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such as Ζεὺς ̓Αταβύριος, Απόλλων Καρνεῖος, Δημήτηρ and Κόρη, and upon the position of Syracuse and Gela as disseminating centers. The treatment of the cult of Anunrnp and Kópn deserves special mention. Here, however, it would have been well to have set forth more fully the influence of the Sicilian cult upon that of Ceres, Liber, and Libera at Rome (cf. Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer, p. 246). The relation between the coyáμia and the sacrum anniversarium Cereris seems reasonably sure. The combination by which Ciaceri reconstructs the features of the festival of "Aртeμs ayуeos is ingenious and convincing. On the other hand, chaps. iv and v, while valuable as containing convenient narrative summaries of the dispersion of the worship of the minor divinities and the heroes, do not give such clear evidence of independence and conservatism. The treatment of Daphnis, for example, is very slight, not to say sketchy. The author is unacquainted with the excellent study of the Daphnis myth by H. W. Prescott, Harvard Studies, Vol. X.

In general, the reviewer has felt that Ciaceri at times has allowed his usually conservative scholarship to be led astray in two directions. On the one hand, we have too persistent an adherence to nature-personifications as the universal solvent for all mythological phenomena. Cf. the treatment of the legend of the fratres pii for an example. Again, Ciaceri is led astray by his fondness for conjectural combinations-the besetting sin of all mythographers, ancient and modern. Many scholars will be unable to assent to the attempt to show a relationship between γερεᾶτις, γέρρα: γελεᾶτις, γαλεῶτις, pp. 18, 19. Again on p. 177, even though the current explanations of the epithet Bauris as referring to the ears of Aphrodite, or as showing some connection with the fish Baóv are rejected, one may hesitate on historical grounds to believe in the transfer of this cult from the Campanian Baiae to Syracuse. On p. 183, to infer from ènì iepobúra the existence of a cult of Hestia at Agrigentum is inadmissable, for iepołúrns (cf. Stengl Kultusaltertümer, p. 46) is a generic term for a sacrificing priest. Other examples might be cited, but these will be sufficient to indicate that, as in all mythographic works, the conclusions of this useful and valuable study must be carefully tested.



Adnotationes super Lucanum primum ad vetustissimorum codicum fidem edidit JOHANNES ENDT.

Pp. xi+445.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1909.

Of the two classes of scholia on the Pharsalia, the so-called Commenta— extracts and comments without the text of the poet-and the Adnotationes, the former existing in complete form only in the codex Bernensis 370 (C),


has long ago in Usener's M. Annaei Lucani Commenta Bernensia (Leipzig, 1869) received scholarly publication. The part of this commentary which also appears in another Berne manuscript (B) has been collated by Hagen (N.J. 131, 277).

The Adnotationes have heretofore been available only in the ancient, partial publication of Oudendorp (1728) and the farrago of scholia, drawn in part from the former, which Weber supplies in the third volume of his edition of Lucan (Leipzig, 1831). The miscellaneous and uncritical character of these has long been recognized, and the timely task of supplying a new text, based on fuller and more reliable manuscript authority, has fallen to the judicious care of Professor Endt. A thorough consideration of the relative value of the several manuscripts in which the scholia appear, in whole or in part, results in the discrimination of an original and a revised form, and the selection of the five manuscripts of the better class (W, C, U, G, P), dating from the tenth to the twelfth century, as the basis of the present text. The revisions of the Adnotationes and other scholia, which appear in five inferior manuscripts, have been collected and, it is intimated (p. ix), will be published. The deficiency of such an authoritative apparatus is easily discernible in the critical editions of Lucan by Hosius and Francken. The latter knew at first hand those in two Leyden manuscripts (V and U), one of which (V) Endt considers of inferior value (p. ix). The readings of the scholia, available to Hosius through Usener, appear in his apparatus criticus under (A), but by reason, no doubt, of their limited authority are in repeated instances widely discrepant (e.g., i. 35; i. 402; iii. 39; iv. 199).

