Page images
PDF
EPUB

donatione regis, from the king's gift.' A denizen being governed by laws and institutions, occais in a kind of middle state between an alien sionally very dissimilar; and contains, together and a natural-born subject, and partakes of both with the adjacent islands, a territory of about of them. He may take lands by purchase or 22,000 square miles, and a population of about derise, which an alien may not; but cannot take 1,635,000 inhabitants, thus distributed : by inheritance : for his parent, through whom he must claim, being an alien, had no inhe. Jutland contains

400,000 ritable blood; and, therefore, could convey done

Zealand (including Copenhagen), to the son: and, upon a like defect of blood, the Funen, and other islands, 550,000 issue of a denizen, born before denization, cannot

Sleswick

300,000 ingerit to him; but his issue, born after, may.

Holstein

350,000 A denizen is not excused from paying the alien's

Lauenburgh

35,000 daty, and some other mercantile burdens. And no denizen can be of the privy council, or either

1,635,000 house of parliament, or have any office of trust, civil or military, or be capable of any grant of Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the settlements lands, &c. from the crown.

of Denmark in the East and West Indies and DENMAN (Dr. Thomas), an eminent physi- Africa, are supposed to add about 155,000 more cian and medical writer, was born at Bakewell, in to the population in the following proportions : Derbyshire, in 1733, where his father was a respect Iceland

50,000 able apothecary; on whose death, he was, for some Faroe Isles

5,500 time, an assistant to his elder brother. He af East and West Indies and Africa 100,000 terwards came to London, and attended at St. George's Hospital : he then entered the navy, as

155,500 sorgeon's mate, and in 1757, was made surgeon of a ship. In 1763 he quitted the navy, after having The dismemberment of Norway from Denmark, served in the expedition against Belleisle. His first which took place in 1814, abstracted full onepublication was in London, An Essay on Puer- third of her population and strength, that peral Fever, which was well received; but his pro- ancient possession of the Danish crown being fessional prospects were so little satisfactory, that estimated to contain at that period 900,000 inhe was happy to obtain the situation of surgeon habitants. Denmark received from Sweden, in to one of the royal yachts, which brought nim in exchange, Swedish Pomerania, which she again a salary of £70 a-year, without interrupting his parted with to Prussia for the duchy of Lauenpractice. He was shortly after (1770) chosen burgh, and a sum of money. joint-physician and man-midwife to the Middle Her remaining territory is, however, compact, sex Hospital, and gave lectures on the latter and well situated for commerce. The aspect of branch of practice. He thus slowly emerged the continental part is flat and undiversified, from olscurity into the most extensive prac- containing neither mountains nor rivers of any tice: was appointed licentiate in midwifery magnitude, but it is in an excellent general state of the College of Physicians in 1783, and, six of cultivation; and, in the character of its cliyears after, an honorary fellow of the Royal So- mate and rich pasturage, very much resembling ciety of Edinburgh. After the death of Dr. our own country. William Hunter, he was considered as the most It is largely indented by the sea, and poseminent obstetrical practitioner in the metro sesses numerous creeks and bays, as well as inpolis. His great work, is The Introduction to the ternal lakes, but only one canal of importance, Practice of Midwifery, which, with his Apho- that of Kiel. This will admit vessels of 120 ristns for the Use of Junior Practitioners, claims tons burden, and extends from the Baltic to the a place in every medical library. In the decline Eyder at Rendsburg, where the river becomes of life, Dr. Denman relinquished the more labo- navigable, thus opening a communication berious part of his practice to his son-in-law, Sir tween the two seas, or through 105 miles of Richard Croft, and became a consulting physi- territory. Its length is twenty-two English cian. His death, which was sudden, took place miles. Its breadth at top 100 feet, at bottom November 26th, 1815.

fifty-four, and depth ten feet. It was begun in DENMARK, one of the most ancient mo. 1777, and completed in 1785, at an expense of narchies in Europe, comprehends the peninsula £900,000 sterling. During the late war between of Jutland, Sleswick, Holstein, and Lauen- 3000 and 4000 vessels annually passed through barg, on the continent; and the islands of Zealand, it, but in time of peace the number is diminished. Funen, Langeland, Falster, Laaland, Bornholm, It has much improved the internal trade of Moen, and several others in the Baltic. Den- Sleswick and Holstein. mark Proper is that part of Scandinavia which The revenue of Denmark Auctuates between formerly went by the name of Cimbrica Cher. £1,700,000 and £2,000,000, about £120,000 of sonesus. It is every where bounded by the sea, which arises from the dues of the Sound: the except on its southern frontier in Holstein, and national debt is nominally £15,000,000. The stretches northward from about 53° 30' 10 57° 30' military force somewhat exceeds 20,000 men; of lat., i. e. from the right bank of the Elbe, to the naval force is only 4000 men in service, but the extreme point of Jutland. This main-land capable of being increased with great facility, as traet is divided into three divisions, of which there are between 14,000 and 15,000 registered Holstein forms the southern, Sleswick the cen- seamen. The seafaring people of the kingdom tral

