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mportant task Reitzenstein has undertaken in part in the publication before us.

The book falls into two divisions: the first, pp. 1-60, is an address delivered on November 11, 1909, before the Wissenschaftlicher Predigerverein für Elsass-Lothringen; the second, pp. 63-212, is made up of elaborate notes and excursuses in which the important points of the address are illustrated or established in detail. Some of these excursuses form almost articles in themselves. In his address Reitzenstein first discusses the spread and modification of Egyptian and oriental mysteries in the Hellenistic world, and shows how the idea of a universal religion, which was at the same time a personal one, was established and developed. In many, if not most, of these mysteries the devotee believed that through direct revelation he had received a call to divine service; that in the initiation he had been taken out of this world to a divine position in which he had seen divinity face to face and had received a direct knowledge which no teaching was needed to impart, and which, indeed, no teaching could impart; and that he had laid aside his mortal for a divine body and ever after was other than what he seemed to profane eyes to be.

Very interesting in this connection is Reitzenstein's view of Gnosticism, which he maintains belongs not exclusively to church history as an extreme Hellenization of Christianity, but rather to the general history of religion. The word yvwσis he holds means "direct vision of God," that secret knowledge which can be obtained only through direct revelation and personal relation to divinity. This position he supports with proofs which seem to the reviewer at least convincing. He further discusses at length certain of Paul's words and phrases, the most important of which may be mentioned here. The terms στρατιῶται θεοῦ, κάτοχοι, δέσμιοι are handled in an interesting excursus; his treatment of πνεῦμα in connection with γνῶσις and ψυχή throws light on a number of passages in I Cor.; likewise illuminating are his elucidations of the opposite terms vxikós and яveνμaτikós and his discussion of Paul as a Pneumatic. The decision whether his interpretation of the words εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν (Ι Cor. 11:24) is correct must be left to more learned judges than the present reviewer.

To correct a possible misunderstanding it should be said that Reitzenstein naturally does not attempt to interpret Paul as a Hellenistic mystic, but simply to prove that the apostle to the gentiles was familiar with the religious literature and thought of his time and that he employed their speech and ideas in his mission, thus making himself a Greek to the Greeks as well as a Jew to the Jews.

This work thus forms a worthy sequel to Reitzenstein's earlier Poimandres and his Hellenistische Theologie in Ägypten. In spite of the fact that many will oppose the views here set forth, there is not a page which will not repay careful study by the general student of religion in the Hellenistic period and by the Christian theologian alike. But whoever would pass adequate

judgment on the work must be as thoroughly acquainted with the sources of our knowledge of the mysteries, with the Hermetic literature, and with the magical papyri, as is Reitzenstein himself.


The Aphrodito Papyri. [Greek Papyri in the British Museum, Catalogue with Texts, Vol. IV.] By H. I. BELL. With an Appendix of Coptic Papyri edited by W. E. CRUM. London: The British Museum, 1910. Pp. xlviii+648.

The 315 papyri described and printed in the fourth volume of the British Museum catalogue are without exception late and documentary; there are no literary pieces among them. They constitute nevertheless a very noteworthy collection, for all of them come from a single site, Aphrodito, the modern Kôm Ishgau, and from a single short period, A.D. 698-722. They comprise the bulk of the papyri discovered at Kôm Ishgau in 1901, and now divided between Cairo, Heidelberg, Strassburg, and London. The papyri throw a flood of light upon conditions in a town of Upper Egypt sixty or seventy years after the Arab conquest, and a melancholy picture it is. The ruinous financial system which later reduced naturally affluent Egypt to misery and decay is already operative in this period; it was indeed an inheritance from the Byzantine time, but it naturally became more and more ill-adapted to conditions in Egypt, driving out the peasantry by sheer pressure of taxation. The Arab governors of the years covered by these documents were 'Abd-allah and Kurrah-ben-Shirāk. The notoriety of the former as an oppressive and inefficient ruler is not relieved by the papyri, but Kurrah, who has been rated one of the worst of tyrants, appears in them—and many of them are his own letters-as a vigorous and public-spirited man. Not the least value of these papyri will be found in the way in which they will enable the historical student of these Arab times to control the statements of Arab and other mediaeval historians. It has been customary to divide papyri into Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine, but the Aphrodito papyri of 1901 necessitate the recognition of the Arab period as one richly represented by Greek papyrus texts.

