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There is a thing, Harry, known to many in our Definitively thus I answer you : land by the name of pitch; this pitch, as ancient Your love deserves my thanks; but my desert, writers do report, doch defile.
Skalspeare. Unmeritable, shuns your bigh request. Id. Lust,
Bellarmine saith, because we think that the body By unchaste looks, loose gestures, and fuul talk, of Christ may be in many places at once, locally and Lets in defilement to the inward parts. Milton. visibly; therefore we may say and hold, that the same
God requires rather that we should die, than defile body may be circumspectively and definitively in more canelves with impieties.
Hull Stilling fleet.
places at once. Every object his offence reviled ;
Other authors write often dubiously, even in matThe husband murdered, and the wife defiled. Prior.
ters wherein is expected a strict and definitive truth.
Browne's Vulgar Errours. He is justly reckoned among the greatest prelates of this age, however his character may be defiled by is to be supposed before any definition is to be in
Definitions do not tell an sit, but quid sit; the first nean and dirty hands.
Bishop Taylor Let not any instances of sin defile your requests.
The Supreme Nature we cannot otherwise define,
than by saying it is infinite; as if infinite were de. The unchaste are provoked to see their vice ex. finable, or infinity a subject for our narrow underpoeed, and the chaste cannot rake into such filth
Dryden. withoat danger of de filement.
I drew my definition of poetical wit from my partiAt the last tremendous day, I shall hold forth in
cular consideration of him; for propriety of thoughts my arms my much wronged child, and call aloud for and words is only to be found in him.
Id. vengeance on her defiler.
Though defining be thought the prrper way to Thus when Cambyses led his barbarous hosts
make known the proper signification, yet there are From Persia's rocks to Egypt's trembling coasts,
some words that will not be defined.
Locke. Defiled each hallowed fane, and sacred wood,
Whose loss can'st thou mean, Aad, drunk with fury, swelled the Nile with blood.
That dost so well their miseries define? Sidney.
Hither to your arbour divers times he repaired, and DEFILE, v. n.& n. s. Fr. defile, from file, a here, by your means, had the sight of the goddess, line of solders, itself derived from Lat. filum, a who, in a definite compass, can set forth infinite tbread. To pass off in files ; a narrow passage ; beauty.
Id. a long uarrow pass; a lane.
Concerning the time of the end of the world the There is in Oxford a narrow defile, to use the mi- question is, whether that time be definable or litary term, where the partisans used to encounter.
Burnet's Theory. Addison.
So universally does repetition contribute to our It has been mentioned by a writer of military ma
pleasure in the fine arts, that beauty itself has been nauvres, that defiling should be performed with rapi- defined by some writers to consist in a due combinadity, &e.
Darwin. DEFILE, in war, a narrow lane or passage,
Your God, forsooth, is found through which a company of horse or foot But is he therefore found ? Vain searcher. no:
Incomprehensible and infinite; can pass only in file, by making a small front; Let your imperfect definition show, so that the enemy may take an opportunity to That nothing you, the weak definer, know. Prior. stop their march, and to charge them with so much the more advantage, as those in front and
When the rings appeared only black and white, rear cannot reciprocally come to the relief of one they were very distinct and well defined, and the
blackness seemed as intense as that of the central another.
Newton. DEFI'NE, v. a. & v n. Fr. and Port. de
What is man? Not a reasonable animal merely ; DEFIN'ABLE, adj.
finer ; Spanish, de- for that is not an adequate and distinguishing definiDEFIN'ER, n. 8. finir; Ital.diffinire; tion.
Bentley. DEF'ISITE, n. 5. & adj. Lat. definire. From DEF'IXITENESS, do and finem, to
Special bastardy is nothing else but the definition
of the general; and the general, again, is nothing DEFINITION,
give a limit. To set
a limit by words or DEFIN'ITIVELY.
actions ; to mark a
DEFINITE, in grammar, is applied to an artiDEFIX'ITIVENESS.
bound. As a neu
cle that has a precise determinate signification; ter verb, to decide, determine. Definable is, ca- such as the article the in English, le and la in pable of being defined. Definer, he who defines; French, &c., which fix and ascertain the noun to and hence he who explains or describes a thing. wnich they belong; whereas d, an, un, or une, Definite is, precise; exact; determined; and mark nothing particular, and are therefore called sometimes it is used as a substantive. Definiteness indefinite. See ARTICLE. is, certainty; limitedness. Definition, the act or DEFLA GRABLE, adj.
