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The commerce of Honolulu Harbor increased from 2,113,000 tons in 1935 to 3,354,000 tons in 1940, and averaged 2,532,000 tons for the 6-year period. The number of passengers averaged 212,000 for the same period. The 1944 commerce was 6,506,500 tons, including war materials. Vessel traffic during 1944 consisted of 3,225 round trips by trans-Pacific vessels with drafts up to 35 feet, and 1,858 round trips by interisland vessels with drafts of about 18 feet.

In order to protect the interests of the United States it is desirable to provide for adequate maintenance of the areas in the Reserve Channel and Kapalama Basin dredged by the United States Army since 1940 by including those areas in the existing project for improvement of Honolulu Harbor. The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors recommends that the existing project for improvement of Honolulu Harbor be modified to provide a depth of 35 feet over the full width of 600 feet throughout the Reserve Channel; a turning basin in Kapalama Basin 35 feet deep by 1,000 feet wide and 3,000 feet long; and a slip of like depth 1,000 feet long on the easterly side of pier 39, at no additional cost for initial construction and with $10,000 annually for maintenance in addition to the amount presently authorized for maintenance of Honolulu Harbor, T. H.

COLUMBIA RIVER, VANCOUVER, WASH., TO THE DALLES, OREG. Colonel FERINGA. We have one more project on the Columbia River, which is very important, projects on which we have previously explained to this committee.

I again have very full notes which I would like to give to the reporter later, and just explain the project in brief now.

In accordance with existing laws we have sent it to the governors of the States concerned. We have had favorable response from the Governor of Oregon. We have not yet had a response from the Governor of Washington State. I think it will be favorable.

We have not had the opportunity to get a response from the Department of the Interior, as they have not yet had enough time to digest the information inasmuch as the Board has acted thereon only last month. By law, we must send our report to them.

Briefly, what is recommended is this, Mr. Chairman:

The Columbia River is now navigable for deep-water navigation practically up to The Dalles, but that navigation is hindered, and dangerously hindered by rock ledges in Bonneville pool, that is a pool formed by the Bonneville Dam.

As you know, the Bonneville Dam has been constructed by the Corps of Engineers subsequent to congressional authorization, and is now being maintained by the Corps of Engineers.

Those rock ledges are at locations called Cascade Rapids and are indicated in red on this map. Like all rock ledges they are obviously dangerous to shipping.

It is comparatively costly to remove them, however, and to provide a channel of 27-foot depth by 300-foot width as far as The Dalles, would cost $1,176,000.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Where is the channel? I refer particularly to where the rocks are.

Colonel FERINGA. I will follow the thread of the channel. At Bonneville, at this location, there is one shoal point, right near Bonneville, and farther east there is another shoal point known as Cascade Rapids.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. You pointed to ledges there which are way south of the channel.

Colonel FERINGA. This is an enlarged chart of what happens on the river. The point of the river is here, and this is a blow-up of the actual condition.

Mr. ANGELL. Colonel, it also provides a 27-foot channel, does it not?

Colonel FERINGA. It would provide a 27-foot channel 300-foot width. It is recommended for the safety of existing navigation. We have not tried to evaluate the benefits because it would be hard to do so. We know it is necessary to safeguard shipping:

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. What is the depth of the channel now?

Colonel FERINGA. The channel is practically 27 feet deep except where we have these outcrops of rocks which are a constant hazard to navigation. That is step A.

We recommend also as step B the provision of a small side channel to Columbia Slough, which would be at the location near Vancouver. The channel would be 10 feet by 300 feet. It would cost $6,000, and would also be justified by the existing navigation.

Due to the small cost we have not endeavored to set up a ratio of cost of benefits.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. What is your purpose in that channel ?
Colonel FERINGA. To provide for existing small boating.
Mr. ANGELL. Where is it located ?

Colonel FERINGA. It is southeast of Vancouver and on the Oregon side of the Columbia River, at location known as Oregon Slough.

Mr. ANGELL. Near the city of Portland !
Colonel FERINGA. Yes, sir.
Mr. ANGELL. Did you give the cost of that particular portion?
Colonel FERINGA. That particular portion cost $6,000.

As step C we recommend that at the entrance of the Hood River there be constructed a small boat harbor to cost $98,000. The harbor would be 500 feet wide by 1,300 feet long by 10 feet deep. It would cost $98,000, and would show a ratio of cost to benefits of 1 as to 6.4.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. That is quite a benefit. How are those benefits going to accrue?

Colonel FERINGA. Mr. Muller will look that up. There is a breakdown of those benefits.

Also at step D we recommend at the town of Bingen that a channel and mooring basin be provided. The size of the channel would be 200 feet wide by 1 mile long. It would be 10 feet deep and would cost $101,500, and the ratio of cost to benefits would be 1 to 4.7.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. The ratio would be that of 1 to 4.79 Colonel FERINGA. Yes, sir.

