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troubles was with the fingerlings being killed in the turbines as they go down. Of course, that could be remedied by proper screening and the fingerlings could be turned (lown the elevator. You have an elevator, I believe.

Mr. ANGELL. We have an elevator, as well as fish ladders.

Mr. NORBLAD. There is undoubtedly some damage, but the extent, as I say, is unknown. I read a report of the Wildlife Bureau last week and it said it would take at least 3 months for them to make a study.

Mr. ANGELL. The most of those boats you are speaking of here do their fishing at sea ?

Mr. NORBLAD. That is right; and they necessarily have to be larger and, because of the storms, they come in and there is no mooring for these boats. As I say, there were 800 last season that came in there, and there is no place for them, and it is causing a lot of damage.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. It is very evident you are thoroughly conversant with the conditions so far as this project is concerned.

Mr. NORBLAD. That is right.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. And I wish to commend you for your thorough knowledge of the project and your splendid presentation.

Mr. RANKIN. How many men would they have on each one of those boats?

Mr. NORBLAD. It varies. On the small boats, they would run two and three, and on the small tuna boats they would run five, and they will run as high, possibly, as 15 men, all fishing on shares, so that what they get depends on the catch, and they have to deduct the damage from the share, and that means very material loss to the individuals as well as to the owners.

Mr. ANGELL. May I say to the committee that I served with Mr. Norblad in the State legislature. His father was a former Governor of the State, and Mr. Norblad held a very fine record in the last World War. He is thoroughly conversant with this problem, with the fishing industry, and the entire problem in the State of Oregon. This is necessary and it is an exceptionally good project. There is no opposition to it.

Mr. NORBLAD. Thank you very much, gentlemen, for putting me in ahead.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Now shall we return to the Calumet project ?

Colonel FERINGA. There is another Columbia River project, if you want to take that up now—Columbia River at The Dalles.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Then suppose we finish with that.

COLUMBIA RIVER, IN THE VICINITY OF THE DALLES, OREG. Colonel FERINGA. The report on Columbia River at The Dalles, Oreg., is submitted in response to a resolution adopted by the Committee on Commerce on November 8, 1943.

The Dalles, Oreg., is a city on the south bank of the Columbia River 188 miles above its mouth and 44 miles above the Bonneville hydroelectric power and navigation dam.

The existing project for the Columbia River provides for channel depths for ocean shipping between the mouth of the river and Bonneville Dam where a ship lock permits the passage of navigation.

86902-46-16

Columbia River at The Dalles is not under Federal improvement except as depths have been increased by backwater from Bonneville Dam which extends for 3.5 miles above The Dalles to the entrance of The Dalles-Celilo Canal.

Commerce on this section of the Columbia River has increased substantially in recent years. For example, the commerce in 1938 was 162,000 tons at Bonneville and 44,400 tons on The Dalles-Celilo Canal, whereas, in 1942, the commerce at these points amounted to 692,000 tons and 324,000 tons, respectively. Petroleum products and wood products are the major items. Some grain is moved and after the war, commerce is expected to include large tonnages of wheat.

The vessels engaged in this commerce are principally barges handled by tugboats which draw 5 to 7 feet. During the salmon-fishing season from May to October about 20 commercial fishing boats operate regularly in the vicinity and during the salmon runs of about 30 days annually approximately 50 transient fishing craft operate in the section. Salmon cannery tenders drawing 6 to 8 feet operate between The Dalles and the mouth of the river. The Dalles is also the headquarters for the activities of the United States Coast Guard on the upper Columbia River.

The population of The Dalles is about 6,000. It is the center of an important trade area and the headquarters of a large commercial fishing fleet. The hinterland is covered with a dense growth of commercial timber.

Local interests desire provision of a protected basin for the mooring of shallow-draft boats.

Commercial fishing interests claim that such an improvement is needed for their operations. They state that it would reduce boat damages, afford a needed place for making boat repairs and drying and cleaning nets, increase the amount of time which could be devoted to actual fishing, and result in more fish being delivered to canners.

