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of ballots to obtain another, and so on until he shall have received four in all. Yet there is the following provision in section 105 in regard to such voters as go outside the guard-rail after obtaining one set of ballots:

"A voter may, after receiving one set of official ballots and before voting, return all such ballots to the ballot clerks and then pass outside the guard-rail; and afterward, while the polls are open, enter once again within the guard-rail for the purpose of voting, and receive and prepare his ballots and vote, the same as if he had not once before been within the guard-rail and received his ballots therefor. But not more than two sets in all of official ballots shall, on such account, be delivered to any voter, and no voter shall pass within the guard-rail more than twice, at the same election, for the purpose of voting."

CHAPTER II.

THE ELECTION PENAL CODE.

One of the new election laws is the Election Penal Code. This provides for the punishment of misdemeanors at political caucuses and conventions; of false registration; of the mutilation, destruction or loss of a registry list; of the misconduct of registry officers; of the failure of a house dweller to answer inquiries; of the removal, mutilation or destruction of election supplies, poll-lists or cards of instruction; of a refusal to permit employes to attend an election; and finally of misconduct in relation to certificates of nomination and official ballots. The act contains the various penal provisions formerly contained in the Ballot Reform Act of 1890, the amended Ballot Reform Act of 1891, the City and Rural Registration Act of 1890, and the Corrupt Practices Act of 1890. It thus collects in one statute the various penalties for violations of the election laws scattered through various other statutes. The language in these former statutes is modified in some respects in the process of codification.

Section 41p, No. 1, in the Corrupt Practices Act of 1890, reads:

"§ 41. What is unlawful.-It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by himself or through any other person:

1. To pay, lend or contribute, or offer or promise to pay, lend or contribute any money or other valuable consideration, to or for any voter, or to or for any other person, to induce such voter to vote or refrain from voting at any election, or to induce any voter to vote or refrain from voting at such election for any particular person or persons, or to induce such voter to come to the pulls or remain away from the polls at such election, or on account of such vter having voted or refrained from voting or having voted or refrained from voting for any particular person, or having come to the poll or remained away from the polls at such election."

This section has been amended by the dropping of the sentence "to induce such voter to vote or refrain from voting at any election," and the section reads as follows:

"41p. Giving considerations for franchise.-Any person who directly or indirectly, by himself or through any other person,

"Pays, lends, or contributes, or offers or promises to pay, lend or contribute any money or other valuable consideration to or for any voter, or to or for any other person, to induce such voter to vote or refrain from voting at such election for any particular person or persons, or to induce such voter to come to the polls or remain away from the polls at such election or on account of such voter having voted or refrained from voting, or having voted or refrained from voting for any particular person, or having come to the polls or remained away from the polls at such election."

This section also of the Penal Code declares that any one who thus bribes a voter is guilty of an infamous crime, punishment by imprisonment for not less than three months, nor more than one year, and, in addition, forfeits any office to which he may have been elected at the election with reference to which such offense was committed.

CHAPTER III.

THE NEW CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT LAW. The new law apportioning the Congressional districts of the State, chapter 295 of the Laws of 1892, changes all the thirty-four districts in the State except five, namely: The old fourteenth, renumbered sixteenth, containing Westchester county and the twenty-fourth Assembly district of New York; the old fifteenth, renumbered seventeenth, containing Rockland, Sullivan and Orange counties; the old nineteenth, renumbered the twentieth, containing the county of Albany; the thirtieth, renumbered the thirtyfirst, containing the county of Monroe; and the thirtyfourth, containing the counties of Allegany, Cattaraugus and Chautauqua.

The most recent election figures bearing upon the politi cal complexion of the new Congressional districts are those of 1891. These disclose the political attitude of voters in the new districts with considerable positiveness except in the case of four districts, to wit: The seventeenth district, composed of the counties of 'Rockland. Sullivan and Orange, in which in 1888 the Republican candidate for Congressman had a plurality of seventy-four votes, whereas in 1891 the counties of the same district gave the Democratic candidate for Governor a plurality of 280 votes; the new eighteenth Congressional district, made up of the counties of Putnam, Dutchess and Ulster, which, in 1888, gave a plurality for the Republican candidate for President of 1,937 votes, and yet, in 1891, gave a plurality for the Democratic candidate for Governor of 1,156; the new nineteenth Congressional district, composed of Columbia and Rensselaer counties, which in 1888 gave the Republican candidate for President a plurality of 718 votes, and, nevertheless, gave the Democratic candidate for Governor in 1888 a plurality of 1,807 votes; and the new twenty-first Congressional district, composed of the counties of Greene, Schoharie, Otsego,

Montgomery and Schenectady, in which in 1888, upon the vote for President, there was a Republican plurality of 503 votes, although in 1891 the counties of the same district gave the Democratic candidate for Governor a plurality of 2,475 votes.

These comparisons are made with a view of obtaining some insight into the political character of the new Congressional districts mentioned above. In Presidential years, when a full vote is cast, while at the same time giving a statement showing the most recent political decisions of the counties mentioned, the vote they cast in the year 1891. In the case of the other thirty Congressional districts the party majorities in them in 1891 were given to the same political party which obtained them in 1888.

In the table given below there will be found the vote given in 1891 for the two leading candidates for Governor in the various counties which were afterwards combined into new Congressional districts by the Legislature of 1892, thus giving statistics showing the strength of political parties in these new Congressional districts:

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The old Eighteenth ward has been converted since into three wards, the Eighteenth Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth wards.

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