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gorge in the inlet to Oyster Creek Channel thence via the latter channel to deep water in the bay.

Barnegat City Harbor is that part of the old Barnegat City Channel south of the main inlet channel and west of the northern end of Long Beach. The State of New Jersey dredged a channel 5 feet deep, 50 feet wide, and 3,000 feet long in the south end of Barnegat City Harbor to provide access to the establishment of the Independent Fish Co., The Federal improvement of Barnegat Inlet has resulted in shoaling near Barnegat Light where Barnegat City Harbor is entered from the main channel.

Commerce of Barnegat City Harbor has average 1,270 tons of seafood annually for the past 10 years. It is reported that fishing craft drawing from 3 to 6 feet, nearly all of which operated out of Barnegat City, made about 13,000 round trips through the inlet during each of the years 1942 and 1943.

The area tributary to Barnegat Inlet includes a major portion of Ocean County, N. J. and the area contains about 40 towns and villages with a winter population of about 33,000 which is greatly increased in the summertime by vacationists and tourists.

The boat industry in peacetimes included 15 yards with a total of 28 marine railways capable of handling craft up to 60 feet in length.

Local interests desire a channel connecting Barnegat City Harbor with the main inlet channel. The Board recommends that the work can be done by maintenance dredging only. In other words, no new work need be done. We can keep that channel open by doing ordinary maintenance dredging.

Maintenance by the United States of a channel to connect Barnegat City Harbor with the main inlet channel is warranted in the interests of safety and necessary access for established commerce. We reconmend the modification of existing project to provide for maintenance dredging by the United States to a dimension of 200 feet wide by 8 feet deep, near the lighthouse which is indicated on the map.

The cost of the work is $4,500 annually. No cost for new work is contemplated.

I believe there are some local interests here, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. AUCHINCLOSS. Mr. King, of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Ocean County is present, Mr. Chairman, and I think he would like to make a statement.



Mr. King. Mr. Chairman, we, of course, are heartily in favor of the engineers' report, and we appreciate the consideration they are giving to Barnegat Inlet. We came here today hoping that the report was more nearly complete than it is, because the use of Barnegat Inlet is very much more restricted because of shoaling off at the mouth; and we feel that as quickly as possible, something should be done to stabilize that inlet and to make it as deep as was the original intention.

It is difficult to say anything except that we need it and need it very badly, and are hoping that the Army engineers can find a solution of our problem there as soon as possible.

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The development of the entire county is being held up by the lack of the stabilizing of deep water there, and I think a new feature has entered into it in that boats of larger or deeper draft than we originally talked of, such as draggers, now want to use that inlet.

The Barnegat City boys who formerly had the smaller shallow draft boats are now buying deeper boats, but they have had to leave Barnegat City and go either to Atlantic City or Manasquan, because they cannot use Barnegat Inlet to get in and out.

So we are waiting very patiently, and I have with me here today mayors from, oh, all the towns on Long Beach, and they back me in this plea of early action if possible, to stabilize and deepen this inlet and make it safe for the party boats and the commercial fishing boats and the deeper boats that want to use the inlet when they can, to use it.

That is all I have.

Mr. AUCHINCLOSs. Mr. King, did you have anybody else who wanted to make a statement ?

Mr. KING. I believe not, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. King, what type of sea foods do you have there principally?

Mr. King. Well, of course, at this time of the year, they begin catching mackerel. The mackerel fleet is working the school of mackerel that is working up the coast. But all summer it is lobsters, sea bass, bluefish, and the other fish which are usually found along the coast, the croakers, and so forth, weakfish,

Mr. DONDERO. Is that the principal commerce-fish!
Mr. King. Yes.

Mr. DONDERO. And besides that, I suppose you have small pleasure craft?

Mr. King. That is true, yes. You see, Barnegat Inlet would serve . about 50 miles of our coast line, and I would say about 200 square miles of our territory.

The growth and development of the entire county of Ocean is dependent largely upon the development and stabilizing of this inlet.

Mr. DONDERO. A large number of this committee went over that inlet in a dirigible balloon in order not only to view the erosion of the beaches of New Jersey, but also to take a look at these inlets. and harbors that you have come here to speak about.

So we are rather familiar with it.

