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able, but it may be entirely divested of it, and before its walls. In succeeding times, when Merendered perfectly pure by rectification. The tellus subdued the island, he assailed Cydon traders in spirituous liquors are well acquainted with all his forces; and, after combating an obwith the value of such a spirit as this : they can stinate resistance, subjected it to the power of give it the flavors of some other kinds, and sell it Rome. Cydon occupied the present situation under their names, or mix it in large proportion of Canea; only extending half a league further with foreign brandy, rum, and arrack, in the sale, towards St. Odero. without danger of detection.

CYGNET, n. s. Lat. fron. cygnus. young CYDER Wine, a kind of wine made from the juice of apples taken from the press and boiled, and which being kept three or four years is said I am the cygnet to this pale faint swan, to resemble Rhenish. The method of preparing Who chaunts a doleful hymn to his own deatn. it according to Dr. Rush of America, where it is

Shakspeare. King John. much practised, consists in evaporating in a

So doth the swan her downy cygnets save, brewing copper the fresh apple juice till lialf of

Keeping them prisoners underneath her wings, it be consumed. The remainder is then imme

Id. Henry VI. diately conveyed into a wooden cooler, and afterwards put into a proper cask with an addition of

Cygnets, from grey, turn white.

Barrn's Natural History. yeast, and fermented in the ordinary way. The process is evidently borrowed from what has long Young cygnets are good meat, if fatted with oats; been practised on the recent juice the grape, but, fed with weeds, they taste fishy. under the term of vin cuit, or boiled wine, in

Mortimer's Husbandry. Italy, and the islands of the Archipelago. This

Next the changed god a cygnet's form assumes, process has often become an object of imi- And playful Leda smooths his glossy plumes. tation in the cyder counties, and particularly in

Darwin. the west of England. Dr. Fothergill made a variety of experiments to ascertain whether or

And she bent o’er him, and he lay beneath, not the liquor acquires any noxious quality from

Hushed as the babe upon its mother's breast, the copper in which it is boiled, and the result Drooped as the willow when no winds can breathe,

Lulled like the depth of ocean when at rest, seemed to afford a strong presumption that the

Fair as the crowning rose of the whole wreath, wine does contain a minute impregnation of

Soft as the callow cygnet in its nest. copper. It is a curious chemical fact, he ob

Byron. Don Juan. serves, that acid liquors, while kept boiling in copper vessels, acquire little or no impregnation

CYLINDER, 1. s. Κυλινδρος. A circular from the metal, but presently begin to act upon CYLINDRICAL, adj. ( body terminated by {wo it when left to stand in the cold.

CYLINDRICK, adj. S hat surfaces. Partabing CYDIAS, an ancient Greek painter who made

, n. of of a painting of the Argonauts in the eleventh der; having the form of a cylinder. A cylinOlympiad. This celebrated piece was bought by droid is a body approaching to the figure of a the orator Hortensius for 164 talents.

cylinder. CYDNUS, in ancient geography, a river of

The Cilicia; rising in Mount Taurus, or rather in An

square will inake you ready for all manner of * titaurus, north of Tarsus, through whose middle compartments, bases, pedestals, plots, and buildings; it ran, in a very clear and cold stream; falling your cylinder, for vaulted turrets, and round build


Peacham. into the sea at a place called Rhegma, a breach, the sea breaking in there, and affording the peo The quantity of water which every revolution does ple of Tarsus a station or port for their ships. The carry, according to any. inclination of the cylinder, water of the Cydnus is commended by Strabo, may be easily found.

