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The subject of degrees in commerce is an interesting one. A discussion of the subject is not out of place at this comparatively early stage of commercial education, for within the next five years the number of institutions offering work in commerce will undoubtedly double in numbers.

As a general rule, 15 units of high school credits are required for college entrance, and 126 semester hours for graduation from colleges. First, let us look at the list of institutions offering the traditional B. A. in commerce. There's Washington and Lee, having a national patronage; William and Mary, the second oldest College in the United States; the State College of Washington; the University of Richmond, and many others.

On the other hand, there has been a decided tendency to include the commerce work in the scientific classification, and the following named institutions will give a fair idea of how widely the B. S. in commerce degree has been adopted: University of Virginia school of economics, University of North Carolina school of commerce, Oregon Agricultural and Mechanical College school of Commerce, University of Illinois college of commerce and business administration, Washington University school of commerce and business administration, University of Tennessee school of commerce, University of Arizona, Georgia Technology school of commerce, University of California college of commerce, University of Mississippi school of business and industry, Syracuse University school of business administration, and Vanderbilt University. A few institutions, such as the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, offer the B. S. in economics, but the movement has not grown.

And then we come to the B. B. A. Tulane offers this degree for a four-year course, and Boston University offers it either for the four-year day course or for the five or six-year evening division course. There has been no attempt to create a different degree for evening work. On the other hand, it was nearly everywhere recognized five years ago that the B. C. S. was an evening degree, and, at the present time, Georgia Technology gives the B. S. for day work and limits the evening men to the B. C. S. Yet New York University, like Boston, makes no distinction be

tween day and evening students, and the B. C. S. goes to either in New York and B. B. A. in Boston. There is much to be said on both sides of this much mooted question of day versus evening students, but nearly everyone admits that the quality of work of evening men is, as a rule, of much higher grade than the day students.

In the Master's line comes the M. C. S., which may mean # degree from Dartmouth, where it is a graduate degree given two years after the B. A. or B. S., or both the B. S. and M. C. S. for five year's work. New York and other institutions give this same degree for an additional year of evening work.

Then there is the M. B. A. Harvard gives this for a two-years course after the B. A. or B. S.; New York University grants it to B. A. graduates after a two-year program; while Boston University grants it to holders of the B. B. A. after two years additional work in either the day or evening division. Boston gives the B. B. A. to college graduates for two years work, while the College of William and Mary grants it in one year—providing the B. A. course has included certain business subjects.

Chicago University, in its school of commerce and business administration, offers something a little different from the restthe Ph. B. for the completion of the business course. Queen's University, in Canada, offers the Bachelor of Commerce degree for the four-year program, and a student may be granted the B. A. with another year's work or vice versa. The Master of Commerce at this institution signifies an entire year of graduate study, though the work may be taken as extra-mural work by graduates of that University.

Ohio State University has authorized the B. S. in business administration, journalism, social or public service, in the college of commerce and journalism, and the B. S. degree for 34 hours after the baccalaureate 120. The University of Washington, in Seattle, confers the B. B. A. for four-year programs completed, and M. B. A. for a year of graduate study.

Business degrees may now be taken in an unlimited number of departments: foreign trade, transportation, advertising, journalism, marketing, salesmanship, commercial teaching, business law, railway administration, accounting, insurance, banking, secretarial studies, and perhaps fifty departments with other names or combinations of names. The work may be offered, and usually is, in schools or colleges of commerce or business administration. But the same courses may be given in the college of liberal arts. science, letters, or what not; the college of commerce and engineering; the college of commerce and journalism, and so forth. In arts colleges the work is often listed under the departments of economics, political science, sociology, history, and so forth.

It is generally accepted, however, that a pre business course of two years should precede the courses in business subjects. The University of Missouri curriculum in the school of business and public administration may be cited as a model: For entrance from high school, 15 units; for graduation, 60 semester hours in liberal arts and the same amount in the school. The Bachelor of Science in business administration is granted for students majoring in any one of the business courses, or the Bachelor of Science in public administration for those majoring in public service, social service, or rural social service.