Mr. King. We are glad of that. We appreciate the time you took . to come up there.

The CHAIRMAN. We thank you, sir.

Colonel FERINGA. I want to add, as to Barnegat Inlet, that the Governor was favorable to the report, and the Budget also made a favor-. able report.

The CHAIRMAN. We have a statement from Mr. Yearly, which, without objection, we will place in the record.

(The statement is as follows:)



No matter what may be done at Barnegat Inlet, it will surely affect the beaches. to the immediate south. There has been accelerated erosion on Long Beach Island at Harvey Cedars since the installation of the stone jetties, and abnormal. high tides since the erection of the sand dike south of the inlet on the bay.

We believe that an opening in this dike and the deepening of the inlet will help to alleviate and probably eliminate the tidal conditions affecting the bay shore, and reduce the further danger of a new inlet breaking through at Harvey Cedars.

The CHAIRMAN. Colonel, how about Absecon?


(H. Dọc. 504, 79th Cong.)

Colonel FERINGA. The report on Absecon Inlet, N. J., is in response to resolutions adopted by the Rivers and Harbors Committee on April 16, 1935, also February 27, 1936, and February 28, 1941.

It is also in response to a resolution adopted by the Senate Commerce Committee on May 12, 1941.

Absecon Inlet is the entrance channel to the harbor of Atlantic City, N.J., 80 miles south west of Sandy Hook.

The existing Federal project for Absecon Inlet adopted in 1922 provides for a channel 20 feet deep and 400 feet wide to be secured and maintained by dredging. It also provides that should the channel at any time have a deleterious effect on the Atlantic City beach, work upon the improvement may cease, it being understood that the project is adopted on the basis that the interests of the beach are superior to those of the inlet.

During the period 1933 to 1942, inclusive, freight commerce through the inlet averaged 108,600 tons and reached a peak of 153,400 tons in 1941. In that year, 1,830 tons of sea food were received and the remainder consisted of petroleum products which entered Clam Creek.

In 1941, ships drawing 14 feet and less made 18,234 round trips through the inlet. Of these, over 6,000 were by commercial fishing boats.

The four cities on Absecon Island have a permanent summer population of about 900,000, a year-around population of 76,000, and approximately 15,000,000 visitors annually.

Local interests unanimously desire a stable channel through the inlet at least 16 feet deep and 400 feet wide, suitable for safe entrance during storms, provided this can be accomplished without injury to the beaches.

Without going too deeply into this, Mr. Chairman, a model study was made at Vicksburg, and it was determined that in order to provide this proposed channel and this proposed jetty, it seemed fairly safe that there would be no adverse effect on the shore.

However, there was not absolute proof, so the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors does not feel warranted in recommending any modification of the existing channel, because there is doubt that the benefits which may be obtained from building this new channel and this jetty will be worth the posible damage to the beaches.

As you know, Atlantic City is largely dependent upon their beaches. So this project that I am going to describe deals only with the deepening of Clam Creek, which in turn serves the entire area.

Mr. DONDERO. Does it serve Atlantic City also ?

Colonel FERINGA. Yes, sir. This is Atlantic City right here [indicating]

It is similar to the case of Barnegat Island.

Mr. DONDERO. I think our committee was there some 8 years ago.

The CHAIRMAN. I was there in 1920 when they had this matter of the channel under consideration.

Colonel FERINGA. The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors. had carefully given consideration to the model tests conducted at the United States Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksburg, the views of the reporting officers, and the conclusions of the Shore Protection Board. All concerned properly attach basic importance to preservation of the beaches at Atlantic City.

Extensive investigations of various jetties designed to aid in stabilizing the entrance channel to Absecon Inlet provide no conclusive assurance that such works will not lead to objectionable shore-line changes along the Atlantic City water front. In view of this circumstance, primarily, the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors is of the opinion that modification of the project to provide for jetty construction is not advisable at this time.

The Board recommends that the existing project be modified to provide for an entrance channel 15 feet deep and 200 feet wide from Absecon Inlet channel into Clam Creek, and for a turning basin 15. feet deep within Clam Creek.

