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nights inost favorable for this effect, are those lation of all that happened during the expediwhich are the calmest and most serene, and on tion; for which, at his return, he received the which the air is so dry as to deposit little dew solemn thanks of the States-General. In 1667 after midnight. Clouds and frequent changes of he established the perpetual edict for abolishing wind are certain preventives of congelation. the office of Stadtholder, which produced sedi300 persons are employed in this operation at tions and tumults; on which the pensionary one place. The enclosures formed on the ground begged dismission from his post : this was are four or five feet wide, and have walls only granted, with thanks for his services. But the four inches high. In these enclosures, previously invasion of the French, and the internal division bedded with dry straw, broad, shallow, unglazed among the Hollanders, spread every where terror earthen pans are set, containing unboiled pump- and confusion. Cornelius, the pensionary's water. Wind, which so greatly promotes evapo- brother, was imprisoned, and condemned to ration, prevents the freezing altogether, and dew exile; and a report being raised that he would forms in a greater or less degree during the whole be rescued, the mob armed, and surrounded the of the nights most productive of ice. If evapo- prison where the two brothers were together, ration were concerned in the congelation, wetting dragged them out, barbarously murdered them, the straw would promote it. But Mr. Williams, hung the bodies on the gallows, and cut them in the 83d vol. of the Philosophical Transactions, to pieces. Such was the end of John De Witt, says, that it is necessary to the success of the a man whose life had been devoted to the serprocess that the straw be dry. In proof of this vice of his country, without any consideration of he mentions, that when the straw becomes wet his own emolument. Besides the work already by accident it is renewed; and that when he mentioned, he wrote a book on the maxims of purposely wetted it in some of the enclosures, government, a translation of which, entitled, the formation of ice there was always prevented. The true Interest and Political Maxims of the Moist straw both conducts heat and raises vapor Republic of Holland, has been printed in from the ground, so as to obstruct the congela- London. tion. According to Mr. Leslie, water stands at De Witt's LAND, part of the north-west the head of radiating substances.

coast of New Holland, discovered by a Dutch DEWARCUNDAH, a sterile, or rather a navigator of that name, iu 1628. It is supposed desolated district of Hindostan, province of Gol- to comprehend about ten degrees of latitude, conda, extending along the south side of the and fifteen of longitude. Many low and sterile river Godavery, and situated between the islands, were afterwards discovered along the eighteenth and nineteenth degrees of northern coast, by the French. latitude. The country contains the ruins of a DEXTER, adj.

From Lat. derter, number of forts and villages, which evince it to Dex’TRAL, adj. the right hand.

Gr. have been formerly well cultivated.

DextRA'LITY, n. s. δεξιτερος, from δεχομαι, Dew-Born, in country affairs, a distemper in Dexter'ITY, n. s. to receive, because we cattle, being a swelling in the body, as much as Dex'TEROUS, adj. generally receive things the skin can hold, so that some beasts are in Dex'TEROUSLY, adv.) with the right hand. danger of bursting. It proceeds from greediness The right, not the left; a term in heraldry. Der. in feeding, when put into a rank pasture; but tral is a synonymous general term. Dextrality, commonly when the grass is full of water. In the state of being on the right hand side. Dexthis case the beast should be exercised, and terous is, clever; expert; because the right hand made to purge well; but the proper cure is is generally more so than the left. bleeding in the tail; then take a grated nutmeg,

My mother's blood with an egg, and breaking the top of the shell,

Runs on the dexter cheek, and this sinister put out so much of the white as that you may Bounds in my sire's.