From Lat. deflaform of defining; the concise description of a DEFLAGRA’TION, n. s. gro.
Combustibithing, Definitive is, determinate; express; final. DEFLAGRABIʻLITY, n. s. lity; the quality of Definitiveness, decisiveness.
taking fire, and burning totally away. The sojust judge is the capital remover of land The true reason why paper is not burned by the marks, when he defineth amiss of lands and proper- flame that plays about it, seems to be, that the
aqueous part of the spirit of wine, being imbibed by Idiots in this case of favour,
the paper, keeps it so moist, that the flame of the sul. Would be visziy definik. Shakspeare. phureous parts of the same spirit cannot fasten on it; Vol. VII.
and therefore, when the deflagration is over, you shall DEFLY, adv. From Deft, which see. Dexalways find the paper moist.
Boyle. terously; skilfully. Obsolete. Properly deftly. Our chymical oils, supposing that they were ex
Lo, how finely the graces can it foot
To the instrument;
They dauncen defly, and singen soote,
In their merriment. We have spent more time than the opinion of the
Spenser. ready deflagrability, if I may so speak, of salt petre
DE FOE (Daniel), a celebrated miscellaneous did permit us to imagine.
writer of the last and preceding century. When DEFLECT', v. n. From Lat. de and flec- king William, to allay the dissent of the people, was DEFLECTION, n. s. to, to turn. To turn obliged to dimiss his Dutch guards, De Foe ridiDEFLEX'URE, n. s.
Saside; to deviate. culed the enemies of government in a well-known At some parts of the Azores the needle deflecteth poem, called the True-Born Englishman. He not, but lieth in the true meridian : on the other side next wrote a tract, called the Shortest Way with of the Azores, and this side of the equator, the north the Dissenters, a satire on those who now,
having point of the needle whecleth to the west.
the power, wished to retaliate on the Romanists Browne's Vulgar Errours. and dissenters those persecutions they had loudiy Needles incline to the south on the other side of complained of when inflicted on themselves. For the equator ; and at the very line, or middle circle, this he was sentenced to the pillory, which so little stand without deflection.
Id. intimidated him, that, in defiance of this usage, Por, did not some from a straight course deflect, he wrote a Hymn to the Pillory. It is unnecesThey could not meet, they could no world erect. sary to enumerate all his publications: the fol
Blackmore. lowing are the principal." The History of the As by the cultivation of various sciences, a language Plague in 1665; a novel, entitled The History is amplified, it will be more furnished with words of Colonel Jack; a New Voyage Round the deflected from their original sense.
World by a Company of Merchants, printed for Johnson. Preface to Dictionary. Bettesworth, 1725; The History of Roxana; Deflection of the Rays of Light, a pro- Memoirs of a Cavalier; The History of Moll perty which Dr. Hook observed in 1675, and Flanders; a religious romance, entitled Religiread an account of before the Royal Society, ous Courtship; and The Life and Adventures of March 18th, the same year. He says he found it Robinson Crusoe, a well-known tale, of which different both from reflection and refraction, and there have been editions without number. The that it was made towards the surface of the basis of this popular story was afforded by the opaque body, perpendicularly. This property real history of a Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, Sir Isaac Newton calls inflection.
who had been left ashore on the island of Juan
Fernandez. Selkirk used to relate his advenDEFLOUR', v.a. Fr. deflorer; Span. des
tures at a coffee-house in London, where money DEFLOUR'ER, n. s. florar; Lat. deflorare ; DEFLORATION, 1. S. from de privative and
was frequently given him by the company, and
where De Foe so often heard them, that out of floreo, flus, floris, a flower. To violate a virgin; them he formed the above mentioned history: hence to mar or deface any thing that is beau. De Foe's malignant enemies have misrepresented tiful; to select the most valuable of a number of this to his disadvantage. He died at Islington things. The meaning of the substantives is ob- in 1731.
