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To pray

court with the same care that the answer of a DEPRECATE, v.a. From Lat. deprecari, defendant is sent. 3 Black. 455.

DEPRECATION, n. s.

from de and precor, DEPOT denotes any particular place in which DEPRECATIVE, adj.

to pray. military stores are deposited for the use of the DEPRECATORY, adj. against : to beg off, or army. In a more extensive sense it signifies DEPRECATOR, n. s. from, apologetic. several magazines collected together for that pur

Bishop Fox understanding that the Scottish king pose. It is likewise applied to any particular was still discontent, being troubled that the occasion fort or place, appropriated for the reception of of breaking off the truce should grow from his men, recruits to detached parties, belonging to different sent many humble and deprecatory letters to the Scotregiments. In England, the barracks near Maid- tish king to appease him.

Bacon. stone are depots for the British cavalry, and

I, with leave of speech implored, Chatham is allotted to the infantry. In the time And humble deprecation, thus replied. Milton. of war the greatest attention should be given to

Sternutation they generally conceived to be a good preserve the several depôts which belong to the sign, or a tad one ; and so, upon this motion, they fighting army;

Hence the line of operation commonly used a gratulation for the one, and a deshould invariably be connected with them; or precation for the other.

Brotone. rather no advance should be made upon that

In deprecating of evil, we make an humble acline, without the strictest regard being had to knowledginent of guilt, and of God's justice in chastithe one of communication.

sing, as well as clemency in sparing, the guilty. Grew. Depôt is again used to denote a particular

Poverty indeed, in all its degrees, men are easily place at the tail of the trenches, out of the reach persuaded to deprecate from themselves. Rogers. of the cannon of the place attacked; where the

The judgments which we would deprecate are not troops generally assemble, when a sally from the

removed.

Smalridge. besieged is suspected.

The Italian entered them in his prayer : amongst Depôt also means a temporary magazine for the three evils he petitioned to be delivered from, he forage, for fascines, gabions, tools for mining, might have deprecated greater evils. &c., with such other articles necessary for the

Baker's Reflections on Learning. support of an army, or for carrying on a siege. DEPRAVE', v. a. Fr. depraver; Span.

DEPREʻCIATE, v. a.) Fr. deprecier, from DEPRAV'ER, n. s. and Portug. depravúr ;

Depreciaʼtion, n. s. ) Lat de priv. and preDEPRAVA’TION, Ital. and Lat. depra

tium (from Gr. aparns, a seller) an equivalent Deprav’EDNESS, n. s. vare, from de and pra- given to the seller for his goods. To bring down DEPRAVE'MENT, vus, crooked. To cor

in price or value; the act of lessening the value DEPRA'VITY. J rupt, vitiate, calumni- of, or underrating a thing. ate: he who corrupts is a depraver; depravement, They presumed upon that mercy, which, in all their depravation, depravedness, and depravity a cor- conversations, they endeavour to depreciate and misrupt, vitiated state ; depravation is used by represent.

Addison. Shakspeare for calumny.

As there are none more ambitious of fame, than We admire the providence of God in the continu- thuse who are coiners in poetry, it is very natural for ance of scripture, notwithstanding the endeavours of such as have not exceeded in it to depreciate the infidels to abolish, and the fraudulence of heretics to works of those who have.

Spectator. deprave, the same.

Hooker.

It has been held, indeed, by some of the judges Who lives that's not depraved, or depraves ? (but certainly not by all of them, or at least not

Shakspeare. upon all occasions), that juries in favour of life, may Stubborn critics are apt, without a theme fairly, in fixing the value of the property, take into For depravation, to square all the sex.

Id. their consideration the depreciation of money, which What sins do you mean? Our original depraved. has taken place since the statutes passed.

Sir S. Romilly. mess, and proneness of our eternal part to all evil.

Hammond. DEPREDATE, v. a. Fr. depreder, from But from me what can proceed

DEPREDATION,

Lat. de and prador, to But all corrupt, both mind and will depruved?

DEPREDATOR. Srob. To pillage, spoil; Milton.

devour. The substantives plainly follow this. He maketh men believe, that apparitions are either

It maketh the substance of the body more solid and deceptions of sight, or melancholy depravements of

compact, and so less apt to be consumed and depredafancy.

Browne.

ted by the spirits. A taste which plenty does deprave, Loaths lawful good, and lawless ill does crave.