Shakspeare. have room to slip the nutmeg into the shell; mix His wisdom, by often evading from perils, was them together, and then let shell and all be pu. turned rather into a dexterity to deliver bimself from down the beast's throat; that done, walk him up dangers, when they pressed him, than into a proviand down, and he will soon mend.

dence to prevent and remove them afar off. Bacon. DE WITT (John), a celebrated Dutch states In business desterous, weighty in debate. Johnson. man, born in 1625, at Dort. At the age of As for any tunicles or skins, which should hinder twenty-three, he published Elementa Curvarum tae liver from enabling the dextral parts, we must not Linearum; and, after taking his degrees, became, conceive it diffuseth its virtue by mere irradiation, in 1650, pensionary of Dort, and distinguished but by its veins and proper vessels. himself very early in the management of public

Browne's Vulgar Ertours. affairs. He opposed the war with the English

If there were a determinate prepotency in the right, as injurious to the States; and when the event and such as ariseth from a constant root in nature, justified his predictions, he was unanimously

we might expect the same in other animals, whose

Id. chosen pensionary of Holland. In this capacity parts are also differenced by dextrality. he labored to procure a peace with Cromwell;

They attempted to be knaves, but wanted art and dexterity.

South. in which peace a secret article was introduced

But then my study was to cog the dice, for the exclusion of the House of Orange. In

And dextrously to throw the lucky sice. Dryden. the war with England, after the Restoration,

They confine themselves, and are dexterous manawhen it was thought expedient, on Opdam’s gers enough of the wares and products of that corner defeat and death, that some of their own depu- with which they content themselves. Locke. ties should command the fleet, he was one of the For both their dexterous bands the lance could three in commission, and wrote an accurate re wield.


point, &c.


The measures, for instance, in which your Grace's have a share. The first were called diacrii, and activity bas been chiefly exerted, as they were adopted the latter pediaci; the latter inhabiting the without skill, should have been conducted with more lower, and the former the arpov, or upper part than common dexterity.


of the city.--The laws of Solon imported, that DEXTER, in heraldry, an appellation given to Pisistratus should be chief of the diacrii; though whatever belongs to the right side of a shield or the scholiast on Aristophanes's comedy of The coat of arms: thus we say, bend dexter, dexter Wasps, affirms that Pandion distributed the

quarter of the diacrii among his sons, and put DEY, the title of the sovereign of Algiers, Lycus at their head. under the protection of the grand signior. A DIADELPHIA, from diç twice, and adeApoca prince, under this title, was appointed by the brother, the seventeenth class in the sexual system, sultan, at the request of the Turkish soldiers, in comprehending those plants which bear herma1710. The term dey, in the Turkislı language, phrodite flowers with two sets of united stasignifies an uncle by the mother's side. The mina; but this circumstance must not be absoreason of the denomination is this: the Turkish lutely depended on. They are the papilionacei military consider the grand seignior as their fa- of Tournefort, the irregulares tetrapetali of ther; the state as their mother, by which they Rivinus, and the leguminosa of Ray. See Boare nourished and maintained; and the dey as the brother of the state, and consequently the DI'ADEM, n.s. ? Fr. diadéme; Span. and uncle of all who are under his dominion. See

Dr'ademed, adj. | Lat. diadema; Gr. diadnja, Algiers.

from du and dew, to bind. The fillet, tiara, or DIABETES, n. . Alabairns. A morbid crown of monarchs. See Crown. Diademed copiousness of urine; a fatal colliquation by the is crowned. urinary passages.

And the ighen of him weren a flawme of fier, and An increase of that secretion may accompany the in his heed manye diademys. Wiclif. Apoc. xix. general colliquations; as in fluxes, hectic sweats and

Thou shalt be a crown of glory in the hand of the coughs, diabetes, and other consumptions. Derham's Physico-Theology. Lord, and a royal diadem in ihe band of thy God.

Isaiah Ixii. 3. A theory of the diabetes and dropsy, produced by The sacred diadem in pieces rent, drinking fermented or spirituous liquors, is explained

And purple robe gored with many a wound. in a treatise on the inverted motions of the lymphatic

Spenser. system.


Methought I sat in seat of majesty, DIABETES, from dia, through, and Baivw, In the cathedral church of Westminster, to pass. An immoderate flow of urine. A And in that chair where kings and queens are genus of disease in the class neuroses,order spasmi crowved, of Cullen. There are two species of this com

Where Henry and Dame Margaret kneeled to me, plaint : Diabetes insipidus, in which there is a And on my head did set the diadem. Shakspeare. superabundant discharge of limpid urine, of its

A crown, usual urinary taste; and diabetes mellitus, in Golden in show, is but a wreath of thorns ; which the urine is very sweet, and contains a

Brings dangers, troubles, cares, and sleepless nights, great quantity of sugar.

