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siderable frontier towards Persia, it is well Catholics, and Jacobites, are computed at 80,000 guarded and fortified; but its many ancient cities by Gardanne, at 38,000 by Mr. M‘Donald are 'at present dwindled into heaps of ruins. Kinneir; the real number may probably be a Diarbekir, Bagdad, and Mosul, are however medium between the two. Diarbekır is sixty considerable places. The rivers Euphrates and miles from Merdin, 172 from Malatia, and 540 Tigris have almost their whole course through E.S. E. of Constantinople. this country.
DIARRHE'A, n. s. Gr. διαρροιη. A fux, DIARBEKIR, or DIARBECK Proper, is bounded DIARRHEʼTICK, adj. ) productive of frequent on the north by Turcomania, on the west by stools. The adjective signifies purgative. Syria, on the south by part of Arabia Deserta In the midst of that service was I surprised with a and Yrack Proper, and on the east by Curdistan. miserable distemper of body ; which ended in a diarIt is the same country that is called Padanaram rhæq biliosa, not without some beginning and further by Moses, signifying fruitful, which it still is in threats of a dysentery; wherewith I was brought so a very high degree, especially on the north side; low, that there seemed small hope of my recovery. where it yields corn, wine, oil, and fruits, in
Bp. Hall's Account of Himself. great abundance. Christianity flourished here Millct is diarrhætick, cleansing, and useful in disin an eminent manner, till its purity was sullied eases of the kidneys.
Arbuthnoi. about the beginning of the sixth century by the During his diarrhæa I healed up the fontanels. heresy of the Jacobites, whose patriarch resided
Wiseman. here it a very recent period. It is now a
It is certain, that much swimming is the means of
pa: chalic or government of Turkey, subdivided stopping a diarrhæa, and even of producing a constip
ation, into twelve districts. The principal towns are
Franklin. Diarbekir, Mosul, Orsa or Edessa, Visibis, Gezir, DIARRHEA, in medicine, an excessive purg. Merdin, Zibin, Amadia, and Carasara; all of ing, distinguished by frequent stools with the little note except Diarbekir and Mosul. natural excrement, not contagious, and sel
DIARBEKIR, DIARBECK, or CaRAHMED, the dom attended with pyrexia. It is a genus of capital of the above district, is situated in a de- disease in the class neuroses, and order spasmi lightful plain, on the banks and near the head of of Culler., containing the following species :the Tigris, about 155 miles or fifteen caravan 1. Diarrhea crapulosa. The feculent diarrhæa, days' journey, north-east of Aleppo. A bridge of from crapulus, one who overloads his stomach. ten arches over the river is said to have been 2. Diarrhea biliosa. The bilious, from an inbuilt by order of Alexander the Great. It is one creased secretion of bile. 3. Diarrhea mucosa. of the richest and most mercantile cities in all The mucous, from a quantity of slime being Asiatic Turkey; and was once well fortified, voided. 4. Diarrhæa hepatirrhea. The hepatic, being encompassed with a double wall, the outer- in which there is a quantity of serous natter, most of which was flanked with seventy-two somewhat resembling the washings of flesh, towers ; but the whole is now in a very dilapi- voided; the liver being primarily affecred. 3. dated state. The streets are narrow, but the Diarrhæa lienterica. The lientery; when the houses, being of stone and lofty, look respectable; food passes unchanged. 6. Diarrhea cæliaca. and it has several stately piazzas or bazaars, well The coeliac passion : the food passes off in this stored with all kinds of merchandise, and twelve affection in a white liquid state like chyle. 7. magnificent mosques, said to have been formerly Diarrhea verminosa Arising from worms. Christian churches. The Armenian cathedral DI'ARY, n. s. Lat. duürium. An account of is a handsome structure, the roof of which is sup- the transactions, accidents, &c., of every day; a ported by two rows of pillars; and the whole journal. foor covered by carpets.
A very handsome fountain in the court in front throws the water to but sky and sea, men make diaries ; but, in land-trave',
In sea voyages, where there is nothing to be seen a considerable height. Extensive manufactures wherein so much is to be observed, they omit it. are carried on here in iron, copper, silk, wool, and cotton; but its chief article of trade and
I go on in my intended diary.