It is reported that the shrub called our Lady's Seal, Dryden.

which is a kind of briony, and coleworts, set near We have a catalogue of the blackest sins that human together, one or both will die : the cause is for that nature, in its highest depravation, is capable of com

they be both great depredators of the earth, and one mitting.

South.

of them starveth the other. This will be equivalent to the proposal made by The land had never been before so free from robBoileau to the academicians, that they should review beries and depredations as through bis reign. all their polite writers, and correct such impurities as

Wotton. might be found in them, that their authority might not Were there not one who had said, Hitherto shalt contribute at any distant time to the depravation of thou come, and no farther; we might well expect the language.

Johnson. Plan of Dictionary. such vicissitudes, such clashing in nature, and such If this be so, there must be a cause or causes for depredations and changes of sea and land. such a depravity in our common people. Franklin.

Woodward

Bacon.

Bacon.

DEPREHEND, v.a.) Lat. deprehendo, Now wretched Oedipas, deprived of sight,
DEPREHE'NSION. from de and prehen-

Led a long death in everlasting night. Pope. dere, to take. To catch; to take unawares; to

I have no hope of a future existence except that take in the fact.

which is grounded on the truth of christianity; I wish

not to be deprived of this hope. Bishop Watson. Who can believe men upon their own authority, that are once deprehended in so gross and impious an Deprivation, ECCLESIASTICAL, is of two imposture?

More. kinds, viz. à beneficio, when for some crime a That wretched creature, being deprehended in that minister is for ever deprived of his living; and impiety, was held in ward.

Hooker. ab officio, when a minister is for ever deprived The motions of the minute parts of bodies, which of his order. It is the same with deposition and do so great effects, are invisible, and incur not to the degradation. It is usually for some heinous eye; but yet they are to be deprehended by experience. crime deserving death, and is performed by the

Bacon. bishop in a solemn manner. See DEGRADATION. DEPRESS', v. a. & n. s. Fr. deprimer ; It. DEPTFORD, a town situated on the Thames, DEPRESS'ION,

and Lat. deprimere, partly in the county of Kent, and partly in DEPRESS'OR,

fromdeorsum,down- Surrey. It derives its name from a deep ford DEP'RIMENT.

wards, and premere, over the Thames, formerly used, but now cleared. to press ;-Minsheu. To press or push downí It was generally known in ancient records by the hence to let fall; to humble. Depressor and name of Deptford Strond. Deptford is now a depriment, in anatomy, are terms applied to large and populous town, though it has no marmuscles whose action is to depress the parts to ket, and is divided into Upper and Lower Deptwhich they adhere.

ford. It contains about 3000 houses, many of Depression of the nobility may make a king more

which are neat and well built, two churches, absolute, but less safe.

Bacon.

several meeting-houses, and two charity schools. Bricks of a rectangular form, if laid one by another ford arises from its excellent docks. Here the

The greatest support and consequence of Deptin a level row between supporters sustaining the two ends, all the pieces between will necessarily sink by royal navy was formerly built and repaired. their own gravity; and much more, if they suffer

The storehouses, which form a square, have, in my depression by other weight above them. Wotton. the last war, had several additional buildings :

The sate thing I have tried by letting a globe the whole yard covers thirty-one acres of ground, rest, and raising or depressing the eye, or otherwise containing two wet docks, one single, the other moving it, to make the angle of a just magnitude.

double, three slips, a basin, and two ponds for

Newton. masts, with the various manufactories for anchors, Others depress their own minds, despond at the cables, masts, blocks, &c., and apartments for the first difficulty, and conclude that the making any numerous officers employed. Here the royal progress in knowledge is above their capacities. yachts are generally kept. Besides the national

Loche. docks, there are several others belonging to snipPassion can depress or raise

builders for merchants' vessels. Near the dock The heavenly, as the human mind. Prior. formerly stood Says-Court, where Peter the This mournful trath is every where confessed,

Great resided for some time, and in this yard be Slow rises worth, by poverty depressed. Johnson. completed his knowledge of the practical part of

naval architecture. The Red-house, on the DEPRIVE, v.a. Fr.priver; Span. and Depriva’TION, n. s.

north-west side of the dock, is a large collection Port. privar; Ital. and of warehouses and storehouses for navy provi, Depriv'ABLE, adj. Lat. privare; from de

sions. At Deptford, in 1515, was first formed and privo. To bereave or depossess; taking of the society of the Trinity House, by Sir Thomas after it; hence to hinder, to debar from. Depri- Spert. There are annually relieved by this comvation has certain formal and legal applications; see below. Deprivable is that which may, in pany about 3000 poor seamen, their widows and justice, be taken away.

