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ture fermentation; and he must not delay turn- however, is also very undetermined. The best ing it over, thereby to expose the middle of the informed cyder-makers are said to repeat the mass to the influence of the atmosphere. rackings until the liquor appears quiet or nearly

In order to press the fruit, or ponimage as so; and when this cannot be accomplished it is now called, it is folded up in pieces of hair- by the ordinary methods of fermentation, they cloth, or placed between layers of clean, sweet have recourse to fumigating the casks with straw or reed, and piled up in a square frame or sulphur, which is called stooming or stumming. mould: the press is then pulled down and squeezes For this purpose a match made of thick linen out the juice, forming the matter into thin and cloth, about ten inches long and an inch broad, almost dry cakes. Care ought to be taken to keep well coated with brimstone for about three-fourths the straw, reed, or hair-cloths sweet, or the ill ef- of its length, is lighted and hung in at the bungfects of their acidity will be communicated to hole of the cask (which has been previously the cyder. The first runnings come off foul and well seasoned, and every other vent stopped), muddy, but the last, particularly in perry, will be and, while the match burns briskly, the bung is as clear and fine as if filtered through paper. driven in, keeping the uncoated end of the match The refuse is generally thrown away as useless, by its side. The match thus suspended, burns or, when dry, used as fuel ; if it has not been as long as the air contained in the cask will supthoronghly squeezed, the pigs will sometimes eat ply the fire; and when it dies the bung is taken it; and some people grind it a second time with out with the reinnant of the match, after which water, and press it for an inferior liquor for fa- the cask is allowed to remain two or three hours, mily use. As long as a drop can be drawn, Mr. more or less, according to the degree of power Marshall recommends to continue the pressure. the sulphur ought to have, before it is filled with Even breaking the cakes of the refuse with liquor. A smell of the sulphureous acid is thus the hands only, he says, gives the press fresh communicated to the liquor, but it goes off in a power over it : regrinding them has a still short time. Mr. Crocker says, when the fermengreater effect: in this state of the materials, the tatiou ceases, and the liquor appears tolerably mill gains a degree of power over the more rigid clear to the eye, it has also a piquant vinous parts of the fruit, which in the first grinding it sharpness upon the tongue, and if in this state could not reach. The most eligible management the least hissing noise be heard in the fermenting in this stage of the process appears to be this: liquor, the room is too warm, and atmospheric grind one pressful a-day;. press, and regrind air must be let in at the doors and windows. the residuum in the evening ; infuse the reduced "Now,' he continues, " is the critical moment, matter all night among part of the first runnings, which the cyderist must not lose sight of; for if and in the morning repress while the next press- he would have a strong, generous, and pleasant ful is grinding,

liquor, all further sensible fermentation must be III. Of fermentation und bottling.—In the fer- stopped. This is best done by racking off the mentation of the liquor, the common practice is pure part into open vessels, which must be to have it put into casks or hogsheads, immedi- placed in a more cool situation for a day or two; ately from the press, and to fill them quite full; after which it may again be barrelled, and when the casks are put into airy sheds, where the placed in some moderately cool situation for the warinth differs little from the open atmosphere. winter.' They are sometimes even exposed to the open It is advisable in racking, that the stream from air without any covering but a piece of tile or the racking-cock be small, and that the receivingflat stone, propped up over the bung-hole to tub be but a small depth below the cock, lest, carry off the rain. It would seem, from Mr. by exciting a violent motion of the parts of the Marshall's account, that the time with cyder, liquor, another fermentation, be brought up when the fermentation begins, is quite uncertain, The feculence of the cyder may be strained in general varying from one day to a month after through a filtering-bag, and placed among the it is tunned; though liquor taken immediately second-rate cyders, but it must not be returned from the press, if much agitated, will sometimes to the liquor designed for prime cyder. pass directly into a state of fermentation. If the It is observed by Mr. Knight, that "after the commencement of the fermentation is uncertain, fermentation has ceased, and the liquor is become its continuance is no less so ; liquors that have clear and bright, it should instantly be drawn off, been agitated will frequently go through it in one and not suffered on any acconnt again to mingle day; but otherwise, when allowed to rest, it will with its lees; for these possess much the same take from two to six days. The appearance of properties as yeast, and would inevitably bring the liquor also varies according to the ripeness on a second ferinentation. The best criterion to of the fruit: if the fruit has been properly ma- judge of the proper moment to rack off will be, be tured, a thick scun is generally thrown up, re says, the brightness of the liquor; and this is seirbling that of malt liquor. After the liquor always attended with external marks, which has remained some time in the fermenting ves serve as guides to the cyder-maker. The dissels it is racked off from the lees, and put into charge of fixed air, which always attends the profresh casks. But as a fresh fermentation fre- gress of fermentation, has entirely ceased; and a quently takes place after racking, when this thick crust, formed of fragments of the reduced becomes violent, the liquor must be racked pulp raised by the buoyant air it contains, is again; and sometimes, before the fermentation collected on the surface. The clear liquor being is checked, the racking must be repeated five or drawn off into another cask, the lees are put, he six times; but when there is only a small degree says, into small bags, similar to those used for of fermentation, called fretting, the liquor is suf- jellies, being made, as noticed above; through fered to remain in the same cask; this degree, these, whatever liquor the lees coutain graslually

