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In Heaven. D. H. Verder

158

Moonlight Schools. Lena McBee

324

On the River. Stokely S. Fisher

292

Opals. Margaret MacGregor .

370

Riches. Margaret MacGregor

509

The Great Adventure. Grace Gordon

9

The Greeks and Death. Helen Cary Chadwick

387

The Lyric. D. H. Verder

360
The Return. A. S. Ames

519
Who Saved Your Stars? Minnie E. Hays

553

Rural Community and Public School, Arthur W. Gilbert

557

Rural Community and Public School. William B. Aspinwall

549

Rural Community and Public School. Mrs. Irene W. Landers

562

Rural Leadership. Payson Smith

571

School at Feathertown, Walter Barnes

46

School Discipline. A. S. Martin .

466

School Standards. C. E. Douglass

485

Science, Reorganization of in Secondary Schools. Earl R. Glenn 469
Scientific Attitude in Education. Edgar Mendenhall .

381
Sex Education. W. D. Armentrout

325
Socialized Recitation, Students' Standpoint. L. Colburn and
S. Mauren

171

Social Reformers' Contributions to Education. George W. Gammon 449

Sociology, Education in. Professor J. T. Williams

421, 500, 639

State School Systems. F. W. Jenkins .

114

Statistics (School), Tabulating and Interpreting. C. L. Staples 119

Story-Teller, The, in Rural Community. Sarah A. Marble .

606

Subject-Teaching. William J. Sands

515

Suggestion, Possibilities of. Garry C. Myers

650

Teaching Profession, Recruiting the. Homer H. Seerley

20

Universities, Darwinism, Socialism, Etc., in the. Edward J. Menge 73

University, National. Leland Dewitt Baldwin

222

Vocational Education, Summary of Conclusions. John M. Brewer

Vocational Guidance in Rural Schools. H. C. Krebs

253

Vocational Psychographs. Richard S. Uhrbrock .

510

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EDUCATION

Devoted to the Science, Art, Philosophy and Literature

of Education

VOL. XLI.

SEPTEMBER, 1920

No. 1

T

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Education for Democracy

CHARLES N. FREY, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Send MIWANT.RO one who has been studying the educational systems

of Europe and America and has been in touch with
some modern American developments, the present
trend of our vocational education gives material for
considerable apprehension. At present the war has
changed the spirit of the people and nearly every
American has become more or less familiar with

and suspicious of the methods and philosophy of German vocational education. I trust that this knowledge and change of spirit will be utilized in exercising more care and thoughtfulness on the part of the public in regard to the methods and ideals of our own schools.

Previous to the war,—and I am glad that state of mind does not continue today,—we had been trying to copy the methods of Europe, and we adopted ideas without regard to their ultimate social fitness for a democracy. We were saturated with ideas about "discipline" and "fitting for life's work," and too little concerned with the philosophy of such educational ideas. Were we after all fitting young men and women for life? Our conduct in this war may give us the answer.

So absorbed had even we Americans become in the theory of the individual for the state that we often lost sight of the mere individual. The complacent

man of wealth desiring only the type of education for the masses that gave industry unlimited numbers of young men and women trained and capable of taking up their trade as soon as the grammar or the high schools granted them their diploma, is a real danger to democracy. The maelstrom of industry carries down too many young lives not fitted for its dizzy swirl and stuns them forever. There always is an unconscious selection taking place, silently, and without our being in the least aware of it, the foundations for a stratified social system were being laid. The tendency of our educational system was to train farmers' sons to go + back to the farm and sons of the steel workers to labor in the steel + mills. Unconsciously, we were limiting the aspirations of the young men of a class to the class they were fated to occupy by birth.

One needs only to study the conditions in Europe, especially of Germany, during the last hundred years to see what the trend of events would be. The ruling class of Germany desired a population trained in such a manner that every man became a useful member of his trade and of nothing else. The German boys were divided into three classes before they had an opportunity to mingle freely and break down the barriers of caste: first, the r ruling class; second, retainers of the first class and minor officials; third, the masses. Children of the third class were placed in trade schools at an early age. Not much time was given to the classics, theories of government, history, and the liberal arts, but after the child had acquired some knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic, a little natural science, music, and the catechism, he was forced to learn a trade. That trade was not always of his own choice. He had no recourse. His father might be a shoemaker, so he must take up his father's trade or one of similar estates. The higher schools, possible only to the wealthier classes, required Latin, Greek, and often other subjects which it was impossible for a boy in the lower class to obtain unless he was an uncommon genius or had a friend who tutored him. Hans stepped into a shop at 14 or 16 years of age, a fairly good workman, ready to begin his life work. He knew little else but his trade and was

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