Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa
The mystical and hierarchically organized brotherhoods, the sufi, were first formed in the twelfth century in Iraq, Iran, central Asia, and North Africa. These brotherhoods drew their members from all kinship groups and all classes and professions. By the end of the eighteenth century, however, the African orders were faced, as was the Muslim world in general, with the steady growth of European imperialism in the Near East, dramatically symbolized by the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt. The sufi's fear that their world was endangered combined at this point with the evident political and military weakness of the Ottoman Turks and with a pervasive and general sense of cultural decline to bring about a religious revival under the aegis of the Muslim brotherhoods. This revival has as its main goal the defence of Islam, and through it the sufi orders acquired great, and indeed unprecedented, political and social influence. Professor Martin considers the social and the political aspects of this revival. He focuses on eight sufi brotherhoods and their leaders; five moderates who taught mysticism, carried on jihads, or instituted social reforms; and one conservative sufi leader very little affected by the changing world of the nineteenth century. The book should appeal to all readers interested in African, Islamic, and Middle Eastern history, and to those anthropologists, sociologists, and historians interested in religion.
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Abd al-Hamid II Abd al-Qadir Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri Abd al-Rahman al-'Aynayn al-Bakka'i al-Fasi Al-Hajj Umar al-Mahdi al-Sanusi Algeria Algiers Amir Abd al-Qadir Arabic Bambara Banu Barghash Bornu British brotherhood Cairo caliph century claims clan Comoro Dajjani Duveyrier East Africa European French Fulani Futa Jallon Futa Toro German Haraka Hausaland hijra Hiskett Ibid ibn Abd al-Qadir Idris Imam Islam Istanbul Jibril jihad khalifas leader Libya Lindi Ma'ruf mahdi Marrakish Masina Mauritania Mecca military millennial Moroccan Morocco Muhammad Abdallah Hasan Muhammad Bello Muhammad ibn Abd Muhyi al-Din Muslim mystical Oran Ottoman Paris political Prophet Qadiri Qadiriya Rabbuh religious Rimah ruler Rumaliza Sahara Salih Salihiya Sanusi Sanusiya Sayyid Sayyid Muhammad Segu Senegal Shadhili Sharif sharifian Shaykh Shaykh Uways Shehu Sidi slaves Sokoto Somali sufi sufi orders sufism Sultan Ta'rikh tawassul Tijani Tijaniya tion Torodbe town traditional tribes Tripoli Tuhfa Turkish Turks ulama Umar's Usuman dan Fodio Wahhabis Zanzibar zawiya
Page 7 - These societies . . . were being subjected to a gathering flood of external experience which finally increased beyond the 'stretch' of the indigenous categories that might render it meaningful . . . The social forms of communication appear inadequate. The society is as near to atomization as it could be. The last resort is a new stress upon the individual as that society conceives it, an emphasis upon history, upon individual possession by spirits, upon the individually inspired leader. Messianic...