DEFODATION, n. s. Lat. from defadus, How on a sudden lost,
of de and fædus, foul. The act of making filthy; Defaced, defloured, and now to death devote!
pollution. This is not an English word ; at least, The laws of Normandy are, in a great measure,
to make it English, it should be written defedathe defloration of the English laws, and a transcript tion, says Dr. Johnson. of them.
Hale. What native unextinguishable beauty must be imIf he died young, he died innocent, and before pressed and instincted through the whole, which the the swectness of his soul was defloured and ravished defædation of so many parts by a bad printer, and : from him by the flames and follies of a froward age.
worse 'editor, could not binder from shining forth. Taylor.
Bentley. I have often wondered, that those deflourers of in DEFOʻRCEMENT, n. s. from force. A with nocence, though dead to all the sentiments of virtue holding of lands and tenements by force from and honour, are not restrained by humanity. the right owner. It may be grounded,' says
Blackstone, on the disability of the party deDEFLU'X, n. s. Lat. deflurio, from de,
forced.' Def'luvous, adj. and fiuo, to flow. The DEFORM', v. a. & adj. Fr. deformér ; Ital. DEFLU'XION, n. s.
flow of humors down DEFORM'ED, part. adj. difformare; Span. wards.
DEFORMA'TION, n. s.
desformár; Lat. deBoth bodies are clammy, and bridle the deflur of
DEFORM'EDLY, adv. formare ; i.e. demere humours, without penning them in too much.
DEFORM'EDNESS, R. S. formam, to take away
beauty. To distiWe see that taking cold moveth looseness by con gure; to mar the form of any thing; to dishonor, traction of the skin and outward parts ; and so doth disgrace. Deformation is a defacing, disfiguring. cold, likewise, cause rheums and deflucions from the Deformity is ugliness, irregularity of form; head.
Id. hence inordinateness, ridiculousness.
I did proclaim,
Their impostures are worse than any other, de. That whoso killed that monster most deform, luding not only into pecuniary defraudations, but the Sbald have mire only daughter to his dame. irreparable deceit of death. Brorone's Vulgar Ertours.
There they, who brothers better claim disown, I that am curtailed of all fair proportion,
Expel their parents, and usurp the throne; Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,
Defraud their clients, and, to lucre sold, Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time
Sit brooding on unprofitable gold.
Dryden. Into this breathing world, scarce half made up.
There is a portion of our lives which every wise man Shakspeare.
may justly reserve for his own particular use, without Where sits deformity to mock my body, defrauding his native country.
Id, To shape my legs of an unequal size,
But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms, To disproportion me in every part.
And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. Pore. No glory is more to be envied than that of due re The profigate in morals grows severe, forming either church or state, when deformities are
Defrauders just, and sycophants sincere. such, that the perturbation and novelty are not like to
Blackmore. exceed the benefit of reforming.
Fr. defrayer, accord-
DEFRAY'ER, n. s. ing to Minsheu, from Retaining still divine similitude
DEFRAY'MENT, n. s. the old Fr. fredum, a In part, from such deformities be free,
fine. Rather, from de, and fra s, Fr. expense. It And for his Maker's image sake, exempt?
may, however, be nothing more than a comSn spake the grisly terror; and in shape,
pound of the English verb, free. To pay expenses ; So speaking and so threatening, grew tenfold to discharge a charge made; defrayment is, comMore dreadful and deform.
Id. pensation; satisfaction. Defrayer, he who pays mld men with dust deformed their hoary hair. or discharges an account.
Dryden. He would, out of his own revenue, defray the It is well known what strange work there has been charges belonging to the sacrifices. 2 Mac. ix. 16. in the world, under the name and pretence of reforma It is easy to lay a charge upon any town; but to tion; box often it has turned out to be, in reality, foresee how the same may be answered and defrayed, deformation; or, at best, a tinkering sort of business, is the chief part of good advisement. where, while one hole has been mended, two have
Spenser's State of Ireland. been made.
It is long since any stranger arrived in this part, Affectation is certain deformity ; by forming them and therefore take ye no care ; the state will defray selves on fantastic models, the young begin with being you all the time you stay; neither shall you stay one ridiculous, and often end in being vicious. Blair. day the less for that.
Bucon. Had no Power presented me
DEFT, adj. Sax. dæft.
