kurile Isles, and that of Bhechiefs in the Trojan war. He went with Ulysses ring; for on the eastern coasts of the first they to steal the Palladium from the temple of Mi- are scarce, a single straggler only appearing now nerva in Troy; and assisted in murdering Rhesus and then. Their chief motive for frequenting king of Thrace, and carrying off his horses. At these places seems to be plenty of food; and their his return from the siege of Troy, he lost his way arrival is a sure presage of shoals of fish following. in the darkness of the night, and landed in Attica, At their first coming they are very lean, but soon where his companions plundered the country, grow immensely fat. They are very voracious, and lost the Trojan Palladium. During his long and will often swallow a salmon of four or five absence, his wife Ægiale had prostituted herself pounds weight; but as they cannot take the to Cometes, one of her servants. This was at- whole of it into their stomach at once, part of tributed to the resentment of Venus, whom Dio- the tail end will often remain out of the mouth; medes had wounded in a battle before Troy. and the natives, finding the bird in this situation, He resolved to abandon his native country, easily knock it on the head on the spot. Before which was the seat of his disgrace; and the at- the middle of August they migrate elsewhere. tempts of his wife to take away his life, hastened They are often taken by a hook baited with a his departure. He came to that part of Italy fish, not for the sake of their flesh (it being hard which has been called Magna Græcia, where he and unsavory) but on account of the intestines, built a city, which he called Argyrippa, and mar a particular part of which is blown up as a bladried the daughter of Daunus, ne king of the der, and serves as a float to buoy up nets in fishcountry. He died there in extreme old age; or, ing. Of the bones, tobacco-pipes, needle-cases, according to a certain tradition, he perished by &c., are made. When caught they defend themthe hand of his father-in-law. His death was selves stoutly with the bill. Their cry is harsh greatly lamented by his companions, who, in the and disagreeable, not unlike the braying of an excess of their grief, were changed into birds re ass. The breeding places of the albatross, if at sembling swans. These birds took flight into a all in the northern hemisphere, have not yet been neighbouring island in the Adriatic, and became pointed out; but we are certain of their multiremarkable for the tameness with winich they ap- plying in the southern, viz. Patagonia and Falk

land Islands; to this last place they come about lowing, that is from the thirty-fifth to the fiftythe end of September or beginning of October, fourth, remain entire; the six following are among other birds, in great abundance. The mutilated; and fragments are all that we possess nests are made on the ground with earth, are of the last twenty. In the compilation of this round in shape, a foot in height, indented at top. extensive history, Dion proposed Thucydides for The egg is larger than that of a goose, four inches a model, but he is not perfectly happy in his and a half l ng, white, marked with dull spots at imitation. His style is pure and elegant, and the bigger end, and is thought to be good food, his narrations are judiciously managed, and his the white never growing hard with boiling. reflections learned; but, upon the whole, he is While the female is sitting, the male is con- credulous, and the bigoted slave of partiality, stantly on the wing, and supplies her with food: satire, and flattery. He inveighs against the reduring this time they are so tame as to suffer publican principles of Brutus and Cicero, and themselves to be shoved off the nest while their extols the cause of Cæsar. Seneca is the object eggs are taken from them; but their chief destruc- of his satire, and he represents him as debauched tion arises from the hawk, which, the moment and licentious in his morals. the female gets off the nest, darts thereon, and DIONÆA, in botany, a genus of sensitive flies away with the egg. The albatross itself plants lately discovered. It belongs to the order likewise has its enemy, being greatly persecuted monogynia, in the decandria class. There is but while on the wing by the dark gray gull, called one genus as yet known: viz. D. muscipula, or skua. This bird attacks it on all sides, but par- Venus's fly-trap. Every one skilled in natural ticularly endeavours to get beneath, which is only history knows, that the sensitive plants close prevented by the first settling on the water; and their leaves, and bend their joints, upon the indeed they do not frequently fly at a great dis- least touch (see Mimosa); but ‘no design of natance from the surface, except obliged so to do ture has yet appeared to us from these surprising by high winds or other causes. As soon as the motions: they soon recover themselves again, young are able to remove from the nest, the pen- and their leaves are expanded as before. But guins take possession, and hatch their young in the dionæa shows that nature may have some turn. It is probable that they pass from one view towards its nourishment, in forming the part of the globe to another according to the sea- upper joint of its leaf like a machine to catch son; being now and then met with by different food; upon the middle of this lies the bait for voyagers at various times in intermediate places. the unhappy insect that becomes its prey. Many The food is supposed to be chiefly small marine minute red glands that cover its inner surface, animals, especially of the molluscæ or blubber and which discharge a smell of carrion, tempt the class, as well as flying fish.