In the case of Hood River, Mr. Chairman, to which you made inquiry as to benefits, we find that the annual benefits are estimated at $39,670, of which $29,670 is savings in transfer of commodities between river craft and shore and $10,000 is for the improvement of provision of mooring facilities for small boats.

In the case of the improvement at Bingen, Wash., the annual carrying charge is $9,391, the annual benefits are estimated at $43,971, of which $40,221 is the annual savings attributable to barge transportation, and $3,750 is the savings to owners of small fishing and recreational craft.

As I understand it, the Columbia River is a vast body of water. I hope that Mr. Angell will take the opportunity to describe it in greater detail than I can because unfortunately I have never seen it. Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Is there any opposition to this? Yolonel FERINGA. No, sir.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Incidentally, we will insert your statement at this point, Colonel Feringa.

(The statement is as follows:)

COLUMBIA RIVER, VANCOUVER, WASH., TO THE DALLES, OREG.

The report on Columbia River, Vancouver, Wash., to The Dalles, Oreg., is in response to resolutions adopted on December 3, 1935, April 11, 1939, and July 10, 1945, by the Senate Commerce Committee and resolutions adopted by the River and Harbor Committee on April 13, 1939, and December 1, 1944.

The section of Columbia River under consideration extends from Vancouver, Wash., river mile 106, easterly along the Oregon-Washington boundary to The Dalles, Oreg., river mile 189. In this reach are the following towns with their locations above the mouth of the river: Bonneville, Oreg., mile 146; Hood River, Oreg., mile 170; Bingen, Wash., mile 171; and Lyle, Wash., mile 181.

The improvement for Columbia River between Vancouver, Wash., and Bonneville, Oreg., authorized by Congress provides for a channel 27 feet deep and 300 feet wide between the Interstate Bridge at Vancouver and Bonneville. The project is 84 percent complete. The project also includes the improvement of the lower entrance to the Bonneville ship canal immediately below Bonneville Dam, and construction of a turning basin in the vicinity of Camas and Washougal, Wash.

The improvement for Columbia River at Bonneville, Oreg., authorized by Congress provides for a dam, power plant, and a lock for navigation. The pool provides, for a distance of 45 miles above the dam, a navigable channel with a depth of 27 feet except for a short distance at the Cascades, mile 148.5, where the depth along a suitable alignment for a ship channel is 22 feet. The singlelift lock is 500 feet long, 76 feet wide, and has a controlling depth of 24.2 feet over the lower miter sill at low water. The vertical lift is 66 feet.

Commerce on Columbia River between Vancouver and The Dalles for the 10-year period, 1935–44, inclusive, fluctuated between a low of 661,600 tons in 1937 and a high of 2,450,700 tons in 1941. The commerce in 1944 was 2,068,000 tons and consisted principally of petroleum products, paper and pulp carried in barges, and rafted logs. The potential commerce available above Bonneville lock is estimated at 6,082,000 tons per year of which 2,000,000 tons is grain, 900,000 tons is petroleum products, 1,900,000 tons is mineral products, and 1,282,000 tons is miscellaneous products.

The area commercially tributary to Columbia River above Vancouver, Wash., embraces 230,000 square miles in Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and has a population of 1,415,000. The principal cities area : Spokane, Wash. ; Butte, Mont.; Great Falls, Mont,; Yakima, Wash.; and Boise, Idaho. The principal agricultural product is wheat of which about 75 percent goes largely to world markets. There are many fertile valleys devoted to the production of vegetables, hay, and livestock. Extensive forests support sawmills, box factories, and pulp and paper mills. In the area are 672 sawmills of which 27 have a capacity each of 100,000 feet board measure per 8-hour shift. Mineral resources extracted in volume include copper, zinc, lead, antimony, and the precious metals. Nonmetallic resources which have been commercially developed include limestone, phosphate, petroleum, natural gas, magnesite, dolomite, diatomite, building stone, and clays.

Local interests request completion of the Vancouver-Bonneville ship channel, a channel 10 feet deep and 300 feet wide in the upper entrance into Oregon Slough, improvement in the vicinity of the entrances to Bonneville lock, provision of a barge lock at Bonneville, removal of Boat Rock near mile 146, channel rectification through Cascade Rapids, removal of a submerged rock near mile 167, relocation of the barge channel near mile 177, harbor development at Hood River, Oreg., and harbor development in the Underwood-Bingen-Lyle area.

The Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors recommends modification of the existing projects for Columbia River between Vancouver, Wash., and The Dalles, Oreg., to provide :

(a) For a channel 27 feet deep at adopted low water and 300 feet wide between Vancouver, Wash., and The Dalles, Oreg.

(0) For a channel 10 feet deep at low water and 300 feet wide at the upstream entrance to Oregon Slough, Oreg.

(c) For a boat basin at Hood River, Oreg., 500 feet by 1,300 feet and 10 feet deep at normal Bonneville pool level, with a connecting channel of the same depth to deep water, and a protecting breakwater on the easterly side.