Wilkins. as of service in nervous disorders and the gout; it was so cold, however, that bathing in it had

Minera ferri stalactitia, when several of the cylin

drick striæ are contiguous, and grow to ether into one almost proved fatal to Alexander.

sheaf, is called hrush iron ore. CYDONIA, or Cydon, in ancient geography,

Woodward's Natural History. one of the three most illustrious cities of Crete, situated in the north-west of the island, with a

Obstructions must be most incident to such parts of port walled round. Stephen of Byzantium says,

the body where the circulation and the elastick übres that it was first named Apollonia from Cydon extremitics of arteries formed into cylindrical canals.

are both smallest, and those glands, which are the the son of Apollo. Pausanias ascribes the found

Arbuthnot on Aliment, ing of it to Cydon the son of Tegetus, who travelled into Crete. Herodotus affirms, that it

Nymphs! your fine hands ethereal foods amass was founded by the Samians, and that its temples From the warm cushion, and the whirling glass ;

Beard the bright cylinder with golden wire, were erected by them. Alexander, in the first

And circumfuse the gravitating fire. Darurin. hook of the Cretans, informs us, that it received its name from Cydon the son of Mercury. Cy Pent in dark chambers of cylindric hrass, don was the largest city in the island; and was en

Slumbers in grim repose the sooty mass. Id abled to hold the balance between her contending

This knob or corner of a cloud in being attracted by neighbours. Phaleucus, general of the Pho- the earth will become nearly cylindrical, as loose wool ceans, making an expedition into Crete with a

would do when drawn out into a thread, and will Heet and a numerous army, invested Cydon both strike the earth with a stream of electricity, perhaps by sea and land; but, lost his army and his life two or ten vards in diaraeter.



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whence it must have been hollow: which apa CYLINDER, in geometry, a 90

pears, too, from the figure of several other things lid body, supposed to be gene

denominated from it; as a basin, caldron, gobrated by the rotation of a rectangle

let, cask, and even a shoe, such as those of Emabout one of its sides, as the figure

pedocles, which were of brass. The ancient CDEF generated by the revolu

cymbals appear to have been very different from tion of the parallelogram A BEF

our kettle drums, and their use of another kind. round its siile AB, which is the

To their exterior cavity was fastened a handle; axis of the cylinder. See Geo

whence Pliny compares them to the upper part of the thigh, and Rabanus to phials. They were

struck against one another in cadence, and made CYLINDROID, in geometry, a solid body, a very acute sound. The invention of them was approaching to the figure of a cylinder, but dif- attributed to Cybele; whence their use in feasts fering from it in some respects, as having the and sacrifices; setting aside this occasion, they bases elliptical, but parallel and equal.

were seldom used but by dissolute and effeminate CYMAR, n. s. Properly written simar. A people. M. Lampe attributes the invention to slight covering; a scarf.

the Curetes, who, as well as the Corybantes, were Her comely limnhs composed with dccent care,

reputed to excel in the music of the cymbal. The Iler body shaded with a slight cymar ;

Jews had their cymbals, or at least instruirents Her bosom to the view was only bare. Dryden. which translators render cymbals; but as to their CYMATIUM, n. s. Lat. from xvjárlov, a

material and form, critics are not agreed. Little wave. A member of architecture, whereof

CYMBALS, MODERN. The modern cymbal has

been sometimes defined as a mean instrument, one half is convex, and the other concave. There are two sorts, of which one is hollow be chiefly in use among vagrants, gypsies, &c. It

consists of steel wire in low, as the other is above,

a triangular form,

whereon are passed rings, which are touched and Ia a cornice, the gola, or cymatrum of the corona,

shifted along the triangle with an iron rod held the cuping, the modillions, or dentelli, make a noble

in the left hand, while it is supported in the right shor by their graceful projections. Spectator.

by a ring. Durandus says, that the monks CYMBAL, n. s. Lat. cymbalum. A musi- sometimes use the word cymbal for the cloistercal instrument.