The Board recommends further improvement of the Columbia River by construction of The Dalles Harbor, Oreg., to provide a breakwater and shear boom protected basin approximately 400 by 800 feet in size with depth of 8 feet below a pool elevation of 72.5 feet mean sea level.

The Chief of Engineers concurs in the recommendation of the Board.

The improvement is recommended subject to the conditions that local interests (a) furnish free of cost to the United States all lands, easements, and rights-of-way required for new work, and suitable spoil-disposal areas for the new work and for subsequent maintenance when and as required, (6) provide necessary bulkheads, and (c) agree to construct, maintain, and operate within the basin suitable moorages and a public landing with adequate supply facilities, open to all on equal terms.

Cost to the United States for new work, $76,500; annual cost of maintenance, $2,000; interest and amortization, $4,395; total annual carrying charges, $7,395.

The evaluated benefits are estimated at $9,450, indicating a ratio of costs to benefits of 1 to 1.5.

Mr. RANKIN. How far is that from Umatilla ?

Colonel FERINGA. Umatilla is upstream, I estimate, about 20 miles. This is a river I have never seen; unfortunately, I have never been out in Mr. Angell's beautiful country, but General Robins, who used to be the senior member of the Board, was so enthusiastic that he

used to say, when talking about rivers, “You have not seen anything until you have seen the Columbia River.” It is not a question of boats operating on a small stream; it is a tremendous body of water.

Mr. ANGELL. It is the second largest river in the United States, and the largest in potential hydroelectric power.

Colonel FERINGA. Yes, sir.

Mr. RANKIN. I have never been up to Umatilla, but I have been down to Bonneville, and I agree it is a magnificent stream.

What depth to you propose ?

Colonel FERINGA. The small-boat harbor will be 8 feet, which will take care of the small-boat traffic now utilizing it. There is also now before the Board—and, with the chairman's permission, I will mention it, but not defend the project-an item which will bring 28-foot navigation, up to The Dalles, which is now possible up to the dam at Bonneville, and which recommend removal of the rock ledges. We hope we can get the report finished in time, so that I can later explain to the committee.

Also, as Mr. Angell well knows, I think probably through his efforts, there is an item in the appropriation bill for the initiation of Umatilla, now known as McNary Dam.

Mr. ANGELL. That has been agreed to in conference.

Mr. Rankin. I am very familiar with that; in fact, I assisted the gentleman from Oregon [Mr. Angell] in getting that project item approved.

What is the size of the locks at Bonneville?

Colonel FERINGA. I will have to look that up, but I think they have a depth of 30 feet. They are ocean-going locks.

Mr. RANKIN. How wide are they and how long ?

Colonel FERINGA. I think they are about 80 feet wide; and about 500 feet long with a depth of about 30 feet.

Mr. RANKIN. Will you insert that in the record ?

Colonel FERINGA. I will be glad to. As a matter of fact, it is in the annual report. They are ship locks.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Is there anything further?

Mr. ANGELL. I would like to say this additional word. I was born near the vicinity of this project, south of The Dalles and, of course, I am familiar with it. As I said awhile ago, it is a most important artery not only to us in the West, but to the entire United States; because it is the second largest river in the United States and he larges in potential hydroelectric power.

One-third of all the aluminum produced for the war was produced in that area from the hydroelectric development in this river at Bonneville and Grand Coulee.

Mr. RANKIN. And one-third in the Tennessee Valley.
Mr. ANGELL. And one-third in the Tennessee Valley.

This little boat harbor is a minor project, but it is quite important to the local citizens. There is no opposition.

Representative Stockman, in whose district this is, wants to be heard on it and I ask leave that he may extend his remarks. He is engaged in other business at the moment, but may later be able to come.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. I am sure the people out in that section realize the tremendous amount of work and effort you have put forth as a Member of Congress, and particularly as a member of this committee, Mr. Angell, in getting these projects authorized and seeing that they move along, and I wish to commend you now for the very fine work you have done in the development of our record.