Obsolete. Neat; The possibility of change, I would
handsome; spruce; fitting. Have done the best which Spirit may, to make
You go not the way to examine ; you must call the Its way, with all Deformity's dull, deadly,
watch that are their accusers. Discouraging, weight upon me, like a mountain.
Yea, marry, that's the deftest way.
Shakspeare. DEFORMITY may be defined, in general, the
Come, high or low, Want of uniformity; though it certainly does not,
Thyself and office deftly show, Id. Macbeth. as some have supposed, include the want of that Loud fits of laughter seized the guests, to see perfect degree of uniformity that is necessary to
The limping god so deft at his new ministry.
Dryden. constitute beauty. Many are the objects in nature that cannot be said to be beautiful, and yet And my cur, Tray, play deftest feats around. Gay.
The wanton calf may skip with many a bound, are by no means deformed. Deformity is either natural or moral. These are both referred by Full weli could dance, and defily tune the reed. Id.
Young Colin Clout, a lad of peerless meed, Mr. Hutcheson to an internal sense; and our perceptions of them, as he supposes, arise from
DEFUNCT, n. s. & adj.
Lat. defunctus, an original arbitrary structure of our own minds, DEFUNCTION, n. s.
3 of de and fungor, by which certain objects, when observed, are
to finish. In a state of death; dead. rendered the occasions of certain sensations and Nature doth abhor to make his couch affections. See BEAUTY.
With the defunct, or sleep upon the dead. DEFRAUD,v.u.
Shakspeare. 2. Fr. defrauder; Span
I therefore beg it not
To please the palate of my appetite ;
Nor to comply with heat, the young effects fraudis, deceit. To cheat; deceive; beguile of In me defunct, and proper satisfaction. Id, something : always taking of before the thing
Here entity and quiddity, gained. Defraudation is privation by deceit or
The souls of defunct bodies, fly. Hudibras. guile. Defrauder, he who cheats another of his
In many cases, the searchers are able to report the property.
opinion of the physician who was with the patient, as My son, defraud not the poor of his living, and they receive the same from the friends of the defuenct. make not the needy eyes to wait long.
Graunt. Eccl. iv. I. Churches seem injured and defrauded of their rights,
DEFY, v.a. & n.s. Sax, and Teut. figan; when places, hot sanctified as they are, preveut them
DEFY'er, n. s. Goth. figa; Fr. defier ; Eanecessarily in that pre-eminence and honour.
Defiance. Spandesafier; Ital. disHooker. sidere, from Lat. dissidere, to differ; because,
says Minsheu, we differ with those whom we Let not the tumultuary violence of some men's imdefy. To dare; to challenge; to call to com- moderate demands ever betray me to that degenerous bat; to despise; to disdain; to deny. Defy is and unmanly slavery,which should make me strengthen used as a substantive by Dryden, but not com
them by my consent.
King Charles. nonly. Defiance is the instrument or mode of In plants, these transplantations are obvious; as challenge; any expression of enmity, abhor- barley into oats, of wheat into darnell; and those
grains which generally arise among corn, as cockle, rence, or contempt.
aracus, ægilops, and other degenerations. I knowe her eke a false dissimulour,
Broune's Vulgar Ertours. For finally fortune I do defie.
So all shall turn degenerate, all depraved ;
Justice and temperance, truth and faith, forgot! As many fools that stand in better place,
One man except.
Milton. Garnished like liim, that for a tricksy word Defy the matter.
Shakspeare. When wit transgresseth decency, it degenerates into insolence and impiety.
Tillotson. The fiery Tybalt, with his sword prepared, Which, as he breathed defiance to my cars,
'Tis true, we have contracted a great deal of weakHe swung about his head.
Id. ness and impotency by our wilful degeneracy from I once again
goodness; but that grace, which the gospel offers to Defy thee to the trial of mortal fight. Milion. us for our assistance, is sufñcient for us.
12. How many of us can bid defiance to death, and Fair, tall, his limbs with due proportion joined ; suggest answers to absent temptations, which when But of a heavy dull degenerate mind, they come home to us, we Ay off, and change our note. His soul belied the features of his face ;
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. Beauty was there, but beauty in disgrace. Dryden. Nor shall it e'er be said that wight
Degenerous passion, and for man too base, With gantlet blue and bases white,
It seats its empire in the female race; And round blunt truncheon by his side
Hudibras. So great a man at arms defyed.
