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the harbor, it is now desired to shift it slightly to the north. A turning basin 30 feet deep at the entrance to Johnsons River channel, and for deepening Johnsons River channel from present depths to 15 feet deep and generally 200 feet wide to a point 1,700 feet below Hollisters Dam, thence g feet deep and 100 feet wide to 600 feet below Hollisters Dam, in lieu of the presently authorized 18 foot depth and attendant requirements for local cooperation.

The Chief of Engineers concurs in the views and recommendations of the Board.

The modification is recommended subject to the conditions that local interests make necessary changes in the Pleasure Island Bridge at an estimate cost of $45,000; give assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will provide suitable berthing and unloading facilities for large tankers on the main harbor turning basin; furnish free of cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-of-way and suitably bulkheaded spoil-disposal areas for the initial work and for subsequent maintenance when and as required; and hold and save the United States free from damages resulting from the improvement.

The cost to the United States of new work, including that previously authorized but not done, $955,000. Cost of work previously authorized, $607,000. The cost of additional work recommended by this report, $348,000. Estimated annual charges, $49,200.

The proposed improvements will permit deeper draft vessels to use the channels, permit heavier loading, eliminate delays awaiting high tides, and provide for the safety and convenience of general navigation.

The evaluated prospective annual benefits are estimated at $124,500, indicating a ratio of costs to benefits of 1 as to 2.53.

The Governor of the State is in favor of the project. The Bureau of the Budget in its letter asked us to reconsider our recommendations in connection with Johnsons Creek. The Bureau of the Budget in this instance felt that we should not remove the previous requirement of local cooperation. That letter is in process of being studied.

I believe that we can remove the objection made by the Bureau of the Budget when we point out that whereas it formerly was a project primarily concerned with local benefits, it now becomes a national improvement, and therefore should comply with the normal requirements for all river and harbor projects.

The project of Johnsons River, General Weart told me this morning, can be used by two more oil companies than were considered when the report was written, and probably three—the Sun Oil Co., Buckley Bros., and the Public Oil terminai.

That is all I have to offer on this project. I think there are local interests represented here.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the present depth?

Colonel FERINGA. It is 30 feet, and we do not recommend any deepening, in the present report. In brief, what we propose is a slight shifting of the presently authorized channel to the north in order that it will not endanger some existing piling; also a new turning basin at this location (indicating on map] in order that the oil tankers can tie up and discharge directly into a pipe line, which in turn will serve terminals to be located along Johnsons River. Johnsons River then will be used for loading for transshipment, I suppose you would call

it, of the oil into barges and serving all that territory along Long Island Sound.

The CHAIRMAN. The main channel is 25 feet deep, is it not?

Colonel FERINGA. Yes; but it was authorized by the last Rivers and Harbors Act to be made 30 feet.

The CHAIRMAN. Tankers cannot use it now?

Colonel FERINGA. They cannot use it to maximum advantage, sir. And it is a matter that gives me some concern, where you might say, Why not recommend that all these ports be deepened to 32 or 35 feet? I believe the proper procedure is as we have always done in the past. If your committee instructs us to study a harbor then when justified we recommend deepening.

Mr. GEELAN. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Morano, secretary to Congresswoman Luce, is present and would like to make a statement.

STATEMENT OF ALBERT P. MORANO, SECRETARY TO REPRESENTA

TIVE CLARE BOOTH LUCE, OF CONNECTICUT

Mr. MORANO. I would like to have permission from the chairman, on behalf of Mrs. Luce, to insert in the record various correspondence and statements from individuals interested in this project. If I may, I would like to say in addition that Mrs. Luce is interested in the improvement of the Stamford project which will come up later in the day. There is no one from Stamford here, but the people are all as much in favor of that project as Mrs. Luce is.

(The documents referred to and submitted by the witness are as follows:)

DOCKENDORFF & Co., INC.,

Bridgeport 3, Conn., April 9, 1946. Over the past 20 years I have had experience in the operation of deep-draft ships and barges in southern New England, and at the present the company that I represent owns considerable land adjacent to Johnson's Creek in Bridgeport Harbor.

The need for a 30-foot channel in Bridgeport Harbor has been well established, and has been approved as of March 1945. The modification of this project providing for a 30-foot turning basin adjacent to this channel is necessary to realize the benefits as shown in the district reports.

I have received a copy of the letter sent to your committee by Buckley Bros. of Bridgeport who own petroleum terminal facilities on Johnson's Creek, and who are planning to establish a terminal on the main harbor. I am, more or less, in sympathy with them in their viewpoint, in that the proposed channel line is very close to their property, and in that they are reluctant to waive possible damage to their property by any increased dredging in Johnson's Creek. Whether this damage would result or not is an engineering problem, but I want to bring to your attention the tremendous savings to the community of Bridgeport and the western New England area by the operation of deep-draft tankers in Bridgeport Harbor, and to the fact that there are many interested parties who wish to locate storage facilities at this port.