(d) For a barge channel to the water front at Bingen, Wash., 10 feet deep at normal Bonneville pool level, 200 feet wide and approximately 1 mile long; and for an access channel 7 feet deep at normal Bonneville pool level, 100 feet wide and approximately 1,000 feet long, to a natural mooring basin for small boats near the east end of the channel.

The improvements are recommended subject to the following conditions:

For the boat basin at Hood River; provided local interests furnish free of cost to the United States all necessary rights-of-way and agree to maintain depths in the basin, and to construct, operate, and maintain necessary mooring facilities and a public wharf available to all on equal terms, at an estimated cost of $35,000 ;

And for the improvement at Bingen; provided local interests furnish free of cost to the United States all rights-of-way, agree to maintain depths in the mooring basin, and to construct, operate, and maintain necessary mooring facilities in the basin and a public wharf adjacent to the barge channel available to all on equal terms, at an estimated cost to local interests of $125,000.

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Improvements for the 27-foot channel between Bonneville and The Dalles are justified in the interest of safety and convenience of established navigation and are considered essential to full and complete use of the Vancouver-Bonneville ship channel and Bonneville ship lock, which have involved Federal expenditures of about $9,500,000. Without these improvements, the use of the channel by deep-draft vessels would be severely restricted, if not completely discouraged. While evaluation of benefits that would result from the proposed channel improvements is impracticable, it appears that the proposed improvements are the minimum that will be required to make ship navigation practical, and therefore to make effectual the improvement at and below Bonneville.

No estimate of benefits has been made for the improvement at Oregon Slough. The improvement is justified for the convenience and safety of established navigation.

The evaluated annual benefits estimated to accrue from the improvement at Hood River is estimated at $39,670. The total carrying charges are $6,234. The ratio of costs to benefits is 1 to 6.4.

For the barge channel improvement at Bingen the annual benefits have been evaluated at $43,971. The total carrying charges for this project is $9,391. The ratio of costs to benefits is 1 to 4.7.

STATEMENT OF HON. HOMER D. ANGELL, A REPRESENTATIVE IN

CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF OREGON

Mr. ANGELL. Mr. Chairman, I would like to be heard briefly and have the opportunity to extend my remarks if I may.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Without objection.

Mr. ANGELL. As the committee knows, the Columbia River is the second largest river in the United States. It is the lifeblood for water transportation and hydroelectric power through the whole Northwest

It serves as the outlet for the whole interior of the Northwest, which includes eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, parts of Idaho and Montana.

There has been a very long-range over-all program for the improvement of the Columbia River which was adopted by the Corps of Engineers and by this committee many years ago to provide for

area.

a series of dams for navigation, power, flood control, reclamation, and general uses of water. That program has been carried forward until

we have the Bonneville Dam project and the hydroelectric power plant and dam at Grand Coulee, which are completed, and this committee recently authorized the construction of the McNary Dam which is another large project in the whole development. We recently passed an appropriation of $2,600,000 to start work on that project.

We have just recently heard before the committee testimony with reference to Foster Creek Dam which is really not part of the Columbia River development but is contiguous to the Columbia River area.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Is there any opposition to these projects that have been presented here this morning ?

Colonel FERINGA. There is none to this project that I know of.

Mr. ANGELL. This particular project is to round out work heretofore done and make an improvement to the Columbia River Channel which will give a 27-foot channel from the Bonneville Dam to The Dalles by cutting off certain rock points and deepening the channel at some places and making some harbor facilities improvements in the Oregon slough, which is in my district, for small craft, and also a boat harbor at Hood River for small craft in order to make the river transportation available to that community.

There is a rather shallow channel there that makes it difficult for river craft to reach the docks so that they can discharge their cargo and take on cargo. The purpose of this, as I understand it, is to obviate that difficulty.

Colonel FERINGA. That is right, sir.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. I can assure your constituents of the valuable work that you have been doing and are doing as a member of this committee in developing that great river system.

STATEMENT OF HON. LOWELL STOCKMAN, A MEMBER OF CONGRESS

FROM THE STATE OF OREGON

Mr. STOCKMAN. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am appearing in behalf of modification of existing projects for Columbia River between Vancouver, Wash., and The Dalles, Oreg., to provide generally as recommended by the district engineer the following:

(a) For a channel 27 feet deep at adopted low water and 300 feet wide between Vancouver, Wash., and The Dalles, Oreg., at an estimated cost to the United States of $1,176,000 for channel excavation above Bonneville, and annual maintenance of $5,000 in addition to that now required;

(6) For a channel 10 feet deep at low water and 300 feet wide at the upstream entrance to Oregon slough, Oregon, at an estimated cost to the United States of $6,000 and annual maintenance of $1,500 in addition to that now required;

(c) For a boat basin at Hood River, Oreg., 500 feet by 1,300 feet and 10 feet deep at normal Bonneville pool level, with a connecting channel of the same depth to deep water, and a protecting breakwater on the easterly side, at an estimated cost to the United States of $98,000 and annual maintenance of $2,000 in addition to that now required, provided local interests furnish free of cost to the United States all

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