bell, which called them to the refectory. It is clear The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries, and ffes, that our translators, at least, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, had Tabors, and cymbals, and the shouting Romans, this small kind of tinkling' instruments in view Make the sun dance. Shakspeare. Curilonius. when they contrast xalxos nxwv, sonorous brass,

li mirth should fail, I'll busy her with cares, perhaps the sound of the trumpet, with kumpalov
Silence her clamorous voice with louder wars ; alalalor, a tinkling cymbal.
Trumpets and drums shall fright her from the throne, But modern times have witnessed the extensive
As sounding cymbals aid the lab'ring moun.

introduction of a very different cymbalamongst the

Dryden's Aurengzebe. nilitary instruments of Europe. It is an instruAh! tinkling cymbal, and high sounding brass, ment of loud percussion, adopted by us immeSmitten in vain! such music cannot charm

diately from the east, and resembling the The eclipse, that intercepts truth's heavenly beam, celebrated cymbals of Bacchus, which were And chills and darkens a wide-wandering soul. evidently struck one against another, and would


produce a sharp clamorous sound. They are A dolphin now his sportive limbs he laves,

employed as being useful for the loudness of And bear the sportive damsel on the waves; their níusic in marking the due time and military She strikes the cymbal as he moves along,

step of a march. But the sounds produced are And wondering ocean listens to the song. Darwin.

said to be inappreciable to the ear, and siinply Others their hands applausive beat,

rhythmic or exharmonic. Like cymbals sounding as they meet. Sheridan.

CYME, or Cuma, in ancient geography, a Fler large black eyes, that filashed through her long city built by Pelops on his return from Greece. hair

Cyme the Amazon gave it name, on expelling the As it streamed o'er her; her blue veins that rose inhabitants, according to Mela. Livy, Mela, Along her most transparent brow; her nostril

Nepos, Pliny, and Tacitus use the Greek name Dilated from its symmetry; her lips

Cyme,. in preference to Cuina. It stood in Apart; her voice that clove through all the din,

Æolia, between the Myrina and Phocæa, and in As a lute's picrecth through the cymbal's clash, Jarred but not drowned by the loud brattling.

Pentinger's map is set down nine miles from Byron. Sardanapalus.

Myrina. From this place was the Sybilla Cu

mæa, called also Erythræa, from Erytlıræ, a CYMBALS, Axceext, Gr. avußakov. Thy cym- neighbouring place. It was the country of hal was much used among the ancients. It was Ephorus. Hesiod was a Cumean originally ; made of brass like our kettle drums, and, as some his father coming to settle at Ascra in Bæotia. think, in their form, but smaller, and of different CYMENE, in botany, a name given by the 09. Ovid gives cymbals the epithet of genialia, ancient Greeks to a plant with which they used because they were used at weddings and other to dye woollen stuff's yellow; and with which diversions. Cassiodorus and Isidore call this the women used also to tinge their hair; yellow instrument acetabulum, the name of a cup or ca- being the favorite color in those ages. It is the vity of a bone wherein another is articulated; same plant with the latea herba of the Latins; or and Xenop' on compares it to a horse's hoof; what we call dyer's weed.

CYNÆGIRUS, an Athenian, celebrated for and turning inward. Of these varieties the last his extraordinary courage. He was brother to the is deservedly the most esteemed, both on account poet Eschylus. After the battle of Marathon, of its superiority in size and the agreeableness of he pursued the flying Persians to their ships, and its flavor. Both varieties are perennial in their seized one of their vessels with his right hand, root; but the leaves and fruit-stém die to the which was immediately severed by the enemy. ground in winter; and the roots remaining, send Upon this he seized the vessel with his left hand, up fresh leaves and stems every summer, proand when he had lost that also, he still kept his ducing a supply of artichokes for twenty years if hold with his teeth.

required. The flowers and seed of all the plants CYNANCHE, a species of quinsy, in which the of this genus are produced in the centre of the tongue is inflamed and swelled, so that it hangs head; the scales of which are the proper calyx out beyond the teeth. Dr. Cullen distinguishes of the flower, which consists of numerous small tive species of this disease ; viz. 1. cynanche ma bluish forets, succeeded by downy seeds sitting ligna ; 2. cynanche parotidæa ; 3. cynanche pha- naked on the receptacle. Both the varieties of ryngæa ; 4. cynanche tonsillaris; and 5. cy- the artichoke are propagated by slips or suckers, nanche trachealis. See MEDICINE.

