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In eight years the automobile industry drew 500,000 additional bread-winners from other sections of the country.
The recent World War undoubtedly would have given a surplus immigration to the United States, and if a restriction had not existed, millions of immigrants from Germany, Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria, Hungary, would have come to settle in the United States. They would rather live in this free country than remain in their native land and share the enormous indemnity of the war.. Nevertheless, over a million of veteran bread-winners will return to the Old World, especially Poles, Czheco-Slovaks, Jugo-Slavs, Rumanians, Greeks and Armenians, if peace is finally established in these newly-created states. Robert de D. Ward says, “A real restriction of immigration is a necessary and logical part of the Americanization progress.” It is an obvious fact that the tides of new immigrations hamper to a certain extent American progress, but one should bear in mind that America has been from the beginning the home of persecuted peoples of the Old World; besides, her influence is enormous from the point of view of human progress.
However, the restriction of immigration laws is a serious question and will become still more serious in coming years. We should bear in mind that the American ever-growing and colossal industry always will require an increasing number of laborers. If a restriction were adopted and definitely executed, our industry would call American women, daughters, children and farm laborers to toil in the factories, as occurred during the war, while the American workers were engaged in fighting. Besides, thousands of negroes would migrate from the South and settle in industrial sections to satisfy our labor market.
According to General Francis A. Walker, "The stream of immigration will flow as long as there is any difference in economic level between the United States and the most degraded communities abroad." This expression contains a great deal of truth. In my judgment, the tide of immigration would stop on the following basis: First, if the immigrants in their native country could make at least seventy per cent of their total weekly or annual earnings in America, they would prefer to stay at home with their loved ones, because the traveling expenses and the hardship of a good many years without home comfort, is equivalent to that balance. Second, if the life and property of the bread-winners in any given country be not secured against wars, militarism and persecutions, immigrants will continue to move. In this case, America is the country most secure. These conditions are very essential for every workingman; otherwise he is always anxious to move from one country to another to secure a safer home and a more prosperous life. Third, if all these conditions were realized in their native country, it would undoubtedly stop the main current of immigration; however, there still exist other motives in human beings—uneasiness and vanity, which will annually urge a little stream of emigration from the Old World to the New One.
In the past two years the columns of our press have been occupied by numerous articles explaining and proposing many suggestions for Americanization. Only the minority of the authors of these articles, however, had full knowledge of our immigration history and aliens' viewpoint. Many of these suggestions being harsh and impracticable, unquestionably would remain fruitless, if one should try to practice them in life. Really, what do we mean by the term of "Americanization”? We mean, of course that all those who live in America must be of one mind in serving America adequately. In this effort, our institutions, our national uniform education, our professors and teachers have been the greatest instrumentalities in creating and spreading American ideals and principles. Our experienced instructors have educated the sons of millions of immigrants. A close and harmonious relation, therefore, must be created between them and American organizations that they may achieve their obligation to the country.
Some of us look upon the immigrants as "dagoes," "know-nothings,” or as "ignorant.” We show our dislike for them here and there by "nicknames,” which psychologically make a bad impression upon them. We must bear in mind that our forefathers were immigrants, and like these, came to this country years ago, and sometimes under more pitiable conditions. Professor Commons estimates that probably one-half of all the immigrants of the Colonial period landed as indentured servants.
Again, some of us think that by acting in a harsh manner we can impose our will upon the aliens, but such a method is against the law of reason. We must bear in mind that these immigrants need fair treatment, the treatment which is peculiar to American magnanimity, based on reason and on long experience. Our forefathers corrected their old-world faults in America. This true conception of life must be well preserved and transferred to our coming generations. Professor Thomas C. Cooley says: “We have to learn many things from the immigrants, and we have to teach them many things; our method must be steady and healthy." For most American thinkers and observers the process of amalgamation in America generally takes place in three generations. We should know really the secret of how to approach the aliens and how tɔ win their confidence. First of all, let us be sincere, and let the immigrants understand our sincerity. We should create a sympathetic environment to make them feel at home, because as long as we keep up our antipathy and treat them unequally in every walk of life, the aliens will remain by themselves. The quicker we destroy these artificial barriers which separate us from them, the sooner they will fall in line. This is a psychological reality in human life. Let each one think for himself how he would feel if he were an immigrant.
For this great effort we have got to have matured teachers, wh) bear in their heart the greatest patience, who are sympathetic with the aliens and recognize their psychology and their needs. These alone are capable of approaching and teaching them why and how to become good Americans. A human being is always ready to give up little by little his former thoughts, if the new ones are superior to the former ones.
For this undertaking we must have racial committees to advise and develop an initiative among the aliens. Especially, our press should take a sympathetic attitude toward the aliens, ending its unnecessary attacks upon them; the state legislatures must provide a fund for aliens' education. Then, we must have home and district teachers who can penetrate into the immigrants' homes and teach them our domestic sciences, standards of living, the English language, a brief history of America, the framework of the American constitution, the nature of the State and Federal government, and the authority of our Congress and the President. They must teach how the American institutions are formed and managed, and what America has done for humanity. These measures and these ideals will bring happiness and good to all.
Degrees in Commerce and Business
PROFESSOR Ralph L. POWER, THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND
MARY,* WILLIAMSBURG, VA. suunmuammamet ITH the tremendous growth and popularity of
courses in commerce and business administration has come an impetus for creating new degrees. The traditional B. A. and B. S. may now be taken in business administration, as can the M. S. or the M. A. Even the Ph. D. no longer means that the
holder is steeped in "culture and learning,” for the Juommune
Ph. D. degree may now be taken in "business economics,” otherwise known as just plain business. And for those who haven't carried varied courses in science the new degrees B. C. S. and M. C. S. are now recognized as standard business degrees—usually from an evening school—and B. B. A. and M. B. A. from day schools.
But even these are given under different circumstances and conditions. For instance, an evening school may grant the M. C. S. degree as its graduate degree, and a university graduate school of business administration may give the same degree. The M. B. A. may or may not presuppose the B. A. or B. S., according to the institution from which it was received. Upon one point, however, all seem to agreethe Doctor of Commercial Science. The D. C. S. has generally been accepted as the honorary degree of commerce, just as the Litt. D. or the LL. D. have been recognized for years as the honorary degrees in arts and science. Who knows but that the Doctor of Business Administration may yet appear some of these days to make a second honorary degree in business? “If the liberal arts have two honorary degress, why can't we?” is liable to become the familiar cry of business educators.
* On leave of absence from Boston University.