Tatler. manufacture is Turkey leather, of which the sale
DIASTOLE, n. s. Alason. A figure in is immense. It has also a manufacture of fine rhetoric, by which a short syllable is made long: dyed linen and cotton cloths, which are nearly in also, the dilation of the heart. the same request. There are inany large and convenient inns on both sides of the river, for the
The systole seems to resemble the forcible bending
of a spring, and the diastole its flying out again to its caravans that go to and from Persia; and the
Ray on the Creation. place is much frequented by pilgrims of all nations and religions. The Turkish ladies are said
If systole or diastole move
Quickest when he's in wrath or love. Hudibras. here to enjoy an extraordinary degree of liberty, and are commonly seen on the walks of the city DI'ASTYLE. Ala and sudos, a pillar. A in company with the Christian women, with sort of edifice, where the pillars stand at such a whom they live in great friendship. The citizens distance from one another, that three diameters generally are said to be polite, affable, and cour- of their thickness are allowed for intercolunniateous. A basha resides here, who has very ex tion.
Harris. tensive jurisdiction. He has commonly a body
DIATESSERON, n. s.
Of δια and τεσσερα, , of 20,000 horse under him. The adjacent terri- four. An interval in music, composed of one tory is very rich and picturesque; the bread, greater tone, ove lesser, and one greater semitone; wine, flesh, and fruits, excellent. The inhabi- its proportion being as four to three. It is called, tants, who consist of Turks, Armenians, Kurds, in musical composition, a perfect fourth. Harris.
DIATHESIS, ASTHENIC, is described to be that either in ascending or descending, It contains state of the body, wherein there is too little only the two greater and lesser tones, and the excitement of the whole living system, arising greater semi-tone.
Harris. from the debilitating noxious powers, impairing Diatonic, in music, is compounded of two all the functions, disturbing some, giving a false Greek words, viz. the preposition dia, signifying appearance of increasing others, but always de a transition from one thing to another, and the bilitating.'
substantive tovos, importing a given degree of DIATHESIS, Stuenic, is that state of the body, tension and musical note. It is indifferently apwherein "all the functions are first increased; a plied to a scale or gamut, to intervals of a cerdisturbance or irregularity then takes place in tain kind, or to a species of music, whether in some ; others are impaired; but not, as long as melody or harmony, composed of these intervals. this diathesis lasts, by a debilitating operation.' We copy the following scale of the Greek dia
DIATONΊC. Of διατονος. The ordanary tonics from Dannely's Musical Dictionary :sort of music which proceeds by different tones,
28 Nete hyperbolaeon (second space treble clef)
g-flat) or f-sharp
em ) enhar. S-flat
b* ) enhar. c-flat
ax) enhar. b-fiat
giflat) f-sharp 9 Lichanos meson enarmonios
ex) enhar. f-flat
bx) enhar, c-flat
b-natural 1 Proslambanomenos (first space bass) DIAUGOPHRAGMIA, in natural history, a gave him a death-blow on the head with an axe, genus of fossils of the order of septariæ, whose and fled. This murder took place in March 27th, partitions, or septa, consist of spar with an ad- 1546; and, though the assassins were taken, mixture of crystal. Of this genus there are three the emperor Charles V. put a stop to the prospecies : 1. A red kind, with brownish-yellow ceedings against them. The miserable fratricide partitions; 2. A brownish-yellow kind, with afterwards hanged himself. An account of his whitish partitions ; 3. A bluish-white kind, with death was composed in Latin, under the title of straw-colored partitions.
Historia vera de Morte J. Diazii. It produced DIAZ (John), a martyr to the frantic zeal of a great sensation at the time. J. Diaz was the his brother against the protestant religion, was author of A Summary of the Christian Religion. born in the beginning of the sixteenth century, DIAZEUTIC TONE. Of δια and ζευγνυμι. at Cuenza in Spain. He studied theology at In the ancient Greek music, it disjoined two Paris, and under the celebrated Calvin at Geneva. fourths, one on each side of it; and which, being He was the companion of Bucer at the Ratisbon joined to either, made a fifth. This is, in our conference; and, going soon after to Neuburgh, musick, from A to B. was visited by his brother and murderer Alphon They allowed to this diazeutick tone, which is our sus Diaz, an advocate of the court of Rome. La, Mi, the proportion of nine to eight, as being the This zealot, failing in his endeavour to reclaim unalterable difference of the fifth and fourth. Harris. him to popery, immediately plotted against his DIB’BLE, n. s. & v. a.) Dut. dipfel, a life. He pretended to close his visit and take DIB'BLER.