There rages, and, to make its blow secure,
Puts Battery on, uulil the aim be sure. Id. Is it not then high time that the laws should pro When a man so far becomes degenerate as to quit viile, by the most prudent and effectual means, to
ine principles of human nature, and to be a noxious rurb those bold and insolent defiers of heaven ?
creature, there is commonly an injury done some Tillotson. person or other.
Locke. At this the challenger, with fierce defy, His trumpet sounds; the challenged makes reply :
Degenerate from their ancient brood,
iuce first the court allowed them food. With clangour rings the field, resounds the vaulted sky. Dryden.
Swifr. Nor is it just to bring
The ruin of a state is generally preceded by an A war without a just defiance made.
universal degeneracy of manners, and contempt of
religion, which is entirely our case at present. Id. Nobody will so openly bid defiance to common sense, as to affirm visible and direct contradictions. Locke.
How wounding a spectacle is it to see heroes, like
Hercules at the distaff, thus degenerously employed ! Here let the pippin, fretted o’er with gold,
Decay of Piety. In fostering straw defy the winter's cold; The hardier russet here will safely keep,
There is a kind of sluggish resignation, as well as And dusky rennet, with its crimson cheek.
poorness and degeneracy of spirit, in a state of slaSheridan. very.
Addison. And one enormous shout of “ Allah!' rose
When we think of the infinite purity of God, who In the same moment, loud as even the roar
cannot behold iniquity; and consider the corrupted Of war's most mortal engines, to their foes
and degenerate state of human nature; this is apt to Hurling defiance.
make us more apprehensive than is reasonable, of the DEG EN’ERATE, v. n. & adj.) Fr.degénerér;
difficulty of our duty. DEGEN'ERACY, n. s.
Tongues, like governments, have a natural tenDEGEN'ERATENESS,
rar ; Ital.de- dency to degeneration ; we have long preserved our DEGEN'ERATIVE,
constitution, let us make some struggles for our lan
generáre; LaDEGEN'EROUS, adj.
Johnson. Preface tu Dictionary. tin, degeneru; DEGEN'EROUSLY, udv.
from de and
DEGLUTI'TION, n. S. Lat. deglutio, of de genere errare, to wander from its kind. To fall and glutio, from Gr. yaufw, to swallow.—Ainsoff from the virtue or fame of one's ancestors;
worth. The act or power of swallowing. to decline in station, in kind, or in class : as an
When the deglutition is totally abolished, the patient adjective, unlike or unequal to ancestry; unwor.
may be nourished by clysters. Arbuthnot on Diet. thy; base. Degeneracy, degenerateness, and de DEGLUTITION, in the animal economy, is generation are synonymous, and signify a state performed in the first place by means of the or act that exhibits degradation from the excel- tongue, driving the aliment into the wesophagus lence or honor of ancestors; an apostasy or de- or gullet, and then, by the contraction of the clining from that which is good. Degenerous sphincter, and the fleshy fibres of the æsophagus, is synonymous with degenerated.
which, lessening its aperture, protrude the conMost of those fruits that used to be grafted, if they tents downward into the stomach. In its course, be set of kernels or stones, degenerate.
by pressing the glands, the food itself increases Thou art like enough
the mucus required for lubrication, and thus To fight against me under Piercy's pay;
easily passes without irritation. To oog his heels, and curtsy at his frowns,
DEGRADE', v. a. ? Fr. degradér; Span, To show how much thou art degenerate.
DEGRADA'TION, n. s. S degradar; Ital. disgra- . Shakspeare. dáre ; from Lat. de privative, and gradus a step.
To deprive of rank or degree ; to reduce from stantine Copronymus caused to be executed. He a higber to a lower rank or value. Degradation was made to ascend the ambo; and the patriarch is the state of deprivation so effected; dismissal Nicetas sent some of his bishops to strip him of fran trust or office.
the pallium, and anathematised him : then they He should
made him go out of the church backwards. Be quite degraded, like a hedgeborn swain,
When Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, was That doth presume to boast of gentle blood. degraded by order of queen Mary, they dressed
Shakspeare. him in episcopal robes, made only of canvas, put Nor shalt thou, by descending to assume
the mitre on his head, and the pastoral staff in Man's nature, lessen or degrude thine own.
his hand ; and in this attire showed him to the Milton.
people. They then stripped him piece by piece. All higher knowledge in her presence falls Pope Boniface pronounced that six bishops were Degraded.
required to degrade a priest ; but the difficulty So deplorable is the deyradation of our nature, that of assembling so many bishops, rendered the whereas before we bora the image of God, we now punishment frequently impracticable. retain only the image of men.