filtrates, becoming perfectly bright; and it is then stated by the writer just mentioned, that in the returned to that in the cask, in which it has the month of April the cyder, in general, will be in effect, in some measure, of preventing a second a fit state for this operation; but that the critical fermentation, as already hinted. It appears, he time for this process is, when the liquor has acsays, to have undergone a considerable change quired in the cask its highest degree of perfecin the process of filtration. The color is re tion: then, when the weather is fair, the baromarkably.deep, its taste harsh and flat, and it ineter high, and the wind in some northerly has a strong tendency to become acetous; pro- point, let the bottles be filled, setting them by bably by having given out fixed, and absorbed uncorked until the morning; then let the corks be vital air. Should it become acetous, which it driven very tightly into the necks of the bottles, will frequently do in forty-eight hours, it must tied down with small strong twine or wire, and not on any account, he says, be put into the well secured with melted rosin, or other material cask. If however, the cyder, after being racked of the same nature. off, remains bright and quiet, nothing more is to · Mr. Knight thinks, that .cyders which have be done to it till the succeeding spring; but if been made from good fruits, and have been proa scum collects on the surface, it must imme- perly manufactured, will retain a considerable diately be racked off into another cask; as this portion of sweetness, in the cask, to the end of would produce bad effects if suffered to sink. three or four years; but that the saccharine part, If a disposition to ferment with violence again on which alone their sweetness depends, gradually appears, it will be necessary, he thinks, to rack disappears, probably by a decomposition and off from one cask to another, as often as a hissing discharge of fixed air, similar to that which takes noise is heard. The strength of cyder is much place in the earlier stages of their fermentation. reduced, he says, as noticed above, by being fre In our plate we give a perspective view of the quently racked off; but this, he supposes, arises machinery of the common cyderist, viz., the only from a large portion of sugar remaining mill-house, mill, press, vat, and cask, with their unchanged, which adds to the sweetness, at the appurtenances. À mill-house on an orchardexpense of the other quality. The juice of the farm, is as necessary, Mr. Marshall observes, as fruits which produce very strong cyders, often a barn. It is generally one end of an out-buildremains muddy during the whole winter, and ing; or perhaps, an open shed, under which much attention must frequently be paid, to pre- straw or small implements are occasionally laid vent an excess of fermentation.'

up. The smallest dimensions, to render it any * The casks into which the liquor is put, when- way convenient, are twenty-four feet by twenty; ever racked off, should always have been tho- a floor thrown over it, at seven feet high; a door roughly scalded, and dried again; and each in the middle of the front, and a window opposhould want several gallons of being full, to ex- site ; with the mill on one side, the press on the pose a larger surface to the air of the atmos- other side of the window; as much room being phere. • But,' he adds, should the cyder- left in front, towards the door, for fruit and maker neglect the above precautions, the inevi- utensils, as the nature of the mill and the press table consequence will be this: another fermen- will allow. A B, the bottom or lower beam of tation will quickly succeed, and convert the fine the press; C D, the upper beam; 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, vincus liquor he was possessed of into a sort of the uprights; 4,4, e, e, spurs ; 2, 2, 12, braces vinegar; and all the art he is master of will ne or cross-pieces; d, b, capitals; X, blocks; ver restore it to its former richness and purity.' g, the screw; E, the back, or receiver; F, the

He suggests, however, the following correc- cheese or cake of pommage, placed on G, the tives :— A bottle of French brandy, half a gallon stage or basin; 10, 10, beams that support the of spirit extracted from the lees of cyder, or a pieces of which the basin is composed; 11, pail full of old cyder, poured into the hogshead perpendicular pieces for supporting these beams; soon after the acetous fermentation is begun; but H, the buckler no wonder, continues he, if all these should fail, PQR is the circular trough of the appleif the cyder be still continued in a close warm mill; TL V, compartments or divisions for cellar. To give effect to either, it is necessary different sorts of apples; M, the mill-stone; that the liquor be as much exposed to a cooler LM, axis of the mill-stone; N, the spring-tree air as conveniently may be, and that for a consi- bar. The apple-mill does not differ essentially derable length of time. By such means it is from that of a common tanner's mill for grinding possible fermentation may, in a great measure, be bark; and consists of a mill-stone from two feet repressed: and if a cask of prime cyder cannot and a lialf to four and a half in diameter, running from thence be obtained, a cask of tolerable se on its edge in a circular stone trough, from nine cond-rate kind may. These remedies are in-' to twelve inches in thickness, and from one to two nocent; but the farmer or cyder-merchant tons in weight: the bottom of the trough in which attempt to cover the accident, occasioned by ne- the stone runs is somewhat wider than the thickgligence or inattention, by applying any prepa- ness of the stone itself; the inner side of the ration of lead, let him retiect that he is about to groove rises perpendicularly, but the outer is commit an absolute and unqualified murder on levelled in such a manner as to make the top of those whose lot it may be to drink his poisonous the trough six or eight inches wider than the draught. Such means should, therefore, on no bottom, by which means there is room for the account be ever had recourse to.'

stone to run freely, and likewise for putting in The time of bottling depends greatly on the the fruit, and stirring it up while grinding. The quality of the liquors themselves: good cyder bed of a middle sized mill is about nine feet, can seldom be bottled with propriety until a year some ten, and some twelve, the whole being old, and sometimes not till two years. It is composed of two, three, or four stones, hound

together with cramps of iron, and finished after being made so as to be turned by the hand The being cramped in this manner. The best stones cylinders are so arranged as to be capable of are found in the forest of Dean, generally a dark being removed to a greater or less distance froin reddish gritstone, not calcareous; for if the each other, and thus the business advances in a stone was of a calcareous quality, the acid juice regular progressive manner, from the first cutof the fruit would act upon it and spoil the li- ting of the fruit until the cylinders are brought quor; a clean-grained grindstone grit is the so close together that a kernel cannot pass withfittest for the purpose. The runner is moved by out being bruised; if a second pair of finer means of an axle passing through the centre toothed cylinders be made to work under these, · with a long arm reaching without the bed of the the pulp will be brought into a perfect state of mill

, for a horse to draw by; on the other side is fineness. It is with difficulty that the same dea shorter arm, passing through the centre of the gree of fineness can be effected by the horsestone. An iron bolt, with a large head, passes mill. through an eye in the lower part of the swi A hand-mill, where cyder is only made for . vel, on which the stone turns into the end private use, sometimes consists of a pair of fluted of the inner arm of the axis; and thus the dou- rollers working into each other. They are of ble motion of it is obtained, and the stone kept cast-iron, hollow, about nine inches diameter, perfectly upright. There ought also to be fixed with flutes or teeth, about an inch wide, and on the inner arm of the axis, about a foot from nearly as much deep: two men work them by the runner, a cogged wheel, working in a circle hand against each other. The fruit passes beof cogs fixed upon the bed of the mill; these not tween them twice; the rollers being first set wide, only prevent the runner from sliding, which it is to break it into fragments, and afterwards closer apt to do, when the mill is full; but likewise to reduce the fragments and the seeds. make the work more easy for the horse.