Mr. ANGELL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. RANKIN. Mr. Chairman, in connection with what I said a moment ago, the hydroelectric power on the Columbia River is the greatest wealth in Washington and Oregon outside of the soil from which the people have to live, which is by far the greatest wealth of all.

Mr. ANGELL. That is true, because it enters into all of the economy of the State and is an exhaustive source of revenue.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. Is there anything further?

Colonel FERINGA, I would like to answer the question about the size of the locks. As you know, Bonneville Dam was built by the Corps of Engineers and is operated by the engineers and the power is turned over at the bus bar to the Bonneville Administration to distribute. It is an important project from the standpoint of power

and navigation. The clear width of the lock chamber is 76 feet. The greatest length available for the full width is 500 feet, and the depth over the miter sills at high water is 30 feet and at adopted law water is 24.2 feet. That is a ship lock.

Mr. RANKIN. I suppose the locks to be put in at Umatilla will be the same size?

Colonel FERINGA. They should be the same size, or possibly a little larger, Mr. Rankin.

STATEMENT OF HON. LOWELL STOCKMAN, A MEMBER OF CONGRESS

FROM THE STATE OF OREGON Mr. STOCKMAN. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I urge that the Committee on Rivers and Harbors of the House of Representatives approve the report of the district and division engineers recommending further improvement of the Columbia River by construction of The Dalles Harbor, Oreg., to provide a breakwater and shear boom protected basin for the mooring of shallow-draft boats.

No suitable protected mooring areas are available in this vicinity, and I am informed that shallow-draft boats have been mooring along the up-stream side of the railroad trestle that has been recently constructed there. This location is unsatisfactory, as boats are exposed to floating ice and debris, wind, waves, and the wash of passing vessels..

Commerce on this section of the Columbia River has increased substantially in recent years, Petroleum products and wood products are the major items, as well as large tonnages of wheat which are expected to be moving on this river. In addition to this, during the salmon-fishing season from May to October, commercial fishing boats operate regularly in this vicinity. The Dalles is also the headquarters for the activities of the United States Coast Guard on the upper Columbia River and for recreational and sports fishing boats.

Local interests greatly desire provision of a protected basin for the mooring of shallow-draft boats at The Dalles and will cooperate fully in furnishing rights-of-way and spoil-disposal areas, as well as constructing public landing and mooring floats within the proposed basin.

Such a basin will assist barge operators in case of storms and offer a needed place for changing crews and taking on supplies. It would assist commercial fishing interests by affording them a place for mak

ing boat repairs, drying and cleaning nets, and increasing the amount of time which could be devoted to actual fishing and, therefore, result in more fish being delivered to the canners. This basin is also needed for the safety and convenience of sports fishing, recreational, excursion, and sightseeing boats.

I am informed that the estimated cost by the district engineer is $76,500 for construction of this basin, and an annual cost of $6,395, and that the annual benefits are estimated at $9,450. The estimated benefits include $1,750 for prevention of damages to existing recreational boats and boathouses regularly moored at The Dalles, $6,200 for its value to commercial fishing operations, and $1,500 for making increased catches of salmon possible, stimulating various boat activities, facilitating United States Coast Guard operations and increasing business activity in the vicinity.

I urge that this project be approved inasmuch as I believe that the port of The Dalles, being at the head of the Bonneville pool, which is the division point between the deep- and shallow-draft channels, and having facilities for the interchange of commerce between highway, railway, and waterway can be expected to have an increasingly important place in navigation activities on the upper Columbia River. A harbor of refuge for the regular use of the smaller local and transient boats which have little ability to weather storms and to resist damage and for serving the commercial fishing boats is clearly needed at The Dalles, as well as for serving tugs and tenders in emergency cases engaged in general freight commerce.

I believe that the expenditure of funds for this basin would be fully justified, and I urge that the project be approved as recommended by the division and district engineers.

Mr. PETERSON of Georgia. If there is nothing further now, we will go back to the Calumet-Sag Channel project, Illinois and Indiana.

(The hearing on this project is printed separately.)

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