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approach the Kahlenberg, near Vienna, where we shall find a nice horrible story.

Close to the Kahlenberg is a pointed mountain, on which stand the ruins of a convent, founded by a knight named Herrmann, from whom the mountain derives its appellation of “ Herrmannstein.”.

When the convent was in full force, a beautiful nun, who was one of its inhabitants, saw, through a grating, a spruce young huntsman, dressed in green, and with a plume of feathers in his hat. He beckoned her, and she contrived to slip through the convent gate. Many fond meetings took place, and it is said, that the nun was even more anxious to reach the spot of assignation, than the huntsman.

Once he stopped away longer than usual, but when he came he told the nun that he had found a large treasure in a neighbouring forest, and that if she would help him to carry it away, they might both fly from the spot and live together comfortably. The deluded nun followed her lover, but as soon as they had both gone beyond the consecrated precincts of the convent, and had reached the dark wood, the lovely sinner saw a horrible sight.

And what was that ? Why all at once the beloved huntsman rose to a gigantic stature, his hands became claws, his feet were changed to hoofs, the feathers in his hat were converted to horns, and his cloak was transferred to an elegant habiliment composed of bats’-wings. The poor nun fainted, as well she might, on seeing her lover altered so much for the worse, and the hideous demon tore her to pieces. Since that time, people have not much liked the “ Herrmannstein,” for the nun's ghost is in the habit of flitting about the spot, and, what is more unpleasant, is occasionally heard to scream.

Who is not reminded of Bürger's Leonora and her skeleton bridegroom ?


St. George and merry England : 'twas our fathers' cry of old,
That nerved them to those gallant deeds, the minstrels oft have told ;
'Twas the rallying shout at Agincourt when victory was theirs,
And it led then on through Crescy's fight, and nerved them at Poitiers !
St. George and merry England ! 'twas the Paynim's fearful knell,
On the blood-stain'd fields of Ascalon, where hosts unnumber'd fell ;
When the banner of the cross waved high on minaret and tow'r,
And the Moslem bit the dust before the might of Christian pow'r.
St. George and merry England ! 'twas the signal for regale
In stately halls, that echoed oft the sounds of deep wassail;
And the yeoman in his lowlier home would raise the goblet high,
And call upon the patron-saint of England's chivalry.
St. George and merry England! at tournament or joust,
It was the herald's charge to arms-the champion's hope and trust :
And on the scarf the victor wore, the motto was enshrined,
With many a quaint device of love by fairy hands entwined.


Ever since the rich and fertile provinces on the Rio de la Plata, or river of silver, and its great tributaries, the Parana, the Paraguay, and the Uraguay, declared their independence of the mother country, they have been in an almost constant state of anarchy. The chief who could command a few hundred soldiers, frequently commenced a revolution, which, in a few weeks, days, or hours, as the case may be, completely upset the former government, and placed himself temporarily in the seat of supreme power, when he was in his turn expelled. These civil wars have been assuming every year a more bloody and brutal character, and no intervals of repose, in which to draw forth the abundant resources of this most favoured country, have presented themselves by any accident.

The last whom ambition and genius have raised to power—Juan Manuel de Rosas—surpasses even his predecessors in the mixture of cunning and violence, by which he curbs and rules the half-savage people among whom he holds


When this Rosas, so distinguished by his severity, which may, however, originate in part with the character of the people he has to deal with, had consolidated his power at Buenos Ayres, he next turned his attention to the subjugation of the province called Banda Oriental, the capital of which, Monte Video, was torn by civil dissensions. The inhabitants were divided between the two leaders -Don Fructuoso Riviera, and General Orribe—the latter of whom, being worsted and obliged to fly, threw himself into the arms of Rosas, who, with a view to draw Monte Video ostensibly into the Argentine Confederation, but virtually under his own despotic rule, supplied Orribe with men and money, and thus enabled him to overrun the Banda Oriental, and take possession of the whole country, except Monte Video itself, which has now for many years been suffering all the horrors of a prolonged siege. The extent to which the ferocity of civil dissensions are carried being sufficiently attested by the fact, that Orribe has issued a proclamation to the effect that neither life nor property should be respected on the capture of the city.

In the meantime, the English and French governments having guaranteed, by an old treaty, the integrity of the Banda Oriental, Rosas was formally summoned by these governments to withdraw his troops from the territory. As he took no notice of this summons, his squadron, assisting the siege of Monte Video, was taken from him, and a blockade was commenced about the middle of 1845, which has continued-at least, nominally-ever since.

Rosas on his part, in conjunction with Urguieza, governor of the province of Entre Rios, closed the navigation of the great river Parana, by which act, ihe province of Corrientes, under Maderiago, and the independent territory of Paraguay, were alike shut out from water-communication with the coast. In order to force the navigation of the Parana, these states collected a considerable army, which they placed under the command of General Paz, a rival of Rosas, but their efforts were not attended with much success until the mighty, and hitherto in these waters, unheard-of powers of steam, appeared to unfold the beauties and

* Steam Warfare in the Parana: A Narrative of Operations by the Combined Squadrons of England and France in Forcing a Passage up that River. By Commander Mackinnon, R. N., 2 vols. Charles Ollier.

capabilities of these great streams, and to laugh to scorn the formidable preparations of Rosas.

At the commencement of the blockade of Monte Video, that is to say in 1845, three steamers, the Alecto, Harpy, and Lizard, were despatched to join the force under Sir Charles Hotham and Admiral Trehouart. Colonia and the island of Martin Garcia (the key to the united streams) had been previously captured, and the fleet had proceeded up the stream till it was detained by the appearance of heavy works and batteries at Obligado, which were only silenced after an engagement of the most gallant kind. After the successful issue of this battle, the men-of-war proceeded


the river, protecting at the same time a convoy of merchant vessels. This was, however, rendered a task of difficulty and danger by Rosas, who took care to annoy the vessels whenever the channel of the river approached the Argentine shore near enough for artillery to take effect. The two chief batteries were Tonnelero and the Barrancas, or cliffs of San Lorenzo, at both of which several gallant actions took place.

The account given by Commander Mackinnon of the navigation of these great streams by the steamer Alecto, is a most important and interesting publication. It opens a new and almost boundless field to commerce, it at once removes the veil of obscurity that hung over these great and fertile regions, it for ever decides their easy access and the future adaptation of these great streams to steam navigation, and it suggests a thousand new fields of inquiry in all that appertains to civilisation, to geography, and to natural history.

At the time when the Alecto entered the Rio de la Plata, the old system of incessant murders and outrages were going on at Monte Video. Buenos Ayres was blockaded by H. M. brig Racer, while on the other hand, Colonia, which was held by the allies, was so effectually besieged by the enemy that no person could show himself outside of the walls without great risk.

The Parana pours its waters into the Rio de la Plata, by several mouths, and the navigation is, in consequence, at first intricate and difficult. The Alecto threaded its way through numerous little islands, the width of the channel varying from a few hundred yards to a mile. Occasionally the vessel steered close to the trees on one side, then, as the channel varied, shot across to the other. The scