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British goods. On the fall of Hamburgh in mixed with the confused noise of drums, tabrets, 1806, it came into the possession of the French, bucklers, and spears. This was in commemoand remained under their domination above seven ration of the sorrow of Cybele for the loss of her years. When, at the close of the war, the French favorite Atys. The goddess was generally repredefended Hamburgh, Cuxhaven was the scene of sented as a robust woman, far advanced in some severe fighting. It is sixty miles north- pregnancy, to imitate the fecundity of the earth. west of Hamburgh, and the light-house is in long. She held' keys in her hand, and her head was 8° 43' 1" E., lat. 53° 52' 21".N.
crowned with rising turrets, or with leaves of CUYO, or Cuso, an extensive province of oak. She sometimes appears riding in a chariot, Peru, and a portion of the former vice-royalty of drawn by two tame lions : Atys follows by her Buenos Ayres, is bounded on the north by side, carrying a ball in his hand, and supporting Tucuman, on the east by the Pampas deserts, himself upon a fir-tree, which is sacred to the on the south by deserts, and on the west by the goddess. She is also represented with a sceptre Andes. It is mild in climate, and very fertile in her hand, and with many breasts, to show that in grain of all kinds, and pasturage: much wine the earth gives aliments to all living creatures ; and brandy are made, and immense herds of and she generally carries two lions under her cattle range the valleys.
From Phrygia the worship of Cybele CYATHUS, kvabos, from xvelv, to pour out, passed into Greece, and was solemnly established was a common measure among the Greeks and at Eleusis under the name of the Eleusinian Romans, both of the liquid and dry kind. It mysteries of Ceres. The Romans, by order of was equal to an ounce, or the twelfth part of a the Sibylline books, brought the statue of the pint, and was made with a handle like our goddess from Pessinus into Italy; and when the punch-ladle. The Romans frequently drank as ship which carried it had run on a shallow bank many cyathi as there were muses, i. e. nine; or of the Tiber, the virtue of Claudia was said to as many as there were letters in their patron's have been vindicated, by removing it with her
The cyathus of the Greeks is said by girdle. It is supposed that the mysteries of Galen and others to have weighed ten drachms ; Cybele were first known about 257 years before elsewhere he says, that a cyathus contains twelve the Trojan war, or 1580 years before the Augusdrachms of oil, thirteen drachms and one scrupletan age. The Romans were particularly superof wine, water, or vinegar, and eighteen drachms stitious in washing, every year on the 6th of the of honey. Among the Veterinarii, the cyathus kalends of April, the shrine of this goddess in contained two ounces.
the waters of the river Almon. Many obsceniCYAXARES I., son of Phraortes, king of ties prevailed in the observation of the festivals ; Media and Persia. He bravely defended his and the priests themselves were the most eager kingdom against the Scythians; made war to use indecent expressions, and to show their against Alyattes, king of Lydia ; and subjected unbounded licentiousness. to his power all Asia, beyond the river Halys. CYBELICUM MARMOR, a name given by He died after a reign of forty years, in the year the ancients to a species of marble dug in the of Rome 160.
mountain Cybele. It was of an extremely bright CYAXARES II. is supposed by Dr. Prideaux white, with broad veins of bluish-black. and others to be the same as Darius the Mede, CYCAS, in botany, a genus of plants of the the son of Astyages, king of Media. He added monæcia class, and polygamia order. The fruit seven provinces to his father's dominions, and is a dry plum, with a bivalved kernel. There made war against the Assyrians, whom Cyrus is but one species described by Linnæus, viz. favored.