poor animal to taste them; and the instant these DION, the son of Hipparinus, a Syracusan, tender parts are irritated by its feet, the two famous for his power and abilities. He was re- lobes rise up, grasp it fast, lock the two rows of lated to Dionysius, and often joined with the spines together, and squeeze it to death. And philosopher Plato (who at his request had come lest the strong efforts for life, in the creature thus to reside at the tyrant's court), in advising him taken, should serve to disengage it, three small to lay aside the supreme power. His great po- erect spines are fixed near the middle of each pularity rendered him odious in the eyes of the lobe among the glands, that effectually put an tyrant, who banished him to Greece. There he' end to all its struggles. Nor do the lobes ever collected a numerous force, and resolved to free open again, while the dead animal continues bis country from tyranny. This he easily ef- there. The plant, however, cannot distinguish fected on account of his popularity. He entered an animal from a general substance; for, if we the port of Syracuse with only two ships; and in introduce a straw or a pin between the lobes, it three days reduced under his power an empire will grasp it full as fast as if it was an insect. which had already subsisted for fifty years, and It grows in North America, in about 35° lat. N., which was guarded by 500 ships of war, and in wet shady places, and flowers in July and above 100,000 troops. The tyrant fled to Co- August. The largest leaves are about three rinth, and Dion kept the power in his own inches long, and an inch and a half across the hands, fearful of the aspiring ambition of some lobes, the glands of those exposed to the sun are of the friends of Dionysius : but he was shame- of a beautiful red color; but those in the shade fully betrayed and murdered by one of his fa- are pale, and inclining to green. The roots are miliar friends called Callicrates, or Callippus, squamous, sending forth but few fibres, and are 354 years before the Christian era.

perennial. The leaves are numerous, inclining Dion Cassius, a native of Nicæa in Bithynia. to bend downwards, and are placed in a circular His father's name was Apronianus. He was order; they are jointed and succulent; the lower raised to the greatest offices of state in the Roman joint, which is a kind of stalk, is flat, longish, empire by Pertinax, and his three successors. iwo edged, and inclining to heart-shaped. In He was naturally fond of study, and he improved some varieties they are serrated on the edges himself by unwearied application. He was ten near the top. The upper joint consists of two years in collecting materials for a history of lobes ; each lobe is of a semi-oval form, with its Rome, which he published in eighty books, after margins furnished with stiff hairs like eye-brows, a laborious employment of twelve years in com- which embrace or lock in each other when they posing it. This valuable history began with the close. The upper surfaces of the lobes are arrival of Æneas in Italy, and was carried down covered with small red glands; each of which to the reign of Alexander Severus. The first appears, when highly magnified, like a comthirty-four books are totally lost; the twenty fol. pressed arbutus-berry. If the fly, enclosed in


these lobes, can be forced out so as not to strain only are now remaining. There are also still the lobes, they expand again; but if force is extant several of his critical works. The best used to open them, so strong has nature formed edition of the works of this author is that of Oxthe spring of their fibres, that one of the lobes ford, in 1704, in Greek and Latin, by Dr. Hudwill generally snap off rather than yield. The stalk is about six inches high, round, smooth, DIONYSIUS, surnamed Periegetes, a learned and without leaves; ending in a spike of flowers. geographer, to whom is attributed a Periegesis, The flowers are milk-white, and stand on foot- or Survey of the Earth, in Greek verse. Some stalks, at the bottom of which is a little painted suppose that he lived in the time of Augustus ; bractea or flower leaf. The soil in which it but Scaliger and Saumasius place him under the grows, as appears from what comes about the reign of Severus, or Marcus Aurelius. He wrote roots of the plants when they are brought over, many other works, but his Periegesis is the only is a black, light mould, intermixed with white one we have remaining; the best and most useful sand, such as is usually found in our moorish edition of which is that improved with notes and heaths. Being a swamp plant, a northern aspect illustrations by Hill. will be properest for it at first, to keep it from. Dionysius, the Areopagite, was born and the direci rays of the sun; and in winter, till we educated at Athens. He went afterwards to are acquainted with what cold weather it can en- Heliopolis in Egypt; where, if we may believe dure, it will be necessary to shelter it with a bell some writers of his life, he saw that extraordinary glass, such as is used for melons. This should eclipse which happened at our Saviour's passion, be covered with straw or a mat in hard frosts. and was urged by some uncommon impulse to By this means several of these plants have been cry out, Aut Deus Naturæ patitur, aut cum papreserved through the winter in a very vigorous tiente dolet: 'Either the God of Nature suffers, state. Its sensitive quality will be found in pro- or condoles with him who does.' At his return portion to the heat of the weather, as well as the to Athens he was elected into the court of Areovigor of the plant. Our summers are not warm pagus, whence his title. About A. D. 50, he enough to ripen the seed; or possibly we are not embraced Christianity (Acts xvii. 34); and, yet sufficiently acquainted with the culture of it. some say, was appointed first bishop of Athens To try further experiments on its sensitive by St. Paul. He is supposed to have suffered powers, some of the plants might be placed in martyrdom; but whether under Domitian, Trapots of light moorish earth, set in pans of water, jan, or Adrian, is uncertain. We have nothing in an airy stove in summer; where the heat of remaining under his name, but what there is such a situation, being like that of its native great reason to believe spurioas. country, will make it surprisingly active.

DJOOJOCARTA, a considerable town and DIONYSIA, in Grecian antiquity, solemnities European settlement of the island of Java, situin honor of Bacchus, sometimes called by the ated on a navigable stream. It is the capital of general name of Orgia; and by the Romans Bac- the sultan of Mataram, who has a palace here chanalia and Liberalia.

three miles in circuit, surrounded by a broad DIONYSIACA, in antiquity, a designation wet ditch with draw-bridges, and defended by given to plays and all manner of sports acted on 100 pieces of cannon. Within its precincts is a the stage : because play-houses were dedicated lake, on which stands an ancient mansion, which to Dionysius, or Bacchus, one of the deities of is entered by a long and spacious passage under sports.

the water. A guard of 300 Amazons, daughters DIONYSIUS I. from a private secretary be- of petty chieftains, are said to be trained here came general and tyrant of Syracuse and all both to a military and domestic life. They are Sicily. He patronised learning and men of let- armed with spears, and are excellent equestrians. ters, and made his court the resort of many of This place was taken by a coup de main, by the greatest philosophers of Greece. He was the British, in 1812. also himself a poet; and having, by bribes,

DIOPHANTINE PROBLEMS, in mathematics, gained the prize for tragedy at Athens, he in- certain questions relating to square and cube dulged himself so immoderately at table from numbers, and right-angled triangles, &c., the excess of joy that he died of the debauch, A.A.C. nature of which was determinined by Diopha386. Some authors, however, say he was poi. nus. soned by his physicians.

DIOPTRIC, adj. Gs. 0207TOLLAL.

AfDionysIUS II., his son and successor, was a Diop'TRICAL, udj. fording a medium for the greater tyrant than his father : his subjects were Drop'trics, n. S. sight; assisting the sight obliged to fly to the Corinthians for succour; in the view of distant objects; a branch of the and Timoleon their general having conquered science of optics. the tyrant, he fled to Athens, where he was

Being excellently well furnished with dioptrical obliged to keep a school for subsistence. He glasses, he had not been able to see the sun spotted. died A.A.C. 343.

Boyle. DIONYSIUS, surnamed Halicarnasseus, or the View the asperities of the moon through a dioptrick Halicarnassian, a celebrated historian, and one of glass, and venture at the proportion of her hills by the most judicious critics of antiquity. He was

their shadows. More's Antid. against Atheism. born at Halicarnassus; and went to Rome after Dioptrics; of dia, through, and of Toua, I the battle of Actium, where he staid twenty-two see; sometiines called also Anaclastics, the docyears in the reign of Augustus. He there com- trine of refracted vision. A branch of the science posed in Greek his History of the Roman Anti- of optics. The ancients treated distinctly of diquities, in twenty books of wbich the first eleven rect and reflected vision; but of refracted vision

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