orphans, at the expense of £6000. The gover

nors are invested with the power of examining God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he the mathematical classes of Christ's Hospital, imparted to her understanding. Job, xxxix. 17.

and the masters of his Majesty's ships; and Most happy he,

have the appointment of all pilots; erecting and Whose least delight sufficeth to deprive

maintaining lighthouses, buoys, beacons, &c. Remembrance of all pains which him opprest. Their business was formerly carried on in a hall

Spenser.

in the parish of Deptford Strond; but it is now They gather that enjoy them, (the church's grants) conducted in a spacious building near the Tower, possess them wrongfully, and are deprivable at all erected in 1787. This town is four miles east of hours.

Hooker.

London. A minister, deprived for inconformity, said, that if DEPTH, n. s. Belg. diepte ; Teut. tieff. See they deprised him, it should cost an hundred men's Deep. The measure of deepness; hence a deep lives.

Bacon,

place; the sea, an abyss, a quiet place, or season; He lamented the loss of an excellent servant, and and, figuratively, obscurity and sagacity. The the horrid manner in which he had been deprived of plural, depths, is very frequent in the received kim,

Clarendon.

translation of the Bible. From his face I shall be hid, deprived

The depths have covered them: they sank into the His blessed countenance.

Milton.
bottom as a stone.

Exod. xv. 5.
Pools whose end is destruction, and eternal depriva As for men, they had buildings in many places
ta of being.
Bentley, higher than the depth of the water.

Bacon.

and purgo.

a

Thou spirit,

-Inspire,

He exerciseth dominion over them as the vice As thou art wont, my prompted song, else mute, gerent and deputy of Almighty God. And bear through height or depth of Nature's bounds.

Halo's Origin of Mankind. Milton. The authority of conscience stands founded upon And in the depth of winter, in the night,

its vicegerency and deputation under God. Sout. You plough the raging seas to coasts unknown.

And Linus thus, deputed by the rest,

Denham. The heroes welcome and their thanks expressed. The false tides skin o'er the covered sand,

Roscommon. And seamen with dissembled depths betray.

A bishop, by deputing a priest or chaplair to admi

Dryden. nister the sacraments, may remove him. or tho', in nature, depth and height

Ayliffe's Putergon. Are equally held infinite;

DEQUA'NTITATE, v. a. from Lat. de and In poetry the height we know, "Tis only infinite below.

Swift.

quantitas. To diminish the quantity of. There are greater depths and obscurities in an ela. This we affirm of pure gold; for that which is cur. borate and well written piece of nonsense, than in the

rent, and passeth in stamp amongst us, by reason of most abstruse tract of school divinity.

its allay, which is a proportion of silver or copper Addison': Whiy Eraminer. mixed therewith, is actually dequantitated by fire, and It is certainly a sign of great self-ignorance, for a

possibly by frequent extinction. man to venture out of his depth, or attempt any thing

Browne's Vulgar Errours. he wants opportunity or capacity to accoinplish.

DERA'CINATE, v. a. Fr. deraciner, from de Mason.

und racine, a root, from Lat. radir, radicis." DEPULSION, n. s. ? . Lat.depulsio. A beat- To tear up by the roots. Depuʼlsory, adj. Sing or thrusting away.

Her fallow lees DEPURE', v. ii.

Fr. depurer ; from The darnel, hemlock, and rank fumitory DEPUʻRATE, v.a. & adj. Lat. depurgo; de Doth root upon ; while that the culter rusts DEPURA'Tion, n. s.

To That should deracinate such savagery. Shakspeare. cleanse, purify. The verbs are synonymous, and DERAIGN', v. a. See ARRAIGN. But the meaning of the derivatives is plain.

DERAIGN'MENT, or Minsheu says from either It produced plants of such imperfection and harm Dersin'MENT, n. s. SFr. desarroyer or desful quality, as the waters of the general flood could ranger, to disorder, or Norman defrene, not so wash out or depure, but that the same defection proofe of the deniall of a man's owne fact.' To hath had continuance in the very generation and

Raleigh. nature of mankind.

prove, or justify. Brimstone is either used crude, and called sulphur mand tythes in the next parish by a writ of indicavit

When the parson of any church is disturbed to de. vive; or is of a sadder color, and, after depuration, the patron shall have a writ to demand the advowson such as we have in magdeleons, or rolls of a lighter of the tythes being in demand : and when it is deyellow. Browne's Vulgar Errours.

raigned, then shall the plea pass in the court chrisChemistry enabling us to depurate bodies, and in tian, as far forth as it is deraigned in the king's court. some measure to analyse them, and take asunder their

Blount. heterogeneous parts, in many chemical experiments

DERANGE', v.a. we may, better than in others, know what manner of

? Fr. desranger, to disbodies we employ.