the circinalis; but professor Thunberg mentions CYBELE, in Pagan mythology, the daughter another, viz. 1. C. caffra, broad broom, or bread of Cælius and Terra, wife of Saturn, and mother tree of the Hottentots. This plant, discovered of Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, &c. She is also by professor Thunberg, is described in the Nova colled Rhea, Ops, Vesta, Bona Mater, Magna Acta Reg. Soc. Scient. Ups. vol. ii. p. 283, tab. Mater, Berecynthia, Dindymene, &c., and by V. The pith, or medulla, which abounds in the some is reckoned the same with Ceres : but most trunk of this little palm, Mr. Spartman informs mythologists make these two distinct goddesses. us, is collected and tied up in dressed calf or According to Diodorus, she was the daughter of sheep skins, and then buried in the earth for the a Lydian prince, and, as soon as she was born, space of several weeks, till it becomes sufficiently she was exposed on a mountain. She was pre- mellow and tender to be kneaded up with water served by
some of the wild beasts of the into a paste, of which they afterwards make forest, and received the name of Cybele from the small loaves or cakes, and bake them under the mountain where her life had been preserved. ashes. 2. C. circinalis, or sago-tree, which When she returned to her father's court, she had grows spontaneously in the East Indies, and an intrigue with Atys, a beautiful youth, whom particularly on the coast of Malabar. It runs her father mutilated, &c. Most of the mytholo- up with a straight trunk to upwards of forty feet gists mention the amours of Atys and Cybele. in height, having many circles the whole length, In Phrygia the festivals of Cybele were observed occasioned by the old leaves falling off; for with the greatest solemnity. Her priests, called standing in a circular order round the stem, and Corybantes, Curetes, Galli, &c., it is said were embracing it with their base, whenever they drop, not admitted to the service of the goddess without they leave the marks of their adhesion. The leaves a previous mutilation. In the celebration of the are pinnated, and grow to the length of seven or festivals, they imitated the manners of madinen, eight feet. The pinnæ or lobes are long, narrow, and find the air with shrieks and howlings, entire, of a shining green, all the way of a
breadth, lance-shaped at the point, closely orbs ; a circle in the heavens. Cyclometry is the crowded together, and stand at right angles on art of measuring cycles. each side the mid-rib, like the teeth of a comb.
How build, unbuild, contrive The flowers are produced in long bunches at the To save appearances; how gird the sphere foot-stalks of the leaves, and are succeeded by With centrick, and excentrick, scribbled o'er oral fruit, about the size of large plums, of a red Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb!
Milton. color when ripe, and a sweet flavor. Each con We do more commonly use these words, so as to tains a hard brown nut, enclosing a white meat style a lesser space a cycle, and a greater by the name which tastes like a chestnut. This is a valuable of period; and you may not improperly call the betree to the inhabitants of India, as it not only ginning of a large period the epocha thereof. furnishes a considerable part of their constant
Holder on Time. bread, but also supplies them with a large article
We thought we should not attempt an unacceptable of trade. See Sago.
work, if here we endeavoured to present our garCYCEON, from svraav, to mix, a name given done throughout every month of the year.
deners with a complete cycle of what is requisite to be by the ancient poets and physicians to a mixture
Evelyn's Kalendar. of meal and water, and sometimes of other ingre Chained to one centre whirled the kindred spheres, dients. These constituted the two kinds of And marked with lunar cycles solar years. Darwin. cyceon; the coarser being of the water and meal
I must tell you that Sir H. Savile had confuted alone; the richer and more delicate composed of Joseph Scaliger's cyclometry.
Wallis. wine, honey, flour, water, and cheese. Homer,
CYCLE OF EASTER. See CHRONOLOGY. in the 11th Iliad, speaks of cyceon made with cheese, and the meal of barley mixed with wine, is called also the golden number, and the Metonic
CYCLE OF THE Moon. See CHRONOLOGY. It but without any mention either of honey or water; and Ovid, describing the draught of cyceon the time of the council of Nice, when the method
cycle, from its inventor Meton the Athenian. At : given by the old woman of Athens to Ceres, of finding the time for observing the feast of mentions only flour and water. understood the word in both these senses ; but Easter was established, the numbers of the lunar extolled it most in the coarse and simple kind: cycle were inserted in the kalendar, which, upon
the account of their use, were set in golden lethe says, when prepared with water alone, it refrigerates and nourishes greatly.