To him who wears the regal diadem. Millon. DIABOLICAL, adj. 2 Froni Lat. diabolus. A list the coblers' temples ties, Diabol'icK.

See Devil. Devilish; To keep the hair out of their eyes; partaking of the qualities of the deril; impious ;

From whence 'ris plain the diadem, atrocious.

That princes wear, derives from them. Swift. This, in other beasts observed,

Not so, when diademed with rays divine,

Touched with the flame that brcaks from virtue's Doubt might beget of diabolick power,

shrine, Active within, beyond the sense of brute.


Her priestless muse forbids the good to die,

And The practice of lying is a diabolical exercise, and

opes the temple of eternity.

Pope. they that use it are the devil's children. Ray. What is the exaltation of the meanest beggar from

They are beautiful, and cannot, sure, be demons ? a dunghill to an earthly diadem, when compared with STRANGER. True ;

that of human nature from the grave to the throne of The Devil's always ugly; and your beauty


Bp. Horne, Psal. cxiii, 7. Is never diabolical.

Byron. And she, proud Austria's mournful flower, DIACH'YLON, in pharmacy, an emollient Thy still imperial bride ; digestive plaster composed of mucilages or

If still she loves thee board that gem, viscid juices drawn from certain plants. See

'Tis worth thy vanished diadem. PHARMACY,

Byron. Ode tu Napoleon. DIACOʻDIUM, n. s. Alarwdiov. The syrup DIADEM, in antiquity, a head-band or fillet,

worn by kings as a badge of their royalty. [t DIACOʻUSTICS, n. s. Alakesua. The doc was made of silk, thread, or wool, and tied wine of sounds.

round the temples and forehead, the ends being DIACRII, in antiquity, the name of a faction tied behind, and let fall on the neck. It was at Athens. That city was divided into two par- usually white and plain, though sometimes emties: the one desired an oligarchy, and would broidered with gold, and set with pearls and only have a few persons employed in the govern- precious stones. In latter times it came to be ment: the others were for a democratical go- twisted round crowns, laurels, &c., and even vernment, wherein the whole people should appears to have been worn on divers parts of the

of poppies.


body. The word is derived from the Greek, vloc, ôia and ywvia, an angle. A line drawn as mentioned in the preceding article.

from one angle of a square to another. Diadem, in heraldry, is applied to circles or rims serving to inclose the crowns of sovereign

The monstrosity of the badger is ill-contrived, and princes, and to bear the globe and cross, or the into the legs of one side, that might have been more

with some disadvantage; the shortness being fixed fleurs-de-lis for their crest. The crowns of

properly placed upon the diagonal movers. sovereigns are bound, some with a greater, and

Browne's Vulgar Errours. some with a less number of diadems. The bandage about the heads of Moors on shields is also

When a man has in his mind the idea of two lines, called diadem, in blazoning.

viz. the side and diagonal of a square, whereof the DI'ADROM, n. s. Alaopouew. The time in diagonal is an inch long, he may have the idea also of

the division of that line into a certain number of which any particular motion is performed.

equal parts.

Locke. A gry is one tenth of a line, a line one tenth of an inch, an inch one tenth of a philosophical foot, a phi All sorts of stone composed of granules, will cut losophical foot one third of a pendulum ; whose dia and rive in any direction, as well in a perpendicular, droms, in the latitude of forty-five degrees, are each or in a diagonal, as horizontally and parallel to the equal to one second of time, or a sixtieth of a minute. side of the strata.

Woodward. Locke. DI E'RESIS, n. s. Alaipeous. The separa If a region of air be gradually removed from north tion or disjunction of syllables, as aër.

to south, it would also blow diagonally between the north and east.

Daricin. Diæresis is also a kind of metaplasm, or addition to a word, by dividing one syllable into two; as aulae,

DIAGONAL, in geometry, a right line drawn by a diæresis, is a word of three syllables, instead of aulæ.