Boyle.

DERANGEMENT, n. s. I order. The quotation Neither can any boast a knowledge depurate from this word. It is of modern introduction, as to

from Blount includes a curious explanation of the defilement of a contrary, within this atmosphere its general

, but now very common, application of flesh.

both to disordered minds and things. DEPUTE', v. a. Fr. deputer; Dut. deputDEPUi Aʼtion,

teren; Span. and Port. de In some places the substantive deraignment is used DEPUTY. putur; Ital. and Lat. depu- in the very literal signification with the French distare ; to judge or choose; hence deputatus, a per- rayer, or desranger ; that is, turning out of course, son chosen. To send another; to empower departure out of religion, and deraignment or dis

displacing or setting out of order; as, deraignment or another to transact one's business. A deputy is charge of their profession, which is spoken of those a person so sent, generally or specially.

religious men who forsook their orders and profes. And Absolom said unto him, See thy matters are sions. good and right, but there is no man deputed of the

Most nations have adopted peculiar expressions, to king to hear.

2 Sam.

signify the form or degree of derangement of intellect. Presbyters, absent through infirmity from their The term derangement, which we have taken immechurches, might be said to preach by those deputies, diately from the French, and which means out of who, in their stead, did but read homilies. Hooler.

rank, or order, is metaphorically applied to the mind, A man hath a boly, and that body is confined to a to denote that its ideas are out of the rank, or order, place; but where friendship is, all offices of life are, as generally preserved by intelligent beings. Dr. Rees. it were, granted to him and his deputy; for he may

DERA'Y, n. s. Fr. desrayer. To turn out of exercise them by his friend.

Bacon. .

the right way; ' tumult; disorder; noise; merCut me off the heads Of all the fav'rites that the absent king

riment;' and even 'solemnity,' says Dr. JohnIn deputation left behind him here,

son, adding, truly, not in use.' When he was personal in the Irish war.

DERBEND, or DERBENT, a town of Persia, Shakspeare.

said to have been founded by Alexander the He looks not below the moon, but hath designed Great, aud once the residence of the celebrated the regiment of sublunary affairs into sublunary depu- caliph llaroun-al-Raschid. The Russians took wn

Brown. it in the year 1722, and retained possession until

Blowout.

1735, when it was restored to the Persians. nearest is that of an inverted pyramid ; this, Afterwards it was subdued and possessed by however, is extremely arbitrary, owing to its unFeth Ali. In the year 1796, the empress of common indentations and projections. It is of Russia having declared war against the Persians, considerable extent, being computed to be the count Subow entered Daghestan, at the head of twentieth in point of magnitude, and the ninean army; having reconnoitred Derbend, he teenth in point of population, of all the English ordered an assault, but the town surrendered. counties. Its greatest length, in a direction The highest part of the town is crowned by a S.S.E. to N.N.W. is about fifty-six miles and a fort or citadel of a triangular figure. Many of half. Its greatest breadth, from E.N. E. to the stones used are cubes of six feet, but the W.S.W., thirty-three miles. It contains about ramparts are so narrow that cannon are mounted 972 square miles, or 622,080 statute acres. Here only on the towers. The entrance to the town are six hundreds, one borough, eleven market is through an ancient iron gate. There is a tra towns, and 116 parishes. This county is in the dition in the neighbourhood that the empire of diocese of Litchfield and Coventry, and the prothe Mahommedans is to be overthrown by a yel- vince of Canterbury, and is included in the low infidel army, which shall enter by this gate. midland circuit. No stranger is, therefore, permitted to enter the Prior to the Roman invasion, the site of the fortress, and a tax is taken of all strangers at the present county belonged to the Coritani. The gate before mentioned. The streets of Derbend Romans included it in the division named Flavia. are irregular, but the town is well supplied with Cæsariensis; but during the time of the Anglowater from a fine, but almost ruined, aqueduct. Saxons it belonged to the kingdom of Mercia., The inhabitants consist of various eastern tribes The word Derby, from whence comes the name and Jews, and amount altogether to about 4000. of the county, is of uncertain derivation. Ву It is a place of little trade, but a great quantity the Saxons it was called Northworthig, and hy of saffron is cultivated in the neighbourhood, and the Danes Deoraby. The latter is obviously the the gardens are fine. To the north-east there source whence its modern name, and probably are some graves covered with flay-stones above that of the river Derwent, is derived; but its the rataral size of man; and many curious precise meaning cannot now be ascertained. tombs in the vicinity. One of these, some years The eastern and western districts, into which ago, was found to contain undecayed bones of the I)erwent naturally divides this county, are the natural dimensions, a battle-axe, shield, and materially different, both in respect to the air, spear. The walls are built with stones as hard the face of the country, and the soil. The clias marble; and near it are the remains of a wall mate of the eastern division is healthy, temperate, which reached from the Caspian to the Black and pleasant; but in the western district the air Sea. It is seated near the Caspian Sea, at the is much keener, and the state of the weather foot of Mount Caucasus, in long 48° 60' E., lat. always more changeable. The face of the country 42° 8' N., and is now the capital of the princi- presents, if not the most agreeable and pleasing, pality or khanship of Derbend. See below. It certainly the most varied and romantic scenery extends, ou a declivity to the margin of the of any county in England. There is the most shore, full three miles, and is about half a mile striking difference and contrast of features bewide. To the west is a passage leading into the tween the northern and southern parts; the mountains, which are possessed by barbarous former abounding with hill and dale. The counindependent tribes. Derbend is considered one try gradually rises until we come to the neighof the gates of Persia, and its name signifies, bourhood of Wirksworth, and then begins to in Persian, a locked door. It is surrounded by assume that picturesque and sublime appearance walls and towers of considerable strength. which it continues to possess to its extremity.