ters, and the year of the cycle called the golden
number of that year. CYCINNIS, a Grecian dance, so called from
Cycle Of The Sun. See CHRONOLOGY. its supposed inventor, one of satyrs belonging to Bacchus. It consisted of a combination of form of a half moon, used in scraping the scull,
CYCLISUS, in surgery, an instrument in the grave and gay movements.
in cases of fractures of that part. CYCLADES, in ancient geography, islands so called, as Pliny informs us, from the Cyclus
CY'CLOID, n. s. 2 Kuklosions. A geomeor orb in which ihey lie; beginning from the
Cycloʻldal, adj. Strical curve, of which the promontory Geraestum of Eubea, and lying genesis may be conceived by imagining a nail in round the island Delos. Their situation and the circumference of a wheel : the line which the number is not so generally agreed upon. Strabo nail describes in the air, while the wheel revolves says, they were first reckoned twelve, but that in a right line, is the cycloid. Relating to a many others were added : yet most of them lie cycloid; as the cycloidal space is the space to the south of Delos, and but few to the north, 'contained between the cycloid and its substance. so that the middle or centre, ascribed to Delos, A man may frame to himself the notion of a para. is to be taken in a loose, not in a geometrical bola, or a cycloid, from the mathematical definition of senise. Strabo recites them, after Artemidorus, as
Reid. follows: Helena, Ceos, Cynthus, Seriphus, Melos, Cyclown, or TROCHOID, a mechanical or Sipbnus, Cimolus, Prepesinthus, Olearus, Naxos, transcendental curve, which is thus generated :Paros, Syrus, Myconos, Tenos, Andros, Gyarus; Suppose a circle F E II to roll along the straight but he excludes from the number, Prepėsinthus, line A B, so that all the parts of its circumference Olearus, and Gyarus.
be applied to the straight line in succession; the CYCIADES, GREAT. See Hebrides, New. point E, that was in contact with A B at A, will,
CYCLAMEN, sowbread, a genus of the by a motion thus compounded of a circular and monogynia order, and pentandria class of plants : rectilineal motion, describe a certain curve line natural order twenty-first, preciæ. cor. verticil. A, to EDB, which is called a cycloid. The lated, with the tube very short, and the throat straight line A B is called the base, and the line prominent: the berry is covered with the cap- CD perpendicular to AB, bisecting it at C, and sule. There are but two species, which, however, meeting the curve in D, is called the axis of the produce many beautiful varieties. They are low, cycloid. The circle by whose revolution the herbaceous, Howery perennials, of the tuberous curve is described is called the generating circle. Tooted kind, with numerous, angular, heart- The following are some of the most remarkable shaped, spotted, marbled leaves; and many fleshy properties of this curve.-1. The base A B is foot-stalks six inches high, carrying monopetalous, equal to the circumference of the generating circle. five-parted, reflexed flowers, of various colors. 2. The axis C D is equal to the diameter of the CYCLE, n. s.
Lat. cyclus ; Koklos. generating circle. These two properties are obCYCLO'METRY, n. s. SA circle ; a round vious from the definition of the cuive. 3. Let of time; a space in which the same revolutions the generating circle CKD be described on the begin again ; a method, or account of a method axis CD as a diameter, and let GK E be pertill the same course begins again ; imaginary pendicular to the axis, meeting the circle in K,
arc DK: therefore E is a point in the cycloid ABD. 7. Let D V be drawn parallel to AC, and EV perpendicular to DV,
contained by the straight lines EV, V D, and ED, the arc of the cycloid, is equal to the area contained by the circular arc D K, and the straight lines DG, GK Draw ev parallel to EV, and let ge meet EV in x. by similar triangles (4) Ex : re::DG: GK,
that is Gg: Vo:: EV: GK,. therefore the rectangle GK Gg=rectangle EV.V v, that is, the contemporaneous incremehts
of the circular area Dkg and cycloidal area Dve IL
are equal, therefore the circular area DKG is and the cycloid in E. The straight line EG is contained by the base A B and the arc of the
equal to the cycloidal area DVE. Cor. The area equal to the sum of the circular arc D K, and its cycloid ADB is equal to three times the area of sine KG. Let the generating circle F EH pass the generating circle. For complete the rectangle through E and touch the base A B at F; join DCAY, and the space D E AYis equal to the semiEF and KC, and draw the diameter FH. The circle DKC, therefore the rectangle DYAC is chords F E and CK are evidently. equal and equal to the cycloidal area DEAC together with the parallel, therefore FC=EK; now A Casemi- semicircle D KC; but the rectangle DYAC is circumference FEH, and A Farc FE which contained by D C the diameter of the circle and has quitted it, therefore FC=arc EH, or EKS. AC which is half its circumference, it is therefore arc D K, and E G=arc DK+sine KG. 4. If four times the area of the semicircle, therefore EH be drawn touching the cycloid at E, it is three times the area of the semicircle is equal parallel to K D the chord of the generating circle. to the cycloidal area DEAC. See farther reDrawe kg parallel and indefinitely near to EKG, lating to the cycloid under Mechanics. meeting the chord KD in n. Draw KL, DL, touching the generating circle. The triangles
CYCLOPÆDIA, or / Kukloc, a circle, and
CyclopE'DE, n. s. KLD, Kkn are similar, and KL=LD, there
5 παιδεία. A circle of fore Kk=kn; now arc DK=EK, and arc
knowledge; a course of the sciences. Dk=ek, therefore K k, or kn=EK-ek, and, The tedious and unedifying commentaries on Peter adding ék to each of these equals, EK=en, Lombard's scholastic cyclopede of divinity. Warton. therefore the indefinitely small part of the
Cyclopædia, or ENCYCLOPÆDIA, a term which, cycloidal arc Ee, which coincides with the tangent, is parallel to K n, therefore the tangent Eh in modern times, has been appropriated, from the is parallel to the chord K D. 5. The arc DE of Dictionaries of Science and Literature, of which
Greek, to express those useful and superior the cycloid is equal to twice the chord D K of the generating circle. Join Dk and draw ko per- the term Encyclopædia, which is the more
we hope to furnish a favorable specimen. Under pendicular to Kn, then Ko is the indefinitely small increment of the chord k D, and Kk has common, we shall give some account of the been proved equal to kn (4), therefore Kn is. principal works of this kind which have appeared bisected in 0; but Kn=Ee (4) therefore Ee the in our language. increment of the cycloidal arc De is always dou CYCLOPE'AN, adj. ? From the Cyclops. ble Ko the corresponding increment of the chord Cycloʻpick, adj. Vast; inspiring terror ; Dk, therefore the whole arc D E must be double furious; savage. the chord DK. Corollary. The whole cycloid ADB is equal to four times the axis CD, or
The cyclopean furnace of all wicked fashions, the heart.
Bishop Hall. four times the diameter of the generating circle. 6. If CD is produced to M, so that C M=CD,
Cyclopick monsters, wbo daily seem to fight against heaven.
Bishop Taylor. and if the half of the cycloid B D be placed in the position AM, and the other half A D in the CYCLOPS, in fabulous history, the sons of position M B, then, if a thread MQE=MQA Neptune and Amphitrite: the principal of whom be unfolded from the arc MA, the extremity E were Polyphemus, Brontes, Steropes, and Pyof this thread will describe the cyclo AD B. racmon; but their whole number amounted to Make AP equal and parallel to CM, and on above 100. Jupiter threw them into Tartarus as AP describe the semicircle ATP. Let the soon as they were born; but they were delivered thread touch the curve at Q; draw QR perpen- at the intercession of Tellus, and became the dicular to AP, cutting the circle in T, and join assistants of Vulcan. They were of prodigious AT. Then F Q is parallel to A T (4) and there- stature, and had each only one eye, which was fure equal to it; now EQ is equal to the arc placed in the middle of the forehead. Some AQ which is double AT (5) or F Q, therefore mythologists say, that the cyclops signify the vaEF=FQ-AT, if therefore EKG be drawn pors raised in the air, which occasion thunder perpendicular to CD, CG is equal to AR, and and lightning; on which account they are rearc CK=arc AT, also the chord KC is equal presented as forging the thunderbolts of Jupiter. and paralia to the chord AT, which is parallel Others represent them as the first inhabitants of to E F, therefore FC=EK; now A F or TQ= Sicily, who were cruel, of a gigantic form, ang arc AT (3). Therefore F C or E K=arc TP= dwelt round mount Ærna.
CYCLOPTERUS, the sucker, in ichthyology, serve the different methods of preparing it. This a genus belonging to the order of amphibia may be divided into three processes :- 1. Prepantes. The head is obtuse, and furnished with paring the fruit. II. Grinding and expressing sa teeth: there are four rays in the gills, and the juice from it. III. Fermenting and bottling. the belly fins are connected together in an orbi I. In preparing the fruit, care must be taken cular form. There are ten species. The chief both as to its peculiar quality, and its stage of are:-1. C. liparis, or the sea snail, so called ripeness, or the season at which it is gathered. from the soft and unctuous texture of its body, Few apples are ready for gathering before Miresembling that of the land snail. It is almost chaelmas; though they are sometimes inanufactransparent, and soon dissolves and melts away. tured before that time. For sale-cyder, and It is found in the sea near the mouths of great keeping-drink, they are allowed to remain on rivers, and has been seen full of spawn in Janu- the trees till fully ripe; and in general the ary. The length is five inches; the color a pale middle of October is considered a proper time brown, sometimes finely streaked with a darker. for gathering the stire apples. The ripeness of Beneath the throat is a round depression of a the fruit is judged of hy its falling from the tree; whitish color like the impression of a seal, sur- and Mr. Marshall, as well as Mr. Crocker, thinks rounded by twelve small pale yellow tubera, by that the forcing it away before that time robs it which probably it adheres to the stones like the of some of its most valuable properties. The other species. 2. C. lumpus, the lump fish, cock harvesting of fruit,' says the former, is widely paddle, or sea owl, grows to the length of nine- different in this respect from the harvesting o. teen inches, and weighs seven pounds. The grain, which has the entire plaut to feed it after shape of the body is like that of the bream, deep the separation from the soil; while fruit, after and very thick, and it swims edgeways. The it is severed from che tree, is cut off from all posback is sharp and elevated: the belly flat, of a sibility of a further supply of nourishment, and, bright crimson color. Along the body there run although it may have reached its wonted size, Several rows of sharp bony tubercles, and the some of its more essential particles are undoubtwhole skin is covered with small ones. The edly left behind in the tree. Fruits which are late pectoral fins are large and broad, almost uniting in ripening, however, will sometimes hang on the at their base. Beneath these is the part by which tree until spoiled by frost, and particularly the weak it adheres to the rocks, &c. It consists of an watery fruits. The general practice of beating oral aperture, surrounded with a fleshy, muscular, them down with poles is much disapproved o. and obtuse soft substance, edged with many by Mr. Marshall, because the fruit must thus be stall threaded appendages, which concur as so unequally ripe, the apples on the same tree not many claspers. The tail and vent fins are pur- ripening all at the same time; and thus part o. ple. This fish is sometimes eaten in England, the richness and flavor of the fruit is entirely being stewed like carp: but is both flabby and lost: besides, if the fermentation is interrupted insipid.