Dr. A. Rees.

across a quadrilateral figure, from one angle to

another ; by some called the diameter, and by DiÆresis, in medicine, is the consuming of others the diametral, of the figure. See Geothe vessels of an animal body, when, from some corroding cause, certain passages are made which

DIAGORAS, surnamed the Atheist, lived in naturally ought not to have been, or certain natural passages are dilated beyond their ordinary

the ninety-first Olympiad. He was not a native dimensions, so that the humors which ought to

of Athens, but he taught there. He had comhave been contained in the vessels extravasate him. lle sued the thief, who swore it was his

posed a poem which a certain poet stole from or run out. DIÆresis, in surgery, an operation serving

own, and obtained fame by it. This tempted to divide and separate the part when the con

Diagoras to deny a Providence. The Athenians

summoned him to give an account of his doctinuity is a hindrance to the cure.

DIETETÆ, in Grecian antiquity, a kind of trine. He ded, and they set a price upon his judges, of which there were two sorts; viz. kill 'him; but he took shipping, and was

head, promising a reward to any who should Diætetæ cleroti, public arbitrators, chosen by

wrecked. lot to determine all causes exceeding ten drachms, within their own tribe; and from their sentence DI'AGRAM, n. s. Alaypajja. A delineation an appeal lay to the superior courts. And of geometrical figures; a mathematical scheme. diætetæ diallecterii, private arbritators from whose sentence there lay no appeal. They al- demonstration in the mathematics ; very specious in

Many a fair precept in poetry is like a seeming ways took an oath to administer justice without

the diagram, but failing in the mechanic operation. partiality.

Dryden. DIAGLYPHICA, the art of cutting or engraving figures on metals, such as seals, intaglios,

Why do not these persons make a diagram of these matrices of letters, &c., or coins for metals. See cogitative lines and angles, and demonstrate their ENGRAVING.

properties of perception and appetite, as plainiy as we DIAGNOʻSTICK, n. s. Alayırworw. A symp

know the other properties of triangles and circles ?

Bentley. tom by which a disease is distinguished. Used also figuratively.

DIAGRY'DIATES, n. s. From Lat. diagOne of our physicians proved disappointed of his rydium. Strong purgatives made with diagryprognosticks, or rather diagnosticks.

dium. Harvey on Consumptions

All cholerick humours ought to be evacuated by DIAGʻONAL, adj. & n. s.? Fr. diagonal, diagrydiates, mixed with tartar, or some

id, or rhu. DiagʻONALLY, adv. from Gr. Olayw barb powder.




DI'AL, n.s.

Lat. diale, belonging to the ninety-nine years; till Martius Philippus set up Dr’al-PLATE, day. An instrument for mark- another more exact. Di'ALLING, ing the hour of the day. Dial 6. The first professed writer on dialling is ClaDi'ALLIST.

ling is the art of making vius: who demonstrates both the theory and the dials.

operations, after the manner of the ancient maFull faire of windowes and delightful bowres,

thematicians; but with so much intricacy, that And on the top a diall told the boures.

few perhaps ever read them all. Dechales and Spenser. Faerie Queene. Ozanam give much simpler demonstrations in 0, gentlemen, the time of life is short :

their Courses, and Wolfius in his Elements. To spend that shortness basely were too long, M. Picard has given a new method of making Though life did ride upon a dial's point

large dials, by calculating the hour lines; and Sull ending at the arrival of an hour.

M. De la Hire, in his Dialling, printed in 1683, Shakspeare. Henry IV.

a geometrical method of drawing hour lines from It is not necessary in the arts of dialling or naviga- certain points determined by observation. Ebertion to mention the true system or earth's motion.

hardus Welperus, in 1625, published his Dialling, Berkeley.

in which he lays down a method of diawing the Strada tells us that the two friends, being each of primary dials on a very easy foundation. The them possessed of a magnetical needle, made a kind

same foundation is described at length by Sebasof dial-plate, inscribing it with the four-and-twenty tian Munster, in his Rudimenta Mathematica, publetters, in the same manner as the hours of the day lished in 1551. are marked upon the ordinary dial-plate.