sharp point, Skinhis departure, but secretly returned at break of ner ; from dabble, Junius; or a corruption of day to the apartment of Diaz, with a companion, dog-bill, according to Mr. Thomson. A small who affected to be the bearer of a letter. Gain- spade; a pointed instrument with which are made ing admission on this pretence, while Diaz was holes for planting or sowing. The verb is of reading the paper presented, Alphonsus's comrade recent introduction.
Through cunning, with dibble, rakc, mattuck, and DICÆARCHUS, a scholar of Aristotle, who spade,
composed a great number of books which were By line and by level trim garden is made.
valued highly by Cicero and Atticus. He wrote Tusser's Husbandry.
a work to prove that men suffer more mischief Wheat is generally dibbled in October, on land from one another than from all evils beside. newly broken up from clover-ley a man with an iron Another work he composed, concerning the redibble, about three feet long, in each hand, walking public of Lacedæmon, was read every year bebackward and making two rows of holes in each fore the youth in the assembly of the ephori. furrow, slice, or flag; they are made about four Geography was one of his principal studies, on inches distant from each other and from one to two inches deep. The dibbler is followed by two or three which science there is a fragment of a treatise of women, boys, or girls, who drop two or three grains his still extant, and preserved among the Veteris into each hole.
Geographiæ Scriptores Minores. DIBDIN (Charles), a celebrated writer of
DICE, n. s. & v. n. The plural of die. songs and musical composer, was the son of a
Di'cer, n. s. See Die. To dice is to
Dice'box. S play with dice, or gamsilversmith of Southampton, where he was born about the year 1745. He was intended for the ble. A dicer; a gamester. church, and received his early education at Win In prison ! certes nay, but in paradise ; chester school. At the age of fourteen, however,
Wel hath Fortune yturned thee the dise he became a candidate for the situation of orga
That b'ath the sight of her, and I the absence. nist in a Hampshire village, and, relinquishing
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. all views of entering the church, came at the in
They make marriage vows vitation of an elder brother, a captain in the
As false as dicers' oaths. Shukspeare. Hamlet. West India trade, to London. Here he was first
I was virtuously given as a gentleman need to be ; engaged in composing ballads, and tuning piano- virtuous enough; swore little ; diced not above seven fortes. He made his first appearance as a per
times a week,
Shakspeare Henry IV. former in 1762, at the Richmond theatre, and
It is above a hundred to one against any particular two years afterwards appeared on the London throw, that you do not cast any given set of faces with
four cubical dice, because there are so many several stage, as Ralph in The Maid of the Mill. The
Bentley. chief part of the music to Lionel and Clarissa, combinations of the six faces of four dice. and the whole of that to the musical entertain
I look upon every man as a suicide from the moment ment of The Padlock, now established his fame he takes the dicebor desperately in his hand; and all
that follows in his career from that fatal time is only as a composer for the drama, which he rapidly
sharpening the dagger before he strikes it to his heart, increased. The most celebrated of his pieces,
Cumberland. perhaps, are The Deserter, The Waterman (the dialogue of which is also his production), and
Dice, among gamesters, cubical pieces of bone the Quaker, which appeared between 1772 and or ivory, marked with dots on each side of their 1775. Mr. Dibdin never shone as an actor; faces, from one to six. Sharpers have several and, having quarelled with Garrick and some ways of falsifying dice : by drilling and loading other proprietors of the London theatres, he them with quicksilver; by filing and rounding quitted the stage altogether, and made a success. them, &c. ful attempt to entertain the public by accompany
The dice box is a narrow deep cornet, chaning himself, in his own songs, on the piano-forte. nelled within. It answers to what the Romans His saloon was near Leicester square, and known
called fritillus; whence, crepitantes fritilli: and, by the title of Sans Souci. His songs and enter
in Seneca, resonante fritillo. Besides the fritillus, tainments produced at this time are said to have
the Romans, for greater security, had another exceeded 1200. His sea songs are considered kind of dice-box called pyrgus, a vpyos, and somevery superior : witness the immense popularity times turricula. It was placed immoveable in of his Tom Bowling, Poor Jack, &c.' The for- the middle of the table, being open at both ends, mer is said to have been a tribute of affection to
and likewise channelled within ; orer the top was the memory of his brother. Imprudence, how- placed a kind of funnel, into which the dice were ever, always kept Dibdin poor; and, though as cast out upon the fritillus; whence descending, sisted by government and many opulent indi
they fell through the bottom on the table; by viduals, he died in indigent circumstances in
which all practising on them with the fingers 1814. An edition of his best songs has been was effectually prevented. For want of some published by Dr. Kitchiner.