The improvement is recommended subject to the condition that responsible local agencies give assurances satisfactory to the Board that they will provide without cost to the United States suitable soildisposal areas for the new work and subsequent maintenance when and as required, and will hold the United States free from harm from damages due to construction and maintenance of Clam Creek entrance channel and basin.

Cost for the new work is $16,000. The total annual carrying charge, including maintenance, is $1,600. The benefits of the improvement are estimated at $59,000 annually. These include—it is an interesting break-down-$4,600' for savings in the cost of transporting petroleum products, $9,000 for an increase in the catch of commercial fish, $16,000 for increased net returns to operators catering to sports fishermen, $10,000 for recreational boating benefits, and $20,000 for increase in boat-yard business.

These estimates indicate a ratio of costs to benefits for the improvement of 1.0 to 37.2.

The Governor is in favor of it, and the Budget has no objection.

Mr. DONDERO. Mr. Auchinclóss asks unanimous consent that the representatives here from New Jersey may enter statements in the record.

The CHAIRMAN. That may be done.


(S. Doc. 141, 79th Cong.) Colonel FERINGA. Mr. Chairman, the report on Wickford Harbor, R. I., is submitted in response to a resolution adopted by the Committee on Commerce of the United States Senate, on April 14, 1944.

Wickford Harbor is located at Wickford Village, on the west shore of Narragansett Bay, 9 miles north of the bay entrance.

It consists of an outer roadstead about 1 mile square, having general depths of 12 to 15 feet; an outer harbor about one-half mile square

with natural depths of 9 to 15 feet in a channel 600 to 700 feet wide leading westward to the entrance to Wickford Cove; and three small coves, Wickford, Mill, and Fishing Coves, emptying into the outer harbor. The harbor is sheltered from storms from the west but is open to the east. Mean range of tide is 4.1 feet.

The existing project is a channel 9 feet deep and 60 feet wide with enlargement at bends, up to the wharves in Wickford, and was authorized by the River and Harbor Act of June 3, 1896. This project was completed in 1900, at a cost of $6,300, all for new work, with no subsequent maintenance.

The controlling depth at the head of navigation is about 5 feet.

Water-borne commerce in Wickford Harbor over the 10-year period 1934 to 1943, averaged 2,660 tons in receipts of fish and shellfish, coal, and sand and gravel, and 2,750 tons in shipments of fish and shellfish, oyster shells, cordwood, piles, sand, and gravel. Receipts in 1943 totaled 765 tons, consisting entirely of sea food. There were no shipments in that year.

Commercial motor vessels with drafts of 9 feet or less made an average of about 20 trips per year to Wickford Harbor from 1939 to 1942, inclusive. Eight barges called at the harbor in 1940 and six in 1941. The local fishing fleet and recreational craft number 70 and 250 boats, respectively.

The Board of Engineers recommend modification of existing project for Wickford Harbor to omit construction of the anchorage basin and channel improvements in Wickford Cove and channel improvements in Mill Cove, and in substitution recommend omitting that part of the work authorized but not constructed and in lieu thereof to provide breakwaters for protection of the outer harbor.

The estimated first cost of construction is $120,000, which includes a cash contribution of $25,000.

The net cost to the United States is therefore $95,000. The total annual carrying charges are $4,290. The local cooperation consists of the requirement that local interests are to contribute $25,000 toward the first cost of construction and in addition, establish and maintain a suitable public wharf. The cost of real estate and improvements necessary to provide the wharf has been estimated at about $25,000.

The annual tangible benefits from the improvement are nated at $8,500, which provides a ratio of cost to benefits of 1 to 1.1. The Governor has been consulted, in accordance with existing laws, and the Governor has no objection.

Mr. McDoNOUGH. Will you repeat the over-all cost ?
Colonel FERINGA. The over-all costs are $120,000.
Mr. JACKSON. $25,000 contribution by local interests!

Colonel FERINGA. Yes; because the benefits are partially local and recreational.

STAMFORD HARBOR, CONN. The report on Stamford Harbor, Conn., is in response to a resolution adopted by the Rivers and Harbors Committee on April 24, 1945.

Stamford Harbor lies on the north shore of Long Island Sound about 32 miles east of New York City.

The existing Federal project for improvement of this harbor includes two breakwaters, an entrance channel 18 feet deep and 200

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