Early Asceticism in India: Ājīvikism and Jainism

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Routledge, Sep 16, 2015 - Religion - 368 pages
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Ājīvikism was once ranked one of the most important religions in India between the 4th and 2nd centuries BCE, after Buddhism, ‘Brahmanism’ and before Jainism, but is now a forgotten Indian religion. However, Jainism has remained an integral part of the religious landscape of South Asia, despite the common beginnings shared with Ājīvikism.

By rediscovering, reconstructing, and examining the Ājīvikism doctrine, its art, origins and development, this book provides new insight into Ājīvikism, and discusses how this information enables us to better understand its impact on Jainism and its role in the development of Indian religion and philosophy. This book explains how, why and when Jainism developed its strikingly unique logic and epistemology and what historical and doctrinal factors prompted the ideas which later led to the formulation of the doctrine of multiplexity of reality (anekānta-vāda). It also provides answers to difficult passages of Buddhist Sāmańńa-phala-sutta that baffled both Buddhist commentators and modern researchers.

Offering clearer perspectives on the origins of Jainism the book will be an invaluable contribution to Jaina Studies, Asian Religion and Religious History.

 

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Contents

List of Figures and Table
3
1 Introduction
5
2 The Encounter
11
3 Gośāla as aJainaTeacher
37
4 Souls and Colours
44
5 Divination and Foretelling the Future
55
6 Common Set of Early Scriptures
68
7 Common Cosmology
79
12 Determinism Ājīvikas and Jainism
136
13 Early Anekāntavāda and the Three Figures
174
14 Ājīvikas Trairāśikas Jainas
186
15 The Beginnings of the Saptabhaṅgī
205
16 Early Epistemological Devices and the Beginnings of Jaina Logic
213
17 The Anekāntavāda and the Ājīvikas
220
18 Traces of the Anekānta in Pali Buddhist Literature?
227
19 A Religious Centre and the Art of the Ājīvikas
241

8 Gośālas First Teaching and Vardhamānas First Ascetic Experiences
85
9 The Finalities Death and Sallekhanā
90
10 Drinkables Undrinkables and the Waters of the Sāmańńaphalasutta
109
11 Ājīvikas Pottery and Pots
122
Pārśva Gośāla Mahāvīra
300
Abbreviations and Bibliography
328
Index
353
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