contrivance of this kind, our sharpers have opDIBRA,“ a town of European Turkey, in portunities of playing a variety of tricks with the Macedonia, near Albania. It was besieged by
box. the Turks in 1442, who conveyed a dead dog
DICH. This word seems corrupted, says Dr. into the only spring that supplied the town with
Johnson from dit for do it. water, which compelled the inhabitants to sur
Rich men sin, and I eat root : render. It is thirty miles north of Akrida.
Much oed dich thy good heart, A pemantus, DIB'STONE, n. s. A little stone which
Shakspeare. Timon. children throw at another stone.
DICHOTOMY, n. s.
tion of ideas by pairs. I have scen little girls exercise whole hours together,
Some persons have disturbed the order of nature, and take abundance of pains, to be expert at dibstones. and abused their readers by an affectation of dichoto
mies, trichotomies, sevens, twelves, &c. Watts. DICAC'ITY, n. s. Lat. dicacitas. Pertness; Dichotomy, a term used by astronomers
for that appearance on the moon, wherein she is
bisected, or shows just half her disk. In this This is the solemnest title they can confer under situation the moon is said to be in a quadrate the princedom, being indeed a kind of dictatorship.
Wotton. aspect, or to be in her quadrature.
Unanimous they all commit the care DICK'ENS. A kind of adverbial exclamation,
And management of this main enterprise importing, as it seems, much the same with the To him their great dictator.
Milton. devil. Belg. dicker.
He that was fetched from the plough to be made Where had you this pretty weathercock!
dictator, had not half bis (a clown's) pride and insoI cannot tell what the dickens his name is my hus- lence.
Butler. band had him of. Shals. Merry Wives of Windsor. Kind dictators made, when they came home,
Their vanquisbed foes free citizens of Rome. What a dickens does he mean by a trivial sum?
Waller. But ha'n't you found it, Sir ? Comgreve. Old Bachelor.
This is that perpetual dictatorship which is exercised
by Lucretius, though often in the wrong. Dryden. DICKINSON (Edmund), a celebrated En
Those right helps of art, which will scarce be found glish physician and chemist, born in 1624. He by those who servilely confine themselves to the dicstudied and took his degrees at Merton College, tates of others.
Loche. Oxford; and, in 1655, published there his Del
Then let this dictate of my love prevail. phi Phænicizantes, &c., a learned piece, in which
Pope's Od. he attempted to prove, that the Greeks borrowed
That riches, honours, and outward splendour, the story of the Pythian Apollo, and all that should set up persons for dictators to all the rest of rendered the oracle at Delphi famous, from the mankind, is a inost shameful invasion of the right of Holy Scriptures, and from the book of Joshua in
Watts. particular. He practised physic first at Oxford;
Judgment, like other faculties, is improved by pracbut, removing to London in 1684, and restoring tice, and its advancement is hindered by submission the earl of Arlington from a dangerous illness, to dictatorial decisions, as the memory grows torpid by he was promoted to be physician in ordinary to the use of a table-book.
Johnson. Charles II.; and continued in his appointments
Thou, who with thy frown by his successor. After the Revolution, being Annihilated senates-Roman, too afflicted with the stone, he retired from practice, With all tby vices, for thou didst lay down and died in 1707. He published Physica Vetus With an atoning smile a more than earthly crown-et l'era, &c., containing a system of philosophy The dictatorial wreath,—couldst thou divine chiefly framed on principles collected from the To what would one day dwindle that which made Mosaic history.
Thee more than mortal!