arising annually from the stool or root of the old CYNANCHUM, bastard dogsbane, in botany, plants in spring, which are to be taken from good a genus of the digynia order, and pentandria plants of any present plantation in March or the class of plants ; natural order thirtieth, contortæ. beginning of April, and planted in the open The nectarium is cylindrical and quinqueden- quarter of the kitchen garden, in rows five feet tated. There are six species; of which the fol- asunder; and they will produce artichokes the lowing are the most remarkable: viz. 1. C. same year in autumn. It should however be reacutum, commonly called Montpelier scammony; marked, that, though artichokes are of many years and 2. C. Monspeliacum, the round-leaved Mont- duration, the annual produce of their fruit will pelier scammony. They abound with a milky gradually lessen in the size of the eatable parts juice like the spurge, which issues out wherever after the third or fourth year, so that a fresh they are broken ; and this milky juice when con- plantation should be made every three or four creied has frequently been sold for scammony. years. These plants propagate so fast hy their creeping CYNARCTOMACHY. Κυων, αρκτος, μαχή. roots, that few people care to admit them into A word coined by Butler, to denote bear-baiting their gardens.

with a dog. CYNA’NTHROPY, n. s. Κυων κυνος, and

That some occult design doth lie av punog. A species of madness in which men

In bloody cynarctomachy, have the qualities of dogs.

Is plain enough to him that knows CYNARA, the artichoke, in botany, a genus of How saints lead brothers by the nose. the polygamia æqualis order, and syngenesia

Hudibras. class of plants : Cal. dilated, imbricated with


Ciseas, the friend of Pyrrhus carnous squamæ, and emarginated with a sharp point of this there are eight species ; of and scholar of Demosthenes, who flourished which only two are cultivated for use : viz. 1. c. A. A. C. 275. Pyrrhus and he wrote a treatise cardunculus, the cardoon, greatly resembles the of War, quoted by Tully.

CYNEGETICKS, n. s. artichoke, but is of larger and more regular

Κυνεγητικα. The growth: the leaves being more upright, taller, art of hunting; the art of training and hunting

with dogs. broader, and more regularly divided : the stalks of the leaves blanched are the only edible parts There are extant, in Greck, four books of cynegeof the plant. This is a very hardy plant, and ticks, or venation. Browne's Vulgar Errours. prospers in the open quarters of the kitchen garden. CYNICK, n. s. & adj. ?

Kuvikos. A philoIt is propagated by seed sown annually in the full

CY'NICAL, adj. sopher of the snarlirg ground in March ; either in a bed for transplanta or currish sort; a rude man; a snarler; a mistion, or in the place where they are designed to re- anthrope. Having currish qualities; brutal; main. 2. C. scolynius, the garden artichoke, nas snarling; satirical. large, thick, perennial roots, crowned by a considerable cluster of large pennatifid, erect leaves, two or

How vilely doth this cynick rhime ! three feet long. In the middle are upright stalks

Get you hence, sirrah ; saucy fellow, hence.

Shakspeure.. rising a yard high, on the top of which is a large

Or been the manes of that Cynic spright round scaly head, composed of numerous, oval,

Cloathed with some stubborn clay and led to light? calycinal scales, enclosing the forets, sitting on a

Or do the relic ashes of his grave broad fleshy receptacle, which, with the fleshy

Revive and rise from their forsaken cave?