Cyder-vats are vessels for receiving the pomThe bottom of the press ought to be made mage, or the cyder before it is racked off into entirely of wood or of stone; the practice of the cask. They should be made of wood, as, corering it with lead being now well known to where lead is employed, it is liable to be cor be pernicious. A few inches within its outer roded by the acid. Of the casks we have aledges a channel is cut to catch the liquor as it is ready spoken. expressed, and convey it 10 a lip formed by a Mr. Crocker observes that, in the districts of projection on that side of the bed opposite the Hereford and Worcester, the following are conmill; having under it a stone trough or wooden sidered as the best liquor fruits : the bennet vessel, sunk within the ground, when the bed is apple, captain Nurse's kernel, Elton's yellow, fixed low to receive it. The press is worked Normandy apple, and the yellow or forest stire. with levers of different lengths, first a short, and And that, in the county of Somerset, the Jersey, then a longer one, both worked by the hand; the white sour, the margill, vallis apple, barn'sand afterwards a bar, eight or nine feet in length, door, crab red-streak, Du-ann, Jack Every, cocworked by a windlass. Mr. Marshall computes cayee, Clark's primo, Buckland, Pit crab, Slathe expense of fitting up a mill-house at about ter's pearmain, Slater's No. 19, Slater's No. 20, £20 or £25, or on a small scale at £10 or Slater's No. 21, castle pippin, saw-pit, and the £15, but if the stone has to be brought from pomme apis, are supposed most valuable. But a distance, the carriage will make a difference. that in Devonshire, the most esteemed fruits are;

'Where iron-mills have been tried, this metal the Seaverton red-streak, the sweet broady, the has been found to be soluble in the acid of apples, lemon bitter sweet, josey, Orcheton pippin, wine to which it communicates a brown color, and an apple, marygold spice-apple, Ludbrook reduopleasant taste. No combination has been as- streak, green Cornish, the butter-box, red Corcertained to take place .between this acid and nish, broad-nosed pippin, cat's head, brandylead; but as the calx of this metal readily dis- apple, Pine's red-streak, winter red, sweet solves in, and communicates an extremely poi- pomme roi, and the Bickley red-streak. Marsonous quality to, the acetous juice of the apple, shall mentions the stire-apple, hagloe crab, it should never be suffered to come into contact the golden pippin, the old red-streak, and the with the fruit or liquor.' Knight on the Apple woodcock, as favorite old cyder fruits, now on and Pear.

the decline. It was during the reign of Charles Fig. 2 is a plain and still more common apple- I. that the plantations of lerefordshire acquired mill, used in Devonshire.

the peculiar eminence which they yet retain, Fig. 3 is a cyder-mill in use in the south of when by the spirited exertions of lord Scudamore, France, worked on a circular platform of boards, and other gentlemen of the county, Herefordand, instead of stone, the wheel or conical roller shire · became, in a manner, one entire orchard.' is of cast-iron. The fruit is thinly spread over The principal markets for the fruit liquors of the platform, and the roller moved round by one this county, are those of London and Bristol, man or woman. From the rollers covering more whence great quantities are sent to Ireland, breadth than the narrow wheels in use in En- to the East and West Indies, and to other foreign gland, more fruit is crushed in a short time by markets, in bottles. The price of the common this sort of mill.

cyder is generally fixed once a year by a meetAnother and very convenient cyder-mill is ing of the dealers at Ilereford fair, on the 20th shown in fig. 4, and is made of two toothed or of October. indented wooden cylinders of about nine inches Cyder Spirit, is a spirituous liquor drawn in diameter, each being enclosed in the manner from cyder by distillation, in the same manner of other mills, having a feeder at the top; and as brandy from wine. Its Aavor is not a gips

Vol. VII

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