The portion of Bridgeport Harbor known as Johnson's Creek is the only area available in Bridgeport Harbor for such development. It is ideally located as a central distribution point for petroleum products. The brief being submitted by the Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce indicates that the majority of these savings would accrue from the use of deep-draft ships, and this in my opinion is a correct statement. The turning basin and the deepening of the main channel requested by local interest is the main factor in order to realize these great savings.

The deepening of Johnson's Crek is only incidental at the moment.

The benefit which would accrue from the establishment of two terminals in Johnson's Creek is sufficient to warrant the provision of a 15-foot channel. It

is, therefore, urgently requested that the modification of the Bridgeport project be approved to provide for the 30-foot turning basin in the main harbor and the 15-foot channel in Johnson's Creek, contingent upon the establishment by local interests of suitable public terminals.

J. H. DOCKENDORFF, President. Distribution of petroleum products, Bridgeport area, 1941, showing present

minimum transportation costs and savings, tankers via barges

[blocks in formation]

Cents

Cents Premium gasoline

350,000

8 Regular gasoline.

1,400,000

8 Kerosene

1,000,000

8 No. 2 fuel oil.

1, 900, 000

8 No. 4 to No. 5 fuel oil.

200,000 No. 6 fuel oil.

300,000

6 No. 6 fuel oil

200,000

18

$28,000 112, 000

80,000 152, 000 16, 000 18,000 36,000

5, 350,000 Estimated minimum discount on purchases of petroleum products via tankers over barges $0.10 per barrel, 5,350,000 barrels..

Total annual savings.

442,000 535,000

977,000

SUN OIL Co.,

Philadelphia, Pa., March 29, 1946. Subject : Bridgeport Harbor, Conn. project. The HONORABLE CLARE BOOTH LUCE,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. MADAM: The following is a brief summary of the economic factors involved in the proposed dredging of the Johnson's Creek Channel, so far as Sun Oil Co, is concerned :

1. The city of Bridgeport is the industrial capitol of Connecticut and the focul marketing point for an area of approximately 760 square miles. The population embraced within this area is approximately 285,000. (See letter from the Secretary of War, 76th Cong., 3d sess., Doc. No. 819.)

2. The normal volume of petroleum products handled by Sun Oil Co., through Bridgeport totals approximately 31,000,000 gallons, or 95,385 tons, per annum. The principal products so handled are gasoline, fuel oils, and industrial oils. At present this volume is handled principally by barge, with a relatively small proportion being delivered by tank cars and rail shipments of drums.

3. The potential volume to be handled in the post-war period by Sun Oil Co., following completion of the proposed harbor improvements, will total approximataely 51,000,000 gallons, or 156,932 tons, per annum. (The figures herein set forth, together with those referred to under item 2, were contained in a detailed report given by us to the United States engineer, Providence, R. I., on February 27, 1945.)

4. In anticipation of the dredging of Johnson's Creek Channel, Sun Oil Co. entered into an agreement, dated March 6, 1945, for the purchase of approximately 10 acres of land in the area of Eagle Nest, Bridgeport, Conn., the consideration being the sum of approximately $35,000. This agreement is contingent upon congressional approval of the harbor project.

5. Upon acquisition of the above lands, it is the intention of Sun Oil Co., to construct a modern terminal and bulk plant with dock facilities, the same to involve an ultimate expenditure of approximately $200,000.

6. The existence of such a terminal would provide a more economical and efficient petroleum distribution center for the entire Brideport area.

The above statements represent the basic outline of our position regarding the proposed harbor improvements. We would be only too happy to furnish such detailed information as you might desire. Very truly yours,

SUN OIL Co.
WINFIELD GIVENS.

Hon. JOSEPH J. MANSFIELD,
Chairman, Rivers and Harbors Committee,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. O.
MY DEAR MR. MANSFIELD: The following is a brief summary of the economic
factors involved in the proposed dredging of Johnson's Creek Channel, so far as
Sun Oil Co. is concerned.

Our distribution throughout the Bridgeport area necessitates an expansion of our terminal facilities. We have entered into a purchase agreement with the present owners of a site along Johnson's Creek, upon which we intend to erect tankage, docks, and other bulk plant facilities, together with roadway, pipe lines, etc. Our agreement, however, is subject to the dredging and maintenance of Johnson's Creek to a depth of at least 15 feet and the continued maintenance thereafter by the United States Government.

The area which we contemplate purchasing contains approximately 10 acres of land in the vicinity known as Eagles Nest, the consideration for land only being in excess of $30,000. Upon acquisition of the above lands, it is the intention of Sun Oil Co. to construct a modern terminal and bulk plant with dock facilities, the same to involve an utimate expenditure of approximately $200,000.

The normal volume of petroleum products handled by Sun Oil Co., through Bridgeport totals approximately 31,000,000 gallons, or 95,385 tons per annum. The principal products so handled are gasoline, fuel oils, and industrial oils. At present this volume is handled principally by barge, with a relatively small proportion being delivered by tank car and rail shipments of drums.