Byron. DICTAMNUS, white dittany, or fraxinella, a
A Dictator was first chosen during the Rogenus of the monogynia order and decandria man wars against the Latins. The consuls beclass of plants; natural order twenty-sixth, mul- ing unable to raise forces for the defence of the tisilique : cal. pentaphyllous ; the petals are state, because the plebeians refused to enlist if five, and patulous; the filaments sprinkled with they were not discharged from all the debts they glandulous points, the capsules five, coalited. had contracted with the patricians, the senate There is only one species
. It has thick, penetrat- found it necessary to elect a new magistrate with ing, perennial roots, collected into a head at top,
absolute and uncontrolable power to take care sending up erect stalks annually two or three of the state. The dictator remained in office for feet high, garnished with pinnated alternate six months, after which he was again elected, if leaves, of three or four pair of oblong stiff lobes, the affairs of the state seemed to be desperate ; terminated by an odd one; and the stalks crowned but if tranquillity was re-established, he geneby long pyramidal loose spikes of flowers, of rally laid down his power before the time was white, red, and purple colors. They are very
expired. He knew no superior in the republic, ornamental plants, and succeed in any of the and even the laws were subjected to him. He common borders. The dittany which grows in was called dictator, quoniam dictis ejus parebat Crete, Dalmatia, and the Morea, formerly con- populus, because the people implicitly obeyed stituted an article in the materia medica. The his command. He was named by the consul in leaves in smell and taste somewhat resemble le- the night viva voce, and his election was conmon thyme, but have more of an aromatic flavor, firmed by the auguries. As his power was abas well as a greater degree of pungency; when solute, he could proclaim war, levy forces, confresh, they yield a considerable quantity of es- duct them against an enemy, and disband'them sential oil.
at pleasure. He punished as he pleased, and
from his decision there lay no appeal, at least DICTATE, v. a. & n. s. Fr. dicter; Ital. till later times. He was preceded by twentyDICTA'TION, n. s. dettare; Lat. dic- four lictors with the fasces; during his adminisDICTA'TOR,
tare; from dico, à tration, all other officers, except the tribunes of DICTATO'Bial, adj. Gr. osikw, to show; the people, were suspended, and he was the
DICTA'TORSHIP, n. S. Chald. P7, to see; master of the republic. But amidst ail this into speak. To declare or prescribe with authority: dependence, he was not permitted to go beyond As a substantive, dictate is the rule or maxim laid the borders of Italy; he was always obliged to down; dictation, the act of dictating; dictator, march on foot in his expeditions, and he never one who delivers rules or orders; and particu- could ride in difficult and laborious marches, larly a Roman magistrate invested with absolute without previously obtaining a formal leave from authority in certain exigencies. The other deri- the people. He was chosen only when the state ratives follow these meanings.
was in imminent danger from foreign enemies, or
intestine seditions. In the time of a pestilence, a DIDACʻTICAL, adj. ? Gr. diðartuos. Predictator was sometimes elected ; as also to hold Didac'TICK.
Sceptive; giving prethe comitia, or to celebrate the public festivals, cepts: thus a didactic poem is a poem that or drive a nail in the capitol ; by which super- gives rules for some art; as the Georgics stitious ceremony the Romans believed that a
The means used to this purpose are partly didactiplague could be averted, or the progress of an cal, and partly protreptical ; demonstrating the truth eneiny stopped. This office, so respectable and of the gospel, and then urging the professors of those illustrious in the first ages of the republic, be- truths to be stedfast in the faith, and to beware of incame odious by the perpetual usurpations of fidelity.
Ward on Infidelity. Sylla and Cæsar; and after the death of the
But what shall I say to Junius, the grave, the solatter, the Roman senate passed a decree which lemn, the didactic !