Derbend, a principality or khanship of That chain of hills arises, which stretching northPersia, bounded on the north by the river Der- wards is continued in a greater or less breadth bak, or Kerebagh, on the south by the rivers quite to the borders of Scotland, and forms a. Kur and Salian, on the east by the Caspian Sea, natural boundary between the east and west and on the west by the district of Talasseran. sides of the northern part of the kingdom. Its It extends about twenty miles in length by fifteen course in this county is inclined a little to the in breadth: it is mountainous and well watered. It spreads as it advances northerly, and The soil is very fertile, wheat yielding twenty and at length fills up the whole of the north-west nice forty fold. There are also fine grapes pro- angle; also overflowing a little, as it were, toduced, buļ the wine is not good. Some silk and wards the eastern parts. The hills are at first of woollen manufactures are also carried on. small elevation; but, being in their progress piled

DERBEND, or Derbent, a town of European one upon another, they form very elevated Turkey, in the province of Romania, twenty ground in the tract called the High Peak, though miles north of Adrianople.

without any eminences which can rank among DERBY, or Derbyshire, an inland county the loftiest mountains even of this island. The of England, situated nearly in the centre of the most considerable in height are the Axe-edge and island, and at an almost equal distance from the the Kinder-scout mountains. Mr. Farey, in his Elster and western seas. It is bounded on the admirable and comprehensive View of the Agrinorth by Yorkshire and part of Cheshire; on the culture and Minerals of this county, has given East by Nottinghamshire; on the south by Lei an alphabetical list of the several mountains, cestershire; and on the west by Staffordshire and hills, and eminences throughout Derbyshire, or Cheshire. Its form is extremely irregular ; but in the borders of the adjoining counties, describprobably the figure to which it approaches the ing their situations, the strata on the top of eaching

west.

&c. These amount to upwards of 700 in num- of Derby. The length of this branch is abo:if ber. This intelligent and truly scientific writer eight miles and a half, with a rise of about twentyhas also enumerated upwards of fifty of the prin- nine feet. There is a railway branch of four cipal narrow and rocky valleys or defiles with miles and a half to the Smithy Houses and thence precipitous cliffs in and near to this county, to the collieries near Derby. Another branch of describing their situations, the strata exhibited in this canal begins at Derby, and holds an easterly their sides and bottoms, and the names of the direction nearly parallel to the road leading to mosi noted rocks, caverns, &c., in each. These Nottingham, and finally joins the Errewash Canal lists are uncommonly curious and interesting. between Long Eaton and Sandiacre: its length The High Peak is not, as many suppose, a high is eight miles and a half. This canal is fortybarren rock, but an extensive range of rather four feet wide at top, twenty-four at bottom, and elevated ground, called the Peak Hundred. It five deep in the ebbest part. is cultivated and populous.