To institute a general comparison with Weber's notes would be a bootless task, but it may be observed that his medley at i. 427, which includes the Ciceronian fragment from the pro Scauro and supplies Müller's text for it, is reduced in the present edition to: Arvernique de his Cicero ait in Scauriana "Inventi sunt, qui etiam fratres populi Romani nominarentur," with no variants for Arverni (Alverni, Weber). Whether the scholiast sins against Cicero, in confusing the Arverni with the Aedui, or whether by bona fide citation he relieves Lucan of one of his many sins against history, neither Francken nor Haskins takes the trouble to consider. A commentary on the infallibility of the commentator will be his blundering assignment of "Phaselus ille," etc. (Cat. 4.1), to Plautus at v. 518, and a line of his own poet (i. 230) to Vergil at viii. 380.

The notes are brief in form and are concerned with the usual commonplaces of historical and geographical comment, free illustration from other authors, and the citation of variant readings, in which particular they will doubtless be considered to have most value, though Francken confesses "raro inveni quod ad emendationem posset adhiberi." The source of these, at least for the recension W U C, the editor refers (p. xi) to the grammarian Vacca, the admiring biographer and expositor of Lucan. In the uncertainty of his date it is clear from the citation (vii. 471) from Livy's narrative of

the Civil War and two other references to it (x. 471; x. 521) that the original commentary antedates, at any rate, the loss of these books.

The volume contains, besides the scholia, the Vita Lucani professedly drawn from Vacca, an outline, De bello civili inter Caesarem et Pompeium, Argumenta before books i, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, and Periochae before books ii, iii, iv, x.

As corrigenda I note auctorn on for auctor non (i. 24), and in the lemma of i. 260, I, apparently, for T.

The editor has appended serviceable indices and on the whole has contributed with fidelity a text of ancient scholia which may in authority rank with the admirable Donatus of Wessner.



Textes grecs inédits de la collection papyrologique de Genève. Par JULES NICOLE. Avec VI planches. Mémoire publié à l'occasion du Jubilé de l'Université, 1559-1909. Genève: Georg, 1909. Pp. 49.

Of the eight Greek texts which Professor Nicole publishes, six are from papyri, one from a parchment fragment, and one from a wax tablet. The earliest form a group of three documents relating to the circumcision of priests in Egypt. These date from the reign of Antoninus, and help to augment the papyrus literature on this subject, which already includes documents at Berlin and Strassburg and from Tebtunis. The wax tablet belongs to the sixth century and preserves Ps. 91:1-7, 10-13, in the Septuagint version. But Professor Nicole's most considerable texts are fragments from Aeschines' Against Timarchus, from Thucydides, book ii, and from Demosthenes' First Philippic. These papyri range from the second to the fifth centuries and help to carry back the manuscript tradition of these important works into antiquity. To the four columns of the Aeschines, Professor Nicole appends a collation with the text of Blass. The papyrus is in general agreement with the better class of Aeschines manuscripts. A full series of excellent facsimiles adds greatly to the value of Professor Nicole's volume. EDGAR J. GOODSPEED


Griechische Papyri im Museum des Oberhessischen Geschichtsvereins zu Giessen. Im Verein mit O. EGER herausgegeben und erklärt von ERNST KORNEMANN und PAUL M. MEYER. Band I, Heft 2, von PAUL M. MEYER. Urkunden No. 36-57, mit 3 Lichtdrucktafeln. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. Pp. 104. M. 8.

The first part of the Giessen papyri to be published contains twentytwo documents from the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine periods, edited

The earliest

with full introductions and commentaries by Paul Meyer. are Greek translations of demotic contracts from the reigns of Euergetes II and Epiphanes. Of the Roman documents the most considerable are three decrees of Caracalla, the first of which preserves the text of the Constitutio Antoniniana by which the rights of Roman citizenship were extended to the peregrini of the empire. The limitations under which this was done are at last made clear by this text, which should take an important place among Roman historical documents. The second decree preserves a supplement to the well-known amnesty proclaimed in February, 212. The indices are reserved for the third and concluding part of the volume.