Horne Tooke. for ever forbade a dictator to exist in Rome. The dictator, as soon as elected, chose a subor
DID'APPER, n. s. From dip. A bird that
dives into the water. dinate officer, called his magister equitum, master of horse.' This officer could do nothing with- Preceptive ; didactic; giving precepts in some
DIDASCAL'ICK, adj. Greek, didaotalucos. out his express order. This subordination, how
art. ever, was some time after removed ; and during the second Punic war, the master of the horse I found it necessary to form some story, and give was invested with a power equal to that of the
a kind of body to the poem: under what species it dictator. A second dictator was also chosen for may be comprehended, whether didascalick or heroick,
Prior. the election of magistrates at Rome after the
leave to the judgment of the criticks. battle of Canna. The dictatorship. was origi
DID'DER, v. a. Teut. diddern; Ger. zittern. ginally confined to the patricians ; but the ple- To quake with cold; to shiver. • A provincial bcians were afterwards admitted to share it word,' says Skinner. Titus Lartius Flavus was the first dictator,
DIDELPHIS, in zoology, the opossum; a A.U.C. 253. The institution has been revived genus of quadrupeds belonging to the order of in South America, in modern times, in the person feræ, the characters of which are these :—They of the illustrious Bolivar.
have ten fore-teeth in the upper jaw, and eight DI'CTION, n. s. Fr. diction ; Lat. dictio. in the under one. The dog-teeth are long; the Style; language; expression.
tongue is somewhat ciliated; and they have a
pocket formed by a duplicatnre of the skin of There appears in every part of his diction, or ex
the belly, in which the dugs are included. Kerr pression, a kind of noble and bold purity. Dryden. We are refined ! and plain manners, plain dress,
enumerates nineteen species; the chief are : and plain diction, would as little do in life, as acorns,
1. D. brachyura, the short-tailed opossum of herbage, and the water of the neighbouring spring. Pennant, of a red color, has naked ears, and a would do at table.
Chesterfield short hairy tail, thick at the base, and gradually DICTIONARY, n. s. Fr. dictionaire ; Span. lessening to the extremity. The body is from dictionario ; Ital. dittionario ; Lat. dictionarium, three to five inches and a half long. The fur is from dictio, dico, to speak. See Diction. A very soft and glossy, and there is a beautiful red book containing the words of a language, with streak along the sides of the head and body. their explanations ; a lexicon ; a nomenclature This species inhabits the woods of South Ameof words or things.
rica. The female has from nine to twelve young Some have delivered the polity of spirits, and left
at a birth, which adhere to her teats as soon as an account that they stand in awe of charms, spells, born, and she has no pouch. This species agrees and conjuratious; that they are afraid of letters and with the Murina, in the general form of the characters, notes and dashes, which, set together, do body. 2. D. cancrivora, the crab-eater of Bufsignify nothing; and not only in the dictionary of fon, or the Cayenne opossum, has a long slender man, but in the subtler vocabulary of Satan. face; ears erect, pointed, and short: the coat Browne's Vulgar Errours.
woolly, mixed with very coarse hairs, three inIs it such a fault to translate simulacra images ?. I ches long, of a dirty white from the roots to the see what a good thing it is to have a good catholick middle;" from thence to the ends, of a deep dictionary.
Stillingfleet. An army, or a parliament, is a collection of men, of a dúsky brown; thumb ou each foot distinct ;
brown; sides and belly of a pale yellow; legs a dictionary, or nomenclature, is a collection of words.
on the toes of the fore-feet, and thumb of the It is not enough that a dictionary delights the cri- hind, are nails, very long, taper, naked, and tick, unless, at the same time, it instructs the learner. scaly. Length seventeen French inches; of the
Johnson. Plan of Dictionary. tail fifteen and a half. The subject measured DICTYNNIA, in antiquity, feasts celebrated was young. It inhabits Cayenne; is very active at Lacedæmon and in Crete, in honor of Diana, in climbing trees, on which it lives the whole or of a nymph taken for her, who, having plunged day. In marshy places it feeds on crabs, which, herself into the sea, to escape the passion of when it cannot draw out of their holes with its Minos, was caught in fishermen's nets, durva, feet, hooks them by means of its long tail. If whence the name.
the crab pinches its tail, the animal sets up a DICTYS, a very ancient Cretan historian, loud cry, resembling the human roice, which who, serving under Idomeneus in the Trojan may be heard afar; but its common voice is a war, wrote the history of that expedition. Tzet- grunt like a young pig. It is well furnished zes tells us that Homer formed bis Niad upon with teeth, and will defend itself stoutly against the plan of that history. The Latin history of dogs; brings forth four or five young, whieh · Diciys, which has come down to us, is spurious. it secures in some hollow tree. The natives eat