Hall. base of the scales, is the eatable part of the plant. The varieties of this species are, 1. The conical

He doth believe that some new-fangled wit (it is green-headed French artichoke, having the small his cynical phrase) will some time or other find out

his art. leaves terminated by spines, a tall stalk, the head somewhat conical, and of a light green color, Without these precautions the man degenerates into with the scales pointed at top, opening and turn a cynick, the woman into a coquette; the man grows ing outward. 2. The globular-headed red Dutch sullen and morose, the woman impertinent and fanartichoke, having leaves without spines, a strong tastical. stalk, the head large, globular, a little compressed

The Cynics of old, and some of the Stoics, mainat top, and of a reddish green color ; broad ob- tained, that in words there is no indelicacy ; that tuse scales emarginated at top, growing close, there can be no harn in speaking of any thing that is





natural, and that, if we may speak without blame of fought several battles with the Romans under ang de crime, or any one part or tinction of the Plautius, the prætor; about A. D. 43-46. human body, we may, in like manner, of any other. CYNOGLOSSUM, hound's tongue, in boBu: this is vile sophistry, tending to the utter debase- tany, a genus of the monogynia order, pentandria Dent of man, and founded in the grossest ignorance of class of plants; natural order forty-first, asperihuman nature and human language.


foliæ : cor. funnel-shaped, with its throat closed Crnics, a sect of ancient philosophers, who up by little arches formed in it; the seeds.devalued themselves upon their contempt of riches pressed, and affixed to the style or receptacle and of pomp, of the arts and sciences, and of only on their inner side. There are eight species, every thing in short except virtue and morality. not remarkable for beauty. C. officinale, the The cynic philosophers owe their origin and in common greater hound's tongue, was formerly stitution to Antisthenes of Athens, a disciple of used in medicine, and its root supposed to posSocrates; who being asked of what use his phi- sess narcotic virtues; but it is discarded from losophy had been to him, replied, “It enables me the present practice. The smell of the whole to live with myself.'. Diogenes was the most fa- plani is very disagreeable. Goats eat it: sheep, mous of his disciples, in whose character the horses, and swine refuse it. system of this philosophy appears in its greatest CYNOMETRA, in botany, a genus of the perfection. See DIOGENES. These sages are monogynia order and decandria class of plants ; said to bave regarded chastity and modesty as CAL. tetraphyllous : ANTH. bifid at top; the leguweaknesses; and coarseness, even to indelicacy, men carnous, crescent-shaped, and monosperwas certainly one of their characteristics. They mous. Species two, Indian trees. arvued that what was right to be done, might be CYNOMORIUM, in botany, a genus of the done at all times and in all places. Their chief monandria order and monæcia class of plants : principle, indeed, in common with that of the natural order fiftieth, amentaceæ : cal. imoristoics, was, that we should follow nature. But cated catkin: cor, none: one style; and one the stoics clearly included the government of rea- roundish seed. Species one only. son, in the rule of nature, which the cynics, for CYNOPHONTIS, in antiquity, a festival obthe theater part, rejected.

served in the dog-days at Argos, and so called CYNIPS, in zoology, a genus of insects be ano THS kuvas povelv, i. e. from killing dogs ; longing to the hymenoptera order. The mouth is because it was usual on this day to kill all the armed with jaws, but has no proboscis : the sting dogs they met with. is spiral, and mostly concealed within the body. CYNOSARGES, a place in the suburbs of Titre are many species. We can only mention Athens, named from a white or swift dog, who

snatched away part of the sacrifice offering 10 1. C. quercus folii, or oak-leaf cynips, is of a Hercules. It had a gymnasium, in which stranburnished shining brown color. The antenna gers or those of the half blood performed their are black; the legs and feet of a chestnut brown; exercises ; the case of Hercules, to whom the and the wings white, but void of marginal spots. place was consecrated. It had also a court of It is in the little smooth, round, hard galls, judicature, to try illegitimacy, and to examine found under the oak leaves, generally fastened whether persons were Athenians of the whole or to the fibres, that this insect is produced, a single half blood. one in each gall. These latter are ligueous, of CYNOSCEPHALAE, in ancient geography, a a hard compact substance, formed like the rest, place in Thessaly, near Scotussa; where the by the extravasation of the sap of the leaf, occa- Romans, under Q. Flaminius, gained a great sioned by the puncture of the gall fly when it victory over Philip, son of Demetrius king of deposits its eggs. Sometimes, instead of the Macedon. These Cynoscephalæ were small tops of cynips, there is seen to proceed from the gall a several equal eminences; named from their resemlarger insect, of a brown color, which is an ich- blance to dogs' heads, according to Plutarch.