South. The word degradation is commonly used to denote DEGRADED, in heraldry, the a deprivation and removing of a man fronu his degree. name of a cross when it has
steps at each end, as argent, a Time hath not yet the features fixed,
cross, degraded sable. Name But brighter traits with evil mixed;
DEGREE', n. s. Fr. degrè ; Port. grao; Even by the crimes through which it waded.
Span. and Ital. grado, from Lat. gradus, a step: Byron. The Giaour.
See Degrade. Rank; quality; order; place of DEGRADATION from political rank or station relative merit or precedency; measure; proporwas, and is, performed in a different manner in tion. Variously applied in the sciences : see the the cases of a peer, a priest, a knight, a gentle- following articles. By degrees is, gradually; by man, an officer, &c. In the time of Francis I. steps, or graduated progress. M. Fangel, a French officer, having, in a cowardly manner, given up Fontarabia, whereof he was
Surely men of low degree are vanity, and men of
bigh degree are a lye : to be laid in the balance, they governor, was publicly degraded. On this oc
are altogether lighter than vanity. Psalm lxii. 9. casion twenty or thirty cavaliers were assembled,
Methinkith it accordant to reson, before whom this gentleman was accused of treason and breach of faith by a king at arms.
To tell you alle the condition
Of ech of them, so as it semid me, Two scaffolds were erected, the one for the
And which they werin, and of what degree judges, heralds, and pursuivants, and the other
And eke in what array that they wer ia ; for the guilty cavalier, who was armed at all
And at a knigbt then woll I first begin. points, and his shield placed on a stake before
Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. him, with the point reversed. On one side as
It was my fortune, common to that age, sisted twelve priests, in surplices, who sung the To love a lady fair, of great degree, vails of the dead. At the close of each psalm The which was born of noble parentage, they made a pause, during which the officers of And sct in highest seat of dignity. Spenser. arms stripped the condemned of some piece of
I embrace willingly the ancient received course bis armour, beginning with his helmet, and pro- and conveniency of that discipline, which teacheth ceeding thus till he was quite disarmed; which inferior degrees and orders in the church of God. done, they broke the shield in three pieces with
Hooker. a hammer. Then the king at arms emptied a The book of Wisdom noteth degrees of idolatry, basin of hot water on the criminal's head ; and making that of worshipping petty and vile idols more the judges, putting on mourning habits, went to gross than simply the worshipping of the creature. the church. The degraded was then drawn from
Bacon. off the scaffold with a rope tied under his arm
Degree being vizarded, pits, laid on a bier, and covered with mortuary The unworthiest shews as fairly in the mask. clothes; the priests singing some of the prayers
Shakspeare. for the dead; and then he was delivered to the How vainly do we hope to be perfect at once! it is civil judge and the executioner of justice. Sir well for us, if through many degrees we can rise to Andrew Harcla, earl of Carlisle, being convicted
our consummation. Bishop Hall. Contemplations. of treason, 18 Edward II. coram rege : after A strange harmonious inclination judgment was pronounced, his sword was broker Of all degrees to reformation.
Huribras. over his head, and his spurs hewn off his heels ;
In minds and manners, cwins opposed we see; Sir Anthony Lucy, the judge, saying to him: In the same sign, almost the same degree. Diyden, 'Andrew, now thou art no knight, but a knave.' If all the parts are equally heard as loud as one It has been maintained that the king may de- another, they will stun you to that degree, that you
Id. grade a peer; but it appears from later authori- will fancy your ears were torn in pieces. ties, that he cannot be degraded but by act of As if there were degrees in infinite, parliament. We have an instance of ecclesiasti And Heaven itself had rather want perfection cal degradation, before condemnation to death, Than punish to excess. in the eighth century, at Constantinople, in the
Farmers in degree, person of the patriarch Constantine, whom Con- He a good husband, a good housewife she. Id.