There is an almost endless variety of soil in The principal rivers of Derbyshire, beside the this county. In the northern parts very extenDerwent, are the Trent, the Dove, the Wye, the sive peat-bogs exist. The soil in these districts Errewash, and the Rother. The Derwent rises consists chiefly of ligneous particles, being the in the High Peak district, and leaves this county roots of decayed vegetables mixed with argillaon the Leicestershire border near Wilne. The ceous earth or sand, and a coaly substance deTrent enters the county from Staffordshire, a rived from decayed vegetable matter. The surlittle south of Calton, and leaves it near Barton, face presents nothing but the harren black moss, on the confines of Leicestershire. The Dove thinly covered with heath or ling. But in many rises a little south of Buxton, and, joining the parts of the Peak there is to be found what the Trent near Burton in Staffordshire, finally quits inhabitants call a corn-loam, apparently conthe county. The Wye, rising in the vicinity of sisting of a virgin earth impregnated with nitre. Buxton, never leaves the county, but fails into This soil is good ; but the parts where it is found the Derwent a few miles below Bakewell. The are counterbalanced by vast tracts of barren hills Errewash rises in the coal district near Alfreton, and mountains, whose sides present very little and falls into the Trent a few miles below its soil, being chiefly composed of rocks. In those junction with the Derwent. The Rother rises parts of Derbyshire near the borders of Cheshire near Chesterfield, and enters Yorkshire between and Staffordshire these barren rocks are rery Kilmarsh and Beighton. These rivers are well high, bleak, and numerous. Indeed so uneven stocked with almost every kind of fresh-water and rugged is almost all the road between Macfish. The Dove and the Trent have been long clesfield in Cheshire and Buxton in this county, celebrated by Cotton, and still more by his in- that it has been quaintly remarked to bevaluable friend, the pleasing and honest Isaac

Up hill to Buxton all the way, Walton, in his admirable book on angling. Nor

And up hill all way back. has the Derwent received less honor from the When the mountain is forined of the limestone, pens of Darwin and Seward. This county is the soil, though scanty, is productive of the finer benefited by an extensive inland navigation. The grasses, which form good pasturage for sheep. principal canals are the following: the Grand On that part which is called the East Moor, obTrunk from the Trent near Wilden-Ferry to the serves the Rev. 1). P. Davies, a late elegant river Mersey near Runcorn-Gap. It was planned writer on the history, &c., of this county, there is hy the ingenious Mr. Brindley, and was begun scarcely any vegetation; not a dale or a glade on July 17th, 1766, and finished in May 1777. which seems to have received the cultivating The Chesterfield Canal, another of Mr. Brindley's band of man, or the fostering smile of nature. projects, extends from Chesterfield to the river The most common soil in the southern parts is a Trent, at which it arrives a little below Gains- reddish clay or marl. This soil is also found to borough: its whole length being about forty-six prevail through the middle part of the extensive miles. Langley Bridge, or Errewash Canal, tract of limestone which lies on the north-west extends from Langley Bridge to the Trent, op- side of the county, and consists of much calcareposite to the entrance of the Soar. Its length is ous earth, which readily effervesces with acids. about eleven miles. The Peak Forest Canal Some parts of the southern district are interwas completed in the year 1800. It extends spersed with small beds of sand or gravel. The about fifteen miles in length, besides a railway large tract of country producing coal is covered of six miles, from the Ashton-under-line Canal, with a clay of different colors ; black, gray, brown, near Duckensfield Bridge, to the basin and lime- and especially yellow. This kind of soil is also kilns at Chapel-Milton. The railway, passing found in some parts where the gritstone is met Chapel-en-le-Frith, leads to Loads-knowl lime- with; but there it is frequently of a black color stone quarries in the Peak. Cromford Canal and bituminous quality. That on the north side begins at Cromford, near Matlock, and joins the of the county, where the limestone prevails, is Errewash Canal at Langley Bridge: its length of a brown color and loose texture. The soil on is about fourteen miles. Ashby-de-la-Zouch the banks of the rivers and in the valleys is difCanal, about fifty miles in length, joins the Co- ferent from that of the adjacent parts, and has ventry Canal at Marston Bridge, about two miles evidently been altered by the depositions from the to the south of Nuneaton, and ends at Ashby-de- frequent inundations. It is extremely difficult to la-Zouch in Leicestershire. The Derby Canal compress the great mass of information which commences in the Trent, at Swarkenstone Bridge; Mr. Farey and others have collected relative to and, crossing the Trent and Mersey Canal, ter- the soils of this county. Mr. Farey's inaps minates at Little Eaton, about three miles north however, contains a delineation of the several

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