Addison's Spectator.

7. Sturmius, in 1672, published a new edition

of Welperus's Dialling, with the addition of a Scientifick dialists, by the geometrick considerations whole second part, about inclining and declining of lines, have found out rules to mark out the irregu, dials, &c. In 1708 the same work, with Sturlar motion of the shadow in all latitudes, and, on all planes.


mius's additions, was republished, with the ad

dition of a fourth part, containing Picard's and While dial is derived from the Latin dies, day, De la Hire's methods of drawing large dials. because it indicates the hour of the day, the an

Paterson, Michael and Muller, have each written cients also called it sciatherium, from its effect

on dialling in German; Coetsius, in his Horoloby the shadow. '1, DIALLING may be defined the art of draw- in his Gnomonica Mechanica ; Bion in his Use

giographia Plana, printed in 1689; Gauppenius ing dials on the surface of any given body, of Mathematical instruments; the late ingenious whether plane or curved. By the Greeks and Mr. Ferguson in his Select Lectures; Mr. Emerson Romans this art is called gnomonica, and scia- in his Dialling; and Mr. W. Jones in his Instrutherica, because it distinguishes the hours by the mental Dialling, &c. shadow of the gnomon.

DEFINITIONS. 2. This art is of great antiquity, for we read in Isaiah, xxxviii. 8, of the dial of Ahaz, who began 8. A dial is a surface, generally plane, upon to reign 400 years before Alexander, and within which lines are described in such a manner, that twelve years of the building of Rome.

the shadow of a wire, or of the upper edge of 3. Among the ancients Anaximenes the Mile- another plane, erected perpendicularly on the sian, and Thales, are said to have made dials; and former, may show the time of the day. Vitruvius mentions one made by the ancient Chal 9. The edge of the plane by which the time dee historian Berosus, on a reclining plane almost of the day is found is called the stile of the dial, parallel to the equator.

which must be parallel to the earth's axis; and 4. Aristarchus of Samos invented the hemi- the line on which the said plane is erected is spherical dial, and there were at the same time called the substile. sorne spherical ones, with a needle for a 10. The angle included between the substile gromon.

The discus of Aristarchus was an and stile is called the elevation, or height, of the horizontal dial, with its rim raised up all stile. around to prevent the shadow from stretching 11. Dials, the planes of which are parallel to too far.

the plane of the horizon, are called horizontal 5. It was late before the Romans became ac- dials; and those which have their planes perquainted with dials. The first sun-dial at Rome pendicular to the plane of the horizon, are called was set up by Papirius Cursor, about the year of vertical, or erect, dials. the city 460; before which time, says Pliny, there 12. Erect dials, the planes of which directly is no mention of any reckoning of time but by the front the north or south, are called direct north, sun's rising and setting : it was set up at or near or south, dials : all other erect dials are called the temple of Quirinus, but was very inaccurate. decliners, because their planes are turned away About thirty years after M. Valerius Messala, from the north or south. being consuí, brought out of Sicily another dial, 13. Dials, the planes of which are neither pawhich he set up on a pillar near the rostrum; but rallel nor perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, because it was not made for that latitude it did are called inclining or reclining dials, according not show the time truly. They made use of it for as their planes make acute or obtuse angies Vol. VII.


with the horizon; and, if their planes are also circle of the sphere if the dial plane were hori. turned aside from facing the south or north, they zontal. are called declining inclining, or declining reclin 21. If the plane (still facing the meridian) be ing, dials.

made to incline, or recline, any given number 14. The intersection of the plane of the dial, of degrees, the hour circles of the sphere will with that of the meridian, passing through the still cut the edge of the plane in those points stile, is called the meridian of the dial, or the to which the hour lines must be drawn straight hour line of XII.

from the centre; and the axis of the sphere 15. Meridians, the planes of which pass will cast a shadow on these lines at the respective through the stile, and make angles of 15°, 30°, hours. 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, with the meridian of the 22. The same will be the case if the plane be place, which marks the hour line of XII, are made to decline by any given number of degrees called hour circles; and their intersections with from the meridian towards the east or west: prothe plane of the dial are called hour lines. vided the declination be less than 90°, or the

