German Religious Women in Late Ottoman Beirut: Competing Missions
In German Religious Women in Late Ottoman Beirut. Competing Missions, Julia Hauser offers a critical analysis of the German Protestant Kaiserswerth deaconesses’ establishment in late Ottoman Beirut as situated within the larger field of educational development in the city.
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Origins and Implications of a Mission
LongDistance Empathy and Denominational Competition
Struggling with the Self
Communicating in the Language of Love
Catering to a Diverse Clientele
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4–2 AusgSchw abcfm afksk akd 243 American missionaries Arab Auguste Achelpohl Beirut Berlin boarding school Caroline Fliedner Catholic charges Christian Church clientele colonial conesses consul cultural Curriculum vitae deaconessate deaconesses Disselhoff and Caroline Druzes establishment European Evangelical Evangelische events of 1860 female education French gender Geschichte girls Göttingen Greek Orthodox Ḥaddād Hedwig Francke Höhere Töchterschule Ibid Islam Jahrhundert Jerusalem Jessup Jirjis Johann Hinrich Wichern Julius Disselhoff Kaiserswerth Kayser to Julius language Lebanon Louise Kayser Luise von Trotha Makdisi middle class Middle East missionary motherhouse Muslim nineteenth century non-Protestant one’s organization Oriental orphanage orphans Ottoman Empire Ottoman Syria parents practice Probeschwestern-Register Protestant missions Protestantism Prussian pupils region religion religious reports SchwA sisters social society Sophie Gräff superiors Syria teacher Theodor Fliedner Tibawi Trotha to Julius Trotha to Theodor University Press Western Wilhelm Zoellner Wilhelmina Brück women Zoar Zoar’s ʿArayā