The potential volume to be handled in the postwar period by Sun Oil Co., following completion of the proposed harbor improvements, will total approximately 51,000,000 gallons, or 156,923 tons, per annum.

The existence of such a terminal would provide a more economical and efficient petroleum-distribution center for the entire Bridgeport area. Very truly yours,

SUN OIL Co.,
S. B. ECKERT,

Vice President. Mr. MORANO. I would like to introduce Mr. Raymond L. French, Sr., manager of the industrial development division, Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce, who will speak to you briefly and then ask permission to insert the rest of his statement in the record.

STATEMENT OF RAYMOND L. FRENCH, SR., MANAGER, INDUSTRIAL

DEVELOPMENT DIVISION, BRIDGEPORT CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, BRIDGEPORT, CONN.

Mr. FRENCH. Gentlemen, you gave me pretty nearly a whole afternoon in 1941, and I am just going to put my brief in and say thank you. I am not going to do any talking.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, sir, very much. (The brief referred to is as follows:)

BRIEF PRESENTED TO THE RIVERS AND HARBORS COMMITTEE OF THE HOUSE OF

REPRESENTATIVES

AUTHORIZATION OF $529,000 On March 12, 1941, we made an appearance before this committee for the deepening of our harbor as covered by House of Representatives Document No. 819, Seventy-sixth Congress, third session.

On page 17 of this document, J. S. Bragdon, lieutenant colonel, Corps of Engineers, district engineer, made the following recommendation :

"It is recommended that the existing project for Bridgeport Harbor be modified to provide for a main channel 30 feet deep at mean low water and 400 feet wide, from Long Island Sound to just beyond the south end of East Main Street extended, thence gradually decreasing in width to 250 feet at a point about 720 feet below Stratford Avenue Bridge across the Poquonock River, with widening

at the bend opposite the Cilco Terminal to within 75 feet of the established harbor line, at an estimated first cost of $529,000 for new work and $6,000 annually for maintenance in addition to present costs; and that the present 12-foot anchorage be eliminated from the project; provided that no new work be done unless local interests hold the United States free from damages that may arise in connection with the work. If authorized, the allotment should be made in one sum to secure economical prosecution of the work."

You folks looked favorably on our plea and the $529,000 was authorized. However, no appropriation was made, due to unsettled conditions accompanying World War II, nor has one been made to date.

The brief presented by the port development committee of the Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce, dated March 12, 1941, copy of which is attached for your convenience, marked "Exhibit E,” gave you the prevailing facts at that time.

The information contained in that brief and supporting data still holds good except for changes brought out below as to intercoastal traffic, population increase, and industrial growth, all of which strengthen our plea.

IMPROVEMENTS RECOMMENDED BY UNITED STATES ENGINEERS ($955.000)

A review of reports requested by your committee was adopted by resolution August 30, 1944, and one result of this was a recommendation by the United States Engineers of further improvements in our harbor, principally covered by a 30-foot turning basin in the main harbor, and the deepening of the channel in Johnson's River to a depth of 15 feet; subject to the conditions that local interests make necessary changes in the Pleasure Beach Bridge; give assurance satisfactory to the Secretary of War that they will provide suitable berthing and unloading facilities for large tankers on said main-harbor turning basin, furnish free of cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-of-way and suitable bulkhead spoil-disposal areas for the initial work and subsequent maintenance when and as required; and hold and save the United States free from damages resulting from such improvements. These requirements will be met.

GROWTH United States Employment Office figures show the following for the Bridgeport area which includes Bridgeport and surrounding towns: Total labor force: April 1940.---

102,000 February 1946_

127,000 Despite the growth, there are at present (other than strikers) over 10,000 applicants looking for work and it is increasing.

Connecticut is one of two New England States showing a wartime increase of population above the national average.

The Bridgeport area population, conservatively estimated now at 290,000 people, was 233,000 people in 1940, a gain of 57,000, and a poll taken indicates most of them intend to stay here.

Consequently, it behooves us to make every possible move to keep these idlers off the relief rolls.

The approximate 1,000 acres of industrial land to be made by dredging will take care of the future, and the buildings and facilities to be started immediately it is known the improvements will be made will help for the present.

NEW INDUSTRIAL LAND

Bridgeport depends entirely on industry for its living for the reason that we have no State office buildings, large insurance companies, or colleges, nor is it the center of an agricultural area.

Our open industrial land is practically exhausted with no large plots left. The fill from dredging covered by this project will give to us between 800 and 1,000 acres of greatly needed industrial land on which to build.

At the present time we have requests in our office for over 5,000,000 square feet of factory buildings which we cannot meet, which should give you some measure of our needs.

Herewith, marked "Exhibit F,” is a study made for us by Mr. Harold M. Lewis, one of the country's leading consulting engineers, which will give you an insight on

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