16. In all declining dials the substile makes reclination be less than the co-latitude of the an angle with the hour line of XII., and this place; and the axis of the sphere will be a gnoangle is called the distance of the substile from mon, or stile, for the dial. But it cannot be the meridian.

a gnomon when the declination is quite 90°, 17. The declining plane's difference of longi- nor when the reclination is equal to the cotude is the angle formed at the intersection of the latitude ; because, in these two cases, the axis stile and plane of the dial, by two meridians; one has no elevation above the plane of the dial. of which passes through the hour line of XII, And thus it appears that the plane of every dial and the other through the substile.

represents the plane of some great circle upon the PRINCIPLES OF DIALLING.

earth; and the gnomon the earth's axis, whether

it be a fine wire, as in the above figures, or the 18. If the whole earth, a Pep, fig. 1, plate I., edge of a thin plate, as in the common horizonwere transparent and hollow, like a sphere of tal dials. glass, and had its equator divided into twenty-four 23. The whole earth, as to its bulk, is but a equal parts by so many meridian semicircles, a, point, if compared to its distance from the sun ; b, c, d, e, f, g, &c., one of which is the geogra- and therefore, if a small sphere of glass be placed phical meridian of any given place, as London, upon any part of the earth's surface, so that its (which is supposed to be at the point a); and if axis be parallel to the axis of the earth, and the the hour of XII were marked at the equator, sphere have such lines upon it, and such planes both upon that meridian and the opposite one, within it, as above described, it will show the and all the rest of the hours in order on the hours of the day as truly as if it were placed at rest of the meridians, those meridians would be the earth's centre, and the shell of the earth were as the hour circles of London: then, if the sphere transparent as glass. had an opaque axis, as P Ep, terminating in the 24. But hecause it is impossible to have a poles P and p, the shadow of the axis would fall hollow sphere of glass, perfectly true, blown upon every particular meridian and hour when round a solid plane; or, if it were, we could the sun came to the plane of the opposite meri- not get at the plane within the glass to set it in dian, and would consequently show the time at any given position; we make use of a wire sphere London, and at all other places on the meridian to explain the principles of dialliny, hy joining of London.

twenty-four semicircles together at the poles, and 19. If this sphere were cut through the middle putting a thin flat plate of brass within it, as is by a solid plane, ABC D, in the rational horizon shown in the preceding figures. of London, one-half of the axis E P would be above the plane, and the other half below it;

DIALLING BY THE Terrestrial Glore. and, if straight lines were drawn from the centre 25. A common globe of twelve inches diameof the plane to those points where its circum- ter has generally twenty-four meridian semicircles ference is cut by the hour circles of the sphere, drawn upon it. If such a globe be elevated to the those lines would be the hour lines of a horizon- latitude of any given place, and turned about tal dial for London: for the shadow of the axis until one of these meridians cut the horizon in would fall upon each particular hour line of the the north point, where the hour of XII is supdial when it fell upon the like hour circle of the posed to be marked, the rest of the meridians will sphere.

cut the horizon at the respective distances of all 20. If the plane which cuts the sphere be up- the other hours from XII. And if these points right, as AFCG, fig. 2. touching the given of distance be marked on the horizon, and the place (London) at F, and directly facing the me- globe be taken out of the horizon, and a flat ridian of London, it will then become the plane board or plate be put into its place,even with the of an erect direct south dial; and if right lines surface of the horizon; then if straight lines be be drawn, from its centre, E, to those points of drawn from the centre of the board, to those its circumference where the hour circles of the points of distance on the horizon which were cut sphere cut it, these will be the hour lines of a by the semicircles; these lines will be the hour vertical or direct south dial for London, to wbich lines of a horizontal dial for that latitude, the edge the hours are to be set, as in the figure, and the of whose gnomon must be in the very same sitnalower half, Ep, of the axis will cast a shadow tion in which the axis of the globe was before it on the hour of the day in this dial, at the same was taken out of the horizon : that is, the gnomon time that it would fall upon the like hour must make an angle with the plane of the dial,

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