Mr. Bell's introduction deals with the Arab organization of Egypt, the taxes, the naval organization (cursus) of the Khalifate (that is, the regular raids made by the Khalif's fleets against the Empire), the character of Arab rule, etc. In printing the texts the custom of previous British Museum volumes is followed; there is no table of papyri, the documents are without descriptive titles, abbreviations are not expanded, and there are no translations. There are short, helpful introductions to the several papyri, and valuable notes. The mass of texts is helpfully organized, too: letters from the governor to the pagarch and to the taxpayers, pp. 1-80; accounts and

registers, pp. 81-413; protocols, pp. 414-23; and convenient titles at the top of the page help to guide one through the mass of material.

The Coptic texts are more varied. They relate to sailors and workmen, to fugitives driven away by the growing burden of taxation, to guarantees and presentments, and to financial matters. The longer Coptic texts are followed by translations. A full series of indices, including one of abbreviations, concludes this monumental volume. With Jean Maspero's recent publication of the Cairo pieces from the same deposit (Papyri d'Aphrodito), Mr. Bell's work annexes at least the early Arab period to the lifetime of the Greek speech in Egypt, and gives new evidence of the extraordinary persistence of Greek in one of the lands of its adoption. To the thousand years from Alexander to Omar, which we have been accustomed to regard as the Greek period in Egypt, something at least must be added, and the economist and the mediaevalist, as well as the lexicographer and the grammarian, will find material in Mr. Bell's new volume.



ab-domen (Lat.) 315

absumedo (Lat.) 315


Achilles Tatius, erotic teaching in 62
ad-eps (Lat.) 315

aesthetic appreciation, as principle of
Dionysius' theory of rhetoric 167
alcedo (Lat.) 318

Alciphron, erotic teaching in 57
Alexander, a possible occurrence of the
name 85 ff.

Ammianus, res gestae of, Clark 91 ff.
analogies, in the de compositione 170
Apollodorus, fragment from chron-
icles of, Nicole 490 ff.
ápsas (Skr.) 315

Apuleius, text of Meta. II. 29 90;
marginalia on Meta. 345 ff.
archaeology, Greek, stelae from Pa-
gasae, Arvanitopoullos 127 ff.;
Roman, the fort at Manchester,
Bruton 122 ff.

Aristaenetus, erotic teaching in 57, 66
Aristophanes, and the political parties

at Athens, Croiset 111 ff.; Ach.
920, 925 interpreted 201
Aristotelian theory of invention 176
Aristotle, on the art of poetry, Bywater
97 ff.; rhetoric 163 ff.
arrangement of words, theory of
Dionysius 178

art, Greek, relief sarcophagi, Wachtler
245; specimens in the National
Museum at Athens, Svoronos 250
Roman, composition of the Pom-
peian wall-paintings, Rodenwaldt
224 ff.

article, Homeric use 156 ff.

arundhati (Skr.) 317

arundo (Lat.) 317

assimilation of quantity, law of 2

Atellanae, rôle of Dossennus in 820 ff.

bene uti 478 ff.

-bho, the Indo-European suffix 197 ff.
Boghaz-Keui tablets, a possible occur-
rence of the name "Alexander" in
85 ff.

books, ancient, in art, Birt 116
breves breviantes in the light of pho-
netics, 1; various statements of the
law 4

Brutus, the oratory of 325 ff.

Callimachus, origin of the prenuptial
rite in the new 302 ff.; the pre-
nuptial rite in the Aetia of 402
capedo (Lat.) 818
capudo (Lat.) 318
Catullus, erotic precepts in 64; and
Callimachus 74; and the Augustan
elegists 74; manuscripts of 300
χελιδών (Gr.) 316

xopov in Terence's Heauton 485
Chrysippus, emendation of fr. 574
(von A.) 477 ff.