or rendered complex by a mixture of ripe and CY'DER, n. s. A fermented drink, made of unripe fruits, and the liquor is not, at first, sufthe juice of apples. See Cider.
ficiently purged from its feculencies, it will be A tendency to these diseases is certainly heredi- lifficult to clear it afterwards. To avoid these tary, though perhaps not the diseases themselves; nconveniences, arising from the unequal ripetbas a less quantity of ale, cyder, wine, or spirit, will ging of the fruit, the trees ought to be gone over induce the gout anil dropsy in those constitutions first with a hook when the fruit begins to fall nawhose parents have been intemperate in the use of curally, and the trees may be afterwards cleared those liquors.
Darwin. with the poles when it is all sufficiently ripened, Cyder, in rural economy, is particularly used or when the winter is likely to set in. Mr. Marfor be liquor expressed and prepared by fer- shall obserics, that the due degree of maturation mentation from the juice of apples. It has been of fruit for liquor is a subject about which men made in this country from a very early period. differ much in their ideas. The prevailing pracHenry of Huntingdon, in describing a quarrel tice of gathering it into heaps until the ripest that arose at the court of Edward the Confessor, begin to rot, is wasting the best of the fruit, and between the two sons of earl Godwin, represents is by no means an accurate criterion. Some one of them as departing in a rage to Hereford, shake the fruit, and judge by the rattling of the (still farnous for this beverage) where his brother kernels; others cut through the middle, and had ordered a royal banquet to be prepared. judge by their blackness : but none of these ap* There he seized his brother's attendants, and pear to be a proper' test. It is not the state or cutting off their heads and limbs, he placed the kernels, hut of the flesh; not of a few indithem in the vessels of wine, mead, ale, pigment, viduals, but of the greater part of the prime morat, and cyder.' Henry Hunt., vol. vi. p. 367. fruit, which renders the collective body fit or But the art of preparing it has never been in- unfit to be sent to the mill. The most rational vestigated with much attention, nor improved by test of the ripeness of the fruit is, that of the science: it is principally, to this day, in the flesh having acquired such a degree of mellowhands of the growers of the fruit. We shall ness, and its texture such a degree of tenderness, present the reader with the best practical direc- as to yield to moderate pressure; thus, when the tions that hare been given to the public on the knuckle or the end of the thumb can with mosubject, viz. by Messrs. Marshall, Crocker, and derate exertion be forced into the pulp of the Knight.
fruit, it is deemed in a fit state for grinding. The first of these gentlemen made a tour Mr. Marshall is of opinion that one of the through the cyder counties with a view to ob- grand secrets of cyder-making is the skilful se.pa
ration of the ripe and unripe fruit, before send- the quantity of cyder must vary in the same proing it to the mill; and as by various accidents portion, that is, from five to twenty hogsheads, they may he confounded, the most effectual me Pear trees, in equally good bearing, yield fully thod of distinguishing them is hy the hand. He one-third more liquor: therefore, although the also seems to think that the practice of mixing liquor extracted from pears sells at a.lower price . fruits for liquor improper, because the finer than that produced from apples, yet the value liquors are made from select fruits; and ob- by the acre, when the number of trees is equal, serves, that it might be better to mix liquors after is nearly the same. they are made, than to put together the crude II. Of grinding the fruit, &c.—The cyderfruits.