This ichneumon is not the real in CYNOSSEMA, the tomb of Hecuba, on the mate of the gall, or he that formed it.

promontory Mastusia, over against Sigeum, in 2. C. quercus gemmæ, or oak bud cynips, is the south of the Chersonesus Thracica; named of a very dark green, slightly gilded : its antennæ either from the figure of a dog, to which she was and feet are of a dun color, rather deep. It fabled to have been changed, or from her sad deposits its eggs in the oak buds, which produce reverse of fortune. one of the finest galls, leafed like a rosebud be CYNOSURA, in astronomy, a denomination uning to blow. When the gall is small, that given by the Greeks to ursa minor, or the little great quantity of leaves is compressed, and they bear, from KUVoorpa, the dog's tail. This is the are set one upon another like the tiles of a roof. constellation next our pole, consisting of seven In the centre of the gall there is a kind of ligncous stars: four of which are disposed like the four kemel, in the middle of which is a cavity; and wheels of a chariot, and three lengthways reprein that is found the little larva, which feeds there, senting the beam; whence some give it the name takes its growth, undergoes its metamorphosis, of the chariot, or Charles's wain. See Cynosuke. and breaks through the enclosure of that kind of Cynosura, in mythology, a nymph of Ida, in cod in order to get out. The whole gall is often Crete, said to have nursed Jupiter, who changed near an inch in diameter, sometimes more when her into a star. dried and displayed; and it holds to a branch CYNOSURA, CYNOSURÆ, or Cynosuris, in anby a pedicle.

cient geography, a place in Laconia ; but wheCINOBELINE, a king of the South

ther maritime or nla is uncertain. llere who flourished in the reign of Claudius, and Asculapius was buried.




CYNOSURE, n. s. From kúvoq ovpa. The which consisted in smearing the body over with star near the north pole, by which sailors steer. honey, and thus exposing the person, with his Towers and battlements it sees

hands tied, to the warm sun, to invite the flies Bosomed high in tufted trees,

and other verinin to torment him. Where perhaps some beauty lies,

CYPRÆA, the gowrie, in zoology, a genus The cynosure of neighbouring eyes. Milton. of insects belonging to the order of vermes testaCYNOSU RUS, in botany, dog-tail grass ; a

It is an animal of the limax or snail kind ; genus of the digynia order and triandria class of the shell is one involuted, subovated, obtuse, plants; natural order fourth, gramina : cal. bi. smooth valve. The aperture on each side is valved and multiflorous ; the receptacle proper, forty-four species, distinguished by the form of

linear, longitudinal, and teethed. There are unilateral, and foliaceous. There are ten spe- their shells. This genus is called cypræa and cies, four of which are natives of Britain, viz. the cristatus, or crested dog-tail grass ; the echi- Venus; who is fabled to have endowed a shell

venerea from its being peculiarly dedicated to natus, or rough dog-tail grass; the cæruleus, or blue dog-tail grass; and the paniceus or bearded of this genus with the powers of a remora, so as dog-tail grass.

to in pede the course of the ship which was sent CYNTHUS, in ancient geography, a moun

by Periander, tyrant of Corinth, with orders to tain of the island Delos, so high as to overshadow mutilate the young nobility of Corcyra. the whole island. On this mountain Latona was

CYPRESS-TREE, n. s. Lat. cupressus. A fabled to have brought forth Apollo and Diana; tree anciently used in funerals; thence, poetihence called Cynthius and Cynthia.

cally, the emblem of mourning. See Cupressus. CYNURIA, or CYNURIUS Ager, in ancient He taketh the cypress and the oak, which he geography, a district of Laconia, on the confines strengtheneth for himself among the trees of the of Argolis, that proved a perpetual bone of con forest.