Surely no one would venture to predict that the Missouri curriculum will become general throughout the country. Yet it has a good deal to commend it to educators in general and to educators in commerce particularly.

The day of inadequate business schools in colleges is a thing of the past. This extract from a college catalogue is a "look into the dark ages": "Graduates must be able to write shorthand at the rate of 100 words per minute for 10 consecutive minutes and on new matter and re-read it; to operate the typewriter at a rate of 50 words per minute from copy, and to pursue courses in spelling, rapid calculation, shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping, commercial correspondence and law,” (for the degree in commerce).

The day of the collegiate business school is here, with its requirements for entrance and graduation as standard as the col. leges of liberal arts. Rather than draw apart from generally accepted standards and requirements the tendency should be to create fewer departments, fewer degrees, standard equipment, and requirements, and names of departments and schools.




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HE problem of high school discipline is to get the boys and girls to show a proper respect for the principle. If our students would honor and obey

the principle, promptly and cheerfully on all occaSUNNNNOMMAN.. sions, then the highest ideals of conduct would

be realized in our schools. In order to have good discipline the authority of the principle must be

supreme. Now, I have not misspelled this word principle, as the reader may have inferred. I am not referring to the kind that ends in "pal.” We all learn from sad experience that no individual at the head of a high school will ever get from his pupils any such honor and obedience as I have indicated. It would be a calamity if he did. He would become inflated with his own importance and would be building up a little school monarchy in this land of popular government; this would be very much out of place.

The problem of discipline in our high schools is to get the pupils to honor and obey the principle, or perhaps one might better say the principles of right living. These principles are not hid. They are found in our literature, in our religion, in our theory of government, in our traditions, in our very hearts. All organized effort, in school or out, if it be successful, must be based on these principles. They are binding, not only on students, but on teachers as well, and on parents, on all people in the community. They are the principles of punctuality, hard work, honesty, courtesy, fair dealing, co-operation. These are the principles that must be supreme in our high schools if our problems of discipline are to be solved.

The plain task of the teacher is to interpret these principles to his pupils. In his ability to do just this lies his success in school discipline. He is the source of no authority himself. Pupils

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are not to do this or that because he says so; that would be a very poor reason, indeed. They are to do this thing or that thing because it is in accordance with the principles of right living. The teacher is the medium through which these principles flow; he is their interpreter.

Now, the beautiful thing about our young people is that they recognize at once the authority of the principles that I have named. You will hardly find a student who won't assert emphatically that he intends to be honest and fair and courteous and all the rest. The teacher does not have to convince the pupils that the principles of right living are binding upon them. That is admitted at once. It is the teacher's part to show the pupil how these principles are applied to school life. He must interpret their bearing upon every activity and relationship in the institution which he serves.

The first thing to think about in this work of interpretation is the teacher's own example. It is absolutely no use for a teacher to recommend principles of conduct to pupils, unless he conforms to them himself. The old proverb, “Example is better than precept,” is the soundest pedagogy. Whatever lesson of conduct teacher is attempting to teach a pupil, be it one of courtesy, or neatness, or industry, or fair dealing, the first essential is that the teacher show the pupil how. The teacher must aim above all things else to be an examplar of the principles he seeks to inculcate.

Interpretation by example is not enough; verbal interpretation must be used as well. The young are proverbially thoughtless, they must be reminded again and again. Right standards must be held up before them. For instance, Smith comes thundering down the hall. Do you yell at him, “Smith, stop that noise!” Oh, no; you call him to you and say quietly, "Smith, there are one hundred pupils studying on this floor; do you think that it is fair for you to make all this disturbance ?" The boy will answer in the negative. He admits that he has violated the principle of fairness, and all you have to do is to remind him that next time he must be more careful.

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