makers in Herefordshire generally agree in conMr. Crocker recommends making three dis- sidering it necessary towards the perfection of tinct gatherings of the crop, and keeping each by the cyder, to grind the rinds and seeds of the itself. The prime cyder will then be made from fruit, as well as the fleshy part, to a pulp; the first, and the latter gathering and wind-falls but Mr. Marshall complains, that the mills are make a fair common article. According to Mr. often very imperfectly finished, and little inKnight, the merit of cyder will always depend debted to the operation of the square and chisel. much on the proper mixture., or rather on the As perfectly smooth rollers, nowever, would not proper separation of the fruits. Those whose lay hold of the fruit sufficiently to force it through, rinds and pulp are tinged with green or red, it might be proper, he suggests, to grind the fruit without any mixture of yellow, as that color will first in the mill to a cerain degree, and afterdisappear in the first stages of fermentation, wards put it between two smoother rollers to should be carefully kept apart from such as are finish the operation. A bag, containing four yellow, or yellow intermixed with red. The corn bushels, is the usual quantity with which latter kinds, which should remain on the trees they charge a middle-sized mill; and this till ripe enough to fall without being much should yield an equal quantity when ground. shaken, are, as we have noticed, alone capable of After the fruit is ground, it generally remains making fine cyder. Each kind should be col- some time before pressing, that the rind and lected separately, as noticed above, and kept till seeds may communicate their virtues to the liit becomes perfectly mellow. For this purpose, quor; and for this reason Mr. Marshall reproin the common practice of the country, they are bates the practice of pressing the pulp of the placed in heaps of ten inches or a foot thick, and fruit whenever the grinding is finished. The exposed to the sun and air, and rain; not being ordinary cyder mill is exhibited on the right overcovered except in very severe frosts. The hand of our plate Crver Press, &c., and will strength and flavor of the future liquor are, be further described at the close of this article. however, he says, increased by keeping the fruit A difference of opinion exists as to the prounder cover some time before it is ground; but priety of pressing the fruit immediately after it unless a situation can be afforded it, in which it is ground. Mr. Knight, an able writer on the apple is exposed to a free current of air, and where it and pear, contends that it should remain at least can be spread very thin, it is apt to contract an twenty-four hours before it is taken to the press. unpleasant smell, which will much affect the Others recommend two days; but many take it cyùer produced from it. Few farms are pro- at once from the mill to the press when the vided with proper buildings for this purpose on grinding is finished. Mr. Crocker thinks both a large scale, and the improvement of the liquor extremes wrong. There is an analogy, he obwill not nearly pay the expense of erecting thein. serves between the making of cyder from apples, It may reasonably be supposed that much water and wine from grapes; and the method which is absorbed by the fruit in a rainy season ; but the wine-maker pursues ought to be followed by the quantity of juice yielded by any given quan- the cyder-maker. When the pulp of the grapes has tity of fruit will be found to diminish as it be- lain some time in the vats, the vintager thrusts his comes more mellow; even in very wet weather, hand into the pulp, and takes some from the inidprovided it be ground when thoroughly dry. dle of the mass; and when he perceives, by the The advantages, therefore, of covering the fruit, smell, that the luscious sweetness is gone off, and will probably be much less than may at first that his nose is affected with a slight piquancy, sight be expected. No criterion appears, the he immediately carries it to the press, and by a writer says, to be known, by which the most light pressure expresses his prime juice. In like proper point of maturity in the fruit can be as- manner, should the cyderist determine the time certained with accuracy; but he has good rea- when his pulp should be carried to the press. son to believe that it improves as long as it con- If he carry it immediately from the mill in the tinues to acquire a deeper shade of yellow. press, he may lose some small advantage which Each heap should be examined prior to its being may be expected from the rind and kernels, and ground, and any decayed or green fruit carefully his liquor may be of lower color than he might taken away. The expense of this will, he ob- wish.' If he suffer it to remain too long unserves, be very small, and will be amply repaid pressed, he will find to his cost that the acetous by the excellence of the liquor, and the care with fermentation will come on before the vinous is which too great a degree of fermentation may be perfected, especially in the early part of the cyprevented in the process of making it into cyder. der-making season. He will generally find that In seasons ordinarily favorable half a hogshead his pulp is in a fit state for pressing in about of cyder may be expected from the fruit of each twelve or sixteen hours. If he must of necessity tree of an orchard in full bearing. As the num- keep it in that state longer, he will find a senber of trees on the acre varies from ten to forty, sible heat therein, which will engender a prema