Isaiah xliv. 14. tention between the Argives and Spartans. The aspine, good for staves, the cypresse funerall. CYON. See Cron.

Spenser. Faerie Queene. Gather cyons for graffs before the buds sprout.

In ivory coffers I have stuffed my crowns;


chests my arras counterpanes. CYPERUS, in botany, a genus of the mono


Poison be their drink, gynia order and triandria class of plants; natural

Their sweetest shade a grove of cypress trees. order third, calamariæ. The glumes are pale

Id. Henry VI. aceous, and imbricated towards each side; the corolia is wanting, and there is one naked seed.

Bind ye my brows with mourning cyperisse,

And palish twigs of deadlie poplar tree. Hall. There are thirty species; the only remarkable are,

Poplars and alders ever-quivering played, 1. C. longus, the English, Flemish, or long

And nodding cypress forined a fragrant shade.

Pope's Odyssey sweet cyperus, grows in the water, and along banks and river sides. Its root is as thick as an Long aisles of cypress waved their deepened glooms, olive, full of little knots or specks, of an oblong

And quivering spectres grinned amid the tombs.

Darwin, figure, gray color, sweet and somewhat sharp taste, and almost without smell when it is newly

Though no funereal cypress shade thy tomb,

For thee the wreaths of Paradise shall bloom. taken out of the ground. It is much used hy per

Huddesford, fumers and glovers. 2. C. rotundus, the round cyperus, is a native

Oh, snatched away in beauty's bloom, of the East Indies, and grows by the sides of

On thee shall press no ponderous tomb; rivulets and ditches. The root is knotty, wrapped

But on thy turf shall roses rear

Their leaves, the earliest of the year; round with fibrous strings, not easy to break, of

And the wild cypress wave in tender gloom. a brown color without any gray within; of a plea

Byron. Hebrew Melodies. sant scent, especially when fresh and well dried ;

CYPRESS. See CUPRESSUS. the leaves are green, and resemble those of the reed and leek. The roots of both species are of the church, born at Carthage, about the end

CYPRIANUS (Thascius-Cæcilius), a father esteemed cordial, diuretic, cephalic, resisters of of the second or beginning of the third century. poisons, and expellers of wind.

His parents were heathen; and he himself conCYPHER. See Cipher.

tinued such till the last twelve years of his life. CY'PHERING, n. s. Skill in arithmetic; Applying early to the study of oratory, he taught the art of arithmetic.

rhetoric in Carthage with the highest applause. Is a fine clerk, and has his cyphering perfect. Ilis conversion is fixed by Pearson, A. D. 246,

Ben Jonson.

at Carthage, where, as St. Jerome observes, he CYPHON, in antiquity, a kind of punishment had often employed his rhetoric in the defence of used by the Athenians. It was a collar made of paganism. Cyprian, although a married man, wood; so called because it constrained the cri as soon as he was converted, resolved upon a minal to bow down his head.

state of continence, which was then thought a CYPHONISM, CYPHONISMUS, from kvowv, high degree of piety. He wrote ably in defence derived from xvdos, crooked, a kind of torture or of Christianity, and addressed to Donatus his punishment in use among the ancients. The first production De Gratiâ Dei. He next comlearned are at a loss to determine what it was. posed a piece De Idolorum Vanitate, upon the Some suppose it to be that mentioned by St. nity of idols. Cyprian was now ordained Jerome, in his Life of Paul the Hermit, chap. 2, priest, and, when the bishop of Carthage dier?,

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