, and Jutland the northern province, each are altogether little short of 50,000.

are

There are no mineral productions in Den- land are skins, raw hides, and, when our corn mark of any commercial importance; salt is laws permit, oats. Until lately the most ex tenmade in considerable quantities from the lime sive part of the trade between the two countries springs of Oldesloe; and a little coal is found; was timber from Norway. The imports from but turf is the great article of fuel. Both tim- England are manufactured articles, and colonial her and salt are imported largely. The agricul- produce. The duties on the importation of tural produce consists of wheat, in small quan- foreign commodities into Denmark are high, but tity, barley, oats, beans, peas, and potatoes; the all kinds of merchandise, with the exception of last very largely. Excellent madder also abounds, the following articles, are allowed to be imported; and hops, flax, hemp, and tobacco, are partially viz. sugar, either raw or refined, coming froin cultivated. Gardens are seldom seen except in European ports, porcelain, colored delf, woolArak, the great kitchen garden of the capital. cards, roasted coffee, printed calicoes, and some The horned cattle and horses are very superior; kinds of woollen cloth. in Holstein are some of the best working breeds In 1797 the government laid open the trade to of both, that are known : the exportation of the East Indies (previously monopolised hy a horses is said to amount to 1200 or 1500 an Danish East India Company), to all private mernually, valued at from £160,000 to £200,000 chants. Similar liberal regulations have been sterling. Milch cattle are also well managed made with regard to intercourse with their West here : butter and cheese abound: tne sheep, Indian possessions. The Icelandic trade was though recently improved by the introduction of laid open by an ordinance from the king towards merino, and other breeds, are still inferior. the close of 1816. The exports of Denmark

There are now better meadows, and more to this distant part of her dominions are grain, hedges and walls in Denmark,' says Mr. Lou- wine, brandy, tobacco, and spices, together with den, -than in any country of Germany of the linen and woollen cloths, timber, and hardware. same extent.' Here was founded, in 1686, the The vessels generally sail thither in May and first veterinary school in Germany. 'Artificial June, and return with salt fish, whale oil, coarse grasses and herbage plants enter into most rota- cloth, woollen stockings, gloves, hides, skins, tions, and rye-grass is perhaps more sown in feathers, and Eider-down.

All the necessary Holstein than any where, excepting in England. supplies for the Greenland colonies are transIn a word, considering the disadvantages of mitted from the parent country; and oil, whaleclimate, the agriculture of Denmark is in a more bone, seal-skins, and other articles, furnished by advanced state than that of any other kingdom of the fisheries in the adjacent seas, are taken in Germany.' Fishing in the bays and creeks is return. The manufactures of Denmark conducted on a large scale ; the most important confined to the supply of her own most combranch is the herring fishery ; beds of oysters mon wants : and it is necessary to import hardand muscles are not uncommon: and fresh water ware, printed cottons, and linen. The porcelain fish abound in several arms of the Baltic, so manufacture is carried on by the government. little is that sea impregnated with salt.

A late return of the sugar refineries in Denmark Denmark has pursued a studiously pacific makes their number forty-six ; that of paper mills policy for more than half a century, and the twenty-two; iron foundries four. consequence, until nearly the close of the late The constitution of Denmark was of a free wais of the French revolution, were the uninter- Gothic original. The convention of the estates, rupted improvement and extension of her com even including the representatives of the boors

In 1800 she possessed above 2000 or peasants, elected the king, having still a remerchant men, 20,000 seamen, and 250,000 tons gard to the sor of their late monarch, whom, of shipping. During our second war with however, they made no scruple of setting aside, France these were in a state of rapid increase, if they deemed him unworthy of the royal dig. but the seizure of her navy in 1807 by Great nity. The convention enacted laws; conferred Britain, and the consequent breach between the the great offices of state ; debated all affairs retwo countries, permitted her no longer to carrylating to commerce, peace, war, and alliances ; on a neutral trade, and she has scarcely to the and occasionally gave their consent to the impresent time recovered the blow. The chief position of necessary taxes. The king was only intercourse of the Danes is with the adjacent the chief magistrate of the people. His business coasts of the Baltic, with England, Holland, was to see justice administered impartially ; to France, and the Mediterranean.