Natursagen. Eine Sammlung naturdeutender Sagen, Märchen, Fabeln, und Legenden. Herausgegeben von OSKAR DÄHNHARDT. Band II: "Sagen zum Neuen Testament." Leipzig und Berlin: Teubner, 1909. Pp. xvi+316.


Glastonbury, where the winter thorn

Blossoms at Christmas, mindful of Our Lord,

and his "passion flower at the gate" well illustrate the kind of folk-tales Dähnhardt has collected. That widespread popular tendency, half faith, half fancy, to interpret the everyday phenomena of nature in terms of religion and religious history, as men understood them, has produced an extraordinary mass of legend of curious interest. In many of these, no doubt, ideas really pagan have been given a Christian turn. Others reflect well-known incidents in the narratives of Jesus' infancy, especially those preserved in the apocryphal gospels, e.g., of Thomas and James, to the wide influence of which these legends bear striking testimony. A favorite expression of this religious fancy was the naming of trees and plants, or perhaps only the explanation of an existing name, from an imaginary connection with gospel or apostolic history, real or apocryphal. The Judas tree is a familiar example. Peter is, of course, a leading figure. The fish which was to enable him to pay the temple tax is variously identified in Italy, Sicily, Flanders, and Russia. The keys of heaven once dropped from Peter's hands upon the earth, and where they fell, the primrose (Schlüsselblume) sprang up. Cursing plays a larger part than blessing in these stories: children are cursed by Jesus; Jews are turned to swine by St. Hubert; the annoying mule in the inn stable is cursed by Mary. The mediaeval mind, it would seem, found cursing more edifying, or at least more congenial, than blessing. The great majority of the tales have little charm or force, but they are redeemed by a small number in which native wit or real religious feeling finds quaint

expression. The editor and his collaborators have gathered them from a wide range. Not only every part of Europe, but Malta, Palestine, Iceland, and the East Indies have made their contribution. The legends and sayings are compactly presented in German, with variant forms, if such exist, and full references to the sources. There is an extended

bibliography, and an index makes the book easy of consultation.



Zum aegyptischen Grundbuchwesen in römischer Zeit. Untersuchungen auf Grund der griechischen Papyri. Von OTTO Eger, Dr. Jur. Leipzig: Teubner, 1909. Pp. viii+212. $1.67.

The Greek papyri discovered in such abundance in Egypt in recent years have thrown much light upon many phases of Egyptian life under the Ptolemies and the Roman Empire. A great many of them relate to the somewhat intricate system of land tenure under which the soil of Egypt was tilled so advantageously to the Empire. Eger has examined a wide range of published papyri in the effort to elicit their testimony as to this land system, particularly as reflected in the land registries which played an important part in it under the Romans. In these record offices (ẞißionκα) were preserved documents establishing the legal status of every piece of land within their jurisdiction. The Romans had inherited from the Ptolemaic administration of Egypt an extended classification of lands: γῆ βασιλική οι δημοσία, γῆ οὐσιακή, γῆ ἱερά, γῆ προσόδου, γῆ ιδιωτική, and κατοικικὸς κλῆρος. Obviously much of this land was hardly subject to sale, but everything relating to the private and catoecic lands-mortgages, purchases, inheritances, or other transfers-had to be reported to the βιβλιοφύλακες for record. In the βιβλιοθήκη the legal situation of each parcel was thus steadily reflected. The details of these situations are carefully worked out by Eger on the basis of some 600 papyri, mostly of the Roman period. A valuable feature in the Roman land-office was its accessibility to private persons, who might thus satisfy themselves as to the condition of a piece of property before leasing or purchasing it on what might have proved false representations. The land-office was thus quite as truly a benefit to the individual as to the state. Eger has made a thorough and accurate study of his materials, and his work illustrates the way in which the now multiplying papyri illumine ancient life. An index would have added much to the usefulness of the book.


EDGAR J. Goodspeed

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