Cicero, paradoxa Stoicorum, etc., Plas-
berg 243 ff.; representation of
Brutus' views regarding oratory in
the Brutus 325 ff.; clausula heroica
in 410 ff.; emendations of de
senectute 10 and 37 483 ff.; letters,
Riess 486 ff.

clausula heroica in Cicero and Quin-
tilian 410 ff.
comedy, Greek.
Menander, etc.;

See Aristophanes,
new, and Roman

elegy 56, 78 ff.; Roman, and erotic
teaching 57 ff., 67 ff.; Roman,
costume in, Saunders 246 ff.

Cornelius Gallus, relation to erotic
teaching 75

Cosmas and Damian, Deubner 118 ff.
Crete, the sea kings of, Baikie 102 ff.

cupido (Lat.) 319
Cupiennius (Lat.) 319
cuppedo (Lat.) 318

cyclic poems, alleged dependence of
→ on 42 ff.

Damian, Cosmas and, Deubner 118 ff.
Dares, studies in the histories of, von
Fleschenberg 121 ff.
Demetrius and Libanius, epistolary
types of, Weichert 230 ff.
Demosthenes, translation of, by De
Tourreil, Duhain 364 ff.

Diogenes of Apollonia, Krause 498 ff.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the de
compositione 163 ff.

discourse, organic theory of, in Aris-
totle 171

δόρπον (Gr.) 323

Dossennus (Lat.) 320, 322, 323
dulcedo (Lat.) 316

ἐδηδών (Gr.) 316

education, evidence of, for relation of
new comedy to Roman elegy 75 ff.
elegy, Roman, erotic teaching in 56
ff.; Alexandrian 74 ff.

epic, rise of the Greek, Murray 238 ff.
epigram, the Greek, before 300 B.C.,
Gragg 231 ff.
Eskimo (Eng.) 324

ethics, relation of Roman prayer to
180 ff.

Ethos, Süss 109 ff.

etymology, Greek, ἄγραφος 198;
ἄγριππος 210; ἀγρίφη 205; ἄγριφος
205; ἄγροφον 203; *Αλθηφον 205;
*Ασταφος 206; βόμβος 213; βούφος
200; βρέμβος 214; γάλεφος 205;
γράφος 198; γρύψ 200; ἐγκίλλαφον
205; εἰλυφόων 203 f.; Επόνφας 206;
θέαφος 207; θελροφος 206; θήραφος
207; θρόμβος 215; κελεφός 202;
κεμφάς 200; Κέρκαφος 206; κίραφος
200; Κλιόνφας 206; κνάφος 198;
κνήρη 204; κόραφος 199; κόρυμβος 214;
κουτάλαφας 200; κούφον 211; κύ(μ)βη
214 f.;
κύμβος 214; λίσπος 202;

μαστροπός 206; Ματρίφας 206; Νίψ
212; 'Ovópas 207; ovλapos 205;
σέριφος 202 f.; σιγαλφοί 199; σίλφη
200 f.; σκάριφος 209; σκελιφρός 202;
σκέραφος 198; σκίραφος 204; στέριφος
203; σφός 197 f.; ταρήφη 205;
Τέκταφος 206; τίλφη 201; τρυφή
198; Τύλιφος 206; χρύσαφος 200
Latin, scribo 209

Old English, scriban 209

Old High German, scriban 209
Eudemus of Miletus, benefactions of,
Ziebarth 104 ff.

Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, Murray
222 ff.

festivals, Roman, Blaufuss 119 ff.
figo, two compounds of 352 ff.
formido (Lat.) 320

fresser (Ger.) 315

Galen, de usu partium, Helmreich
126 ff.

Gallus. See Cornelius

Germanic verse, formation of dis-
syllabic rises and falls in 11
γνωμονικός 87 Α.

gravedo (Lat.) 316

Greeks, character and civilization of,
Billeter 497 ff.

hair-dressing of Athenian girls and
women 479 ff.
hedonism, intellectual, as principle of

Aristotle's theory of rhetoric 166 ff.
Heliodorus, erotic teaching in 57
Herodian 1.108.14 L., emendation of

Hesiod, alleged borrowings from, by
Homer in → 44 ff.

hirudo (Lat.) 318
hirundo (Lat.) 318

Homer, administration of justice in
the age of 12 ff.; Wilamowitz on
→ 37 ff.; words found in the Iliad
and in but one book of the Odyssey
48 ff.; Iliad and its sources, Mülder
94 ff.; use of the definite article

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