command the army in time of war ; to encourage They have found the benefit of a general car- industry, religion, arts, and sciences; and to rying trade so considerable, that they have watch over the interests of his subjects. But, pushed it with success, both in the Mediterranean by the revolution, in 1660, the constitution was (where their fag is respected by the Barbary new-modelled, and it was declared that the states, equally with that of stronger powers), hereditary kings of Denmark and Norway and to the most distant parts of the globe. The should be in effect, and ought to be esteemed by whale fishery, likewise, employs a considerable their subjects, the only supreme head upon portion of their seamen, and in the West India earth; they shall be above all human laws, and trade they have about seventy sail of merchant- shall acknowledge, in all ecclesiastical and civil

Their connexion with the Guinea affairs, no higher power but God alone. The and Gold coasts has been in a great measure king shall enjoy the right of making and interdiscontinued since their honorable abolition of preting the laws; of abrogating, adding to, and the slave trade in 1803.

dispensing with them. He may also annul all The principal exports from Denmark to Eng- the laws which either he or his predecessors

merce.

men.

shall have made, excepting this royal law, which ever, that anciently the kingdom of Denmark must remain irrevocable, and be considered as made a much more conspicuous figure than it the fundamental law of the state. He has the does at present. The Danes appear to have had power of declaring war, making peace, imposing a very considerable naval force almost from the taxes, and levying contributions of all sorts,' foundation of their empire; and the conquests &c. &c. It is finally added, “If there is any they undoubtedly made in our island are certhing further which has not been expressly spe- tain proofs of their valor. Their chief enemies cified, all shall be comprised in the following were the Swedes, Norwegians, and Saxons; esworils :-The king of Denmark and Norway pecially the first. With one or other of these shall be the hereditary monarch, and endued nations almost perpetual war was carried on. with the highest authority; insomuch that all The kingdom was also often rent by civil disthat can be said and written to the advantage of sensions, which the neighbouring monarchs did a Christian, hereditary, and absolute king, shall not fail to take advantage of, in order to reduce be extended under the most favorable interpreta- the kingdom of Denmark under their subjection. tion to the hereditary king or queen of Denmark As in general, however, neither party came off and Norway,' &c. To this singular step the with much advantage, the bistory of these wars representatives of the people were urged at that affords nothing interesting. time by the tyranny of the nobles. They found One of the most illustrious of the kings of a hundied tyrants, as a late political bishop said, Denmark was Canute II., the son of Sueno I., a bundred times worse than one. The nobility surnamed the Great, from his wisdom as well as were obliged to make a similar surrender of his conquests. He was at once king of Dentheir peculiar privileges.

mark, Norway, and England. See CĂNUTE and The established religion is the Lutheran and ENGLAND. He also conquered a great part of Episcopal. The reformation was introduced in Sweden. Alstedius ranks him as the sixty-seventh 1536, the crown taking possession at that period monarch of Denmark. Between his son Canute of the revenues of the church, and depriving III. and Sueno III. there was a succession of the bishops of their temporal power: they have ten kings of whom little important is recorded. at present full spiritual jurisdiction, but no votes One of the greatest of the Danish monarchs, in the legislature; and there exists a complete after Canute the Great, was Valdemar I. who toleration of dissenters. There is a university obtained the throne in 1157; having defeated at Copenhagen on a large scale, and another of and killed the usurper Sueno III. after a civil smaller funds at Kiel. There is also a college war of ten years. He maintained a long war with four professors at Odensee in Fuuen; and with the Vandals, whose power he at last entirely Danish literature, though not of general preten- broke, and reduced under his subjection the issions, has yielded in modern times some dis- land of Rugen. He also proved victorious over tinguished names. We need only mention those the Norwegians, so that their king and queen of Niebuhr and Le Brun.

came in person to submit to him. In 1165, he Saxo Grammaticus, the most ancient and best laid the foundations of the city of Dantzic; of the Danish historians, derives the name of which, though it bas sirice become a place of Denmark from Dan the son of Humble, the first very great consequence, consisted at first only of king, and Mark, a word signifying a country, in a few poor fishermen's huts; but the privileges several dialects of the Teutonic; according to and immunities conferred upon it by this monwhich etymology, the word Denmark signifies arch, soon proved the means of its becoming a the country of Dan. He is sai to have fou- flourishing city. In 1169, he entirely subdued rished about A.A.C. 1038 or 1050. Almost all the Courlanders; and, soon after, was invested historians agree that he was the son of Humble, with the duchy of Holstein by the emperor Frea native of Zealand. His possessions and in- deric Barbarossa. He is said to have been poifluence were very considerable, not only in Zea- soned by a quack medicine, given with a design land, but in the islands of Langeland and Mona. to recover him from a distemper with which he It was his courage, however, and skill in the art was seized in 1182, after reigning twenty-eight of war, that induced the inhabitants of Den- years. In 1195, Canute VI., Valdemar's son mark to choose him for their king. He was and successor, caused a muster to be made of all called to the assistance of the Jutlanders upon the men fit to bear arms in his dominions; and an irruption of the Saxons into their territories, ordered each province to fit out its proportion and promised the sovereignty of the country if of shipping, every way equipped, and ready for be drove out the enemy. On this he raised an action. The whole force of Denmark, at that army, gained a complete victory over the Saxons, time, consisted of 670 ships of war, besides the and obliged them to leave the country; and he squadrons supplied by vassals, tributary states, was accordingly elected king. The history of and allies. The number of the land forces is Denmark, for several ages after Dan, is filled not mentioned. In the reign of this prince, the with fabulous exploits of heroes, encounters Danish dominions were enlarged by the conwith giants, dragons, &c. One of their kings quest of Stromas, and the districts of Lubec and named Frotho, who reigned about A. A. C. 761, Hamburgh, formerly Nordalbingia, but now inis said to have conquered Britain, Sleswick, cluded under the general name of Holstein. He Russia, Pomerania, Holstein, &c. an assertion died in 1203, and was succeeded by Valdemar which cannot easily be credited, considering the II. who proved a very warlike prince. In 1211 difficulty which succeeding warriors, even the he founded the city of Stralsund. He built the greatest in the world, found to subdue the inha- castle of Droningholm in memory of his queen, bitants of those countries. It is certain, how- that name importing the Queen's Island; and

gained in 1218 a victory over the 'Livonians From this time to 1333 the kingdom of Denmark near the fortress of Valdemar, which was thus gradually declined. Usurpers established themnamed from him. The flourishing state in selves in different provinces; while the kings of which Denmark was at this time, appears Sweden did not fail to avail themselves of the from an estimate of the revenues of the distracted state of the Danish affairs. In 1333 tributary provinces, which is still extant. died Christopher 'II., who possessed only the He kept for constant service 1400 great and cities of Scanderberg in Jutland and Neoburg in small ships, each of which at a medium carried Fionia, with some few other inconsiderable 121 soldiers; making the whole of the standing places, of all the hereditary dominions of forces, besides garrisons, consist of 169,400 fight- Denmark. Halland, Holbeck, Calemburg, and ing men. In 1223, however, Henry Palatine, Samsoe, were held by Canute Porsius; Schonen, earl of Swerin, a German prince, having been Lystre, and Bleking, by the king of Sweden, to deprived of part of his dominions by Valdemar, whom they had been lately sold : John earl of surprised and carried off the king himself, and Wagria had the jurisdictions of Zealand, Falstre, kept him close prisoner for three years. The Laaland, and Femerin: Gerhard, those of Jutland conditions on which he at last obtained his and Fionia; and Lawrence Jonea those of Langeliberty were,—that he should pay a large sum of land and Arras. After the death of Christopher money; relinquish Holstein, Swerin, Hamburgh, an interregnum of seven years, or according to and all his possessions on the other side of the Marcel of fifteen, ensued. The first attempt for Elbe ; and solemnly swear that he would never the sovereignty was made by Otho, second son take any measures to punish Henry or his asso to the late king, who tried to drive Gerhard out ciates. This treaty was signed on the 25th of of Jutland, but was taken prisoner, and closely March 1226. Besides these territories, which confined by Gerhard. The king of Sweden next Valdemar was obliged to cede by treaty, many wrote to pope Benedict XIII., beseeching his tributary princes took the opportunity of his Holiness to confirm to him the provinces of captivity to recover their liberty ; and among the Schonen, &c., which he possessed ; and to allow rest the inhabitants of Lubec revolted, and entered him to subdue the rest of the kingdom, which was into alliance with Albert, duke of Saxony, against now usurped and rendered miserable by a set of him. Valdemar, however was not of a disposi- petty princes, who knew not how to govern. To tion to submit tamely to such treatment. He influence the pope he promised to hold this obtained a dispensation from the pope to break kingdom of him, and to pay him the usual tax his engagements with Henry, and immediately collected by the church. This request, however, entered Holstein at the head of a numerous army. was refused. Valdemar of Sleswic, nephew to Here he was met by several German princes; Gerhard, had formerly been elected king; but, and a desperate engagement ensued. Valdemar on account of the superior influence of Christoat first had the advantage; but, being wounded pher, had never enjoyed the sovereignty. lle in the eye, his troops were at last defeated with now, at the instigation of his uncle, resumed his great slaughter. It does not appear that he was ambitious views. Several of the nobility also ever able to revenge himself, or to recover the cast their eyes on young Valdemar, Christopher's dominions he had lost. Instead of this he was But, while these two princes were laying obliged, in 1228, to cede Lauenburg to the duke schemes to aggrardise themselves, the unhappy of Saxony, who had already seized on Ratzburg Danes were distressed by exorbitant taxes, famine, and Molna. Soon after his eldest son, Valdemar, and pestilence, which destroyed more than half was accidentally killed as he was hunting, and of the inhabitants. In the midst of these calahis two other sons married the daughters of his mities Gerhard, sovereign of Jutland, proposed two greatest enemies. Abel, the third son, mar to his nephew Valdemar an exchange of territoried the daugner - of Adolphus duke of Holstein; ries, which he believed would prove favorable to and Eric, the ser nd, the duke of Saxony's the designs of the latter on the crown. A treaty daughter. These misfortunes are supposed to for this purpose was actually drawn up and have hastened bis death, which happened in signed; but the inhabitants, notwithstanding April, 1242; and on this the kingdom was their distressed situation, so highly resented their divided between the two young princes, a war being disposed of like cattle, from one master to commencing the very next year between them. another, that they refused to pay the taxes. GerA peace was concluded the year following, and hard resolved to compel them, and therefore led war renewed the year after. In 1250 Eric paid 10,000 men, whom he had levied in Germany. a visit to his brother Abel, entreating his media- into the heart of the province. Providence, tion between him and the princes of Holstein, however, now raised up an enemy to this tyrant. with whom he was then at war. Abel received One Nicholas Norevi, a man greatly esteemed for him, in appearance, with great kindness, but in his courage, public spirit, and prudence, beheld the mean time laid a plan for murdering him at with sorrow the condition to which Denmark was sea : this was effected, and Abel became master reduced. He had long meditated various proof the whole kingdom. But he did not long en- jects for its relief. Young Valdemar, Christopher's joy the sovereignty thus wickedly obtained. He son, had a number of adherents in the kingdom was tormented by his own conscience, especially his most dangerous enemy was Gerhard ; and, if when he found, among his brother's papers, one he could be removed, the Jutlanders would at by which he was left heir to the whole kingdom least be free from an oppressor, and might choose on the decease of Eric, and many kind expres- Valdemar, or any other they thought proper, for sions with regard to himself. Ile was at last their sovereign. Collecting, therefore, a body of killed in a battle with his own subjects in 1252. chosen horse he marched in the night io Rander

son.

sbusen, where Gerhard had fixed his head-quarters; palatine of the Rhine, was elected. After an in and, having forced open the tyrant's apartment, glorious reign of ten years, during which Sweden immediately put him to death. He then fled with was separated from Denmark, he died in 1448,and the utmost expedition, and, though overtaken by made way for a new royal race, which still contia party of the enemy's horse, forced his way nues to reign in Denmark, by the election of Christbrough them and escaped. Gerhard's sons, tian,count of Oldenburg. Christian I. was crowned hearing of their father's death, retired into Hol- king of Denmark in 1448,of Norway in 1450,and of stein, leaving the army, composed chiefly of Sweden upon the deposition of Charles VII. in Holsteiners, to be cut to pieces by the enraged 1457, whó, however, was restored by the Swedes peasants, who fell unon them from every quarter. in 1464; Christian not having adhered to the Still, however, the Holsteiners kept possession of terms he had made with them. Je died in 1481, the citadels and fortified places, from which Ni- and was succeeded by his son John, who had cholas resolved to dislodge them. Ile accordingly frequent wars with the brave Swedish governors, attacked and took Landen, a castle situated on Steno and Sweno Sture. John, dying in 1513, the river Scherne: After which he laid siege to was succeeded by Christian II. who recovered Albeg; but the garrison making an obstinate de- Sweden for a short time on the death of Steno fence, he turned the siege into a blockade, hy Sture; but was expelled for his cruelties, by the which they were soon reduced to great extremity. illustrious Gustavus Vasa, who threw off the The governor sent an express to Gerhard's sons, Danish yoke, and restored the independence of acquainting them with the impossibility of his his country in 1520. See Sweden. holding out more than a few days, without being Christian died in 1559, but was previously derelieved. They marched to his relief, and came posed, and Frederick I. duke of Holstein elected up with Nicholas just as the governor was ready king in 1523. He reigned only ten years; dying to surrender, but were defeated ; though Nicho- in 1533, when he was succeeded by his son las was ur fortunately killed in the engagement. Christian III. a wise and politic prince, hy whom, Jutland having thus regained its liberty, the rest in 1536, the protestant religion was established of the kingdom followed its example. Zealand in Denmark. He was succeeded in 1559 by his first openly declared itself. Here Henry, Ger- son Frederick II. who, after reigning about bard's son, maintained several garrisons; anil twenty-nine years, left the kingdom to his son resolved to defend his possessions in spite of all Christian IV. who, however, was not crowned till the power of the inhabitants. For this purpose 1596. This monarch twice visited England, in be drew together an army; but in the mean time compliment to his son-in-law king James I.; in a tumult arose among the peasants, on account of July 1606 and 1614. In 1629, he was chosen a Danish nobleman slain by the Holsteiners. By head of the Protestant league formed against the this the people were so irritated that, falling upon house of Austria; but, though personally brave, the Holsteiners, they killed 300 of them, drove he was in danger of losing his dominions; when the rest out of the island, and chose Valdemar III. he was succeeded in that command by the famous Christopher's son, for their sovereign. The Danes Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden. The Dutch now resumed their courage; the lands were cul- having obliged Christian, who died in 1648, to tivated, the famine and pestilence ceased, and the lower the duties of the Sound, his son Frederic kingdom began to flourish as formerly. Matters III. consented to accept of an annuity of 150,000 coutiqued prosperous tili 1373, when l'aldemar Aorins for the whole.' The Dutch after this perIII. died, and was succeeded by his daughter suaded him to declare war against Charles X, king Margaret. Marcel ranks his grandson Olaus V. of Sweden, which had almost cost him his crown as his immediate successor; but he, being an in 1657. Charles stormed the fortress of Freinfant, can hardly be said to have reigned, and deries tadt; and, in the succeeding winter, he therefore Alstedius ranks his mother, who go- marched his army over the ice to the island of Ferned during his infancy, as the successor of Funen, where he surprised the Danish troops, Valdemar.

took Odensee and Nyburg, and marched over the Margaret raised the kingdom of Denmark to Great Belt to besiege Copenhagen itself. Oliver its highest pitch of glory. She defeated and de- Cromwelt interposed; and Frederic defended his posed Albert king of Sweden, in 1487; and partly capital with great magnanimity till the peace of by her address, partly by hereditary righi, she Roschild; by which he ceded the provinces of forro cd the union of Calmar, by which she was Halland, Bleking, and Sconia, the island of Bornacknowledged sovereign of Sweden, Denmark, holm, Bahus, and Drontheim, in Norway, to the and Norway. She held her dignity with such Swedes. Frederic sought to elude these severe firmness and courage, that she was justly styled terms; but Charles took Cronenburg, and once the Seriramis of the North. Her only son, Olaus V. more besieged Copenhagen by sea and land. The dying at seven years of age, in 1388, she adopted steady inteprid conduct of Frederic under these her sister's son, Eric duke of Pomerania, as her misfortunes endeared him to his subjects; and successor, and died in 1412, after a glorious reign the citizens of Copenhagen made an admirable of thirty-seven years. Eric IX., her successor, defence, till a Dutch fleet arrived in the Baltic, being destitute of her great qualifications, the union and beat the Swedish fleet. The fortune of war of Calmar fell to nothing : but Norway still con was now entirely changed in favor of Frederic, tinued annexed to Denmark. Some say he was who showed on every occasion great abilities deposed, but Alstedius states that he resigned the both civil and military: and, having forced Charles crown in 1438, and retired to Pomerania, where to raise the siege of Copenhagen, might have he died in 1469. Upon his resignation his ne carried the war into Sweden, had not the English phew, Christopher III. duke of Bavaria, and count fleet under Montague appeared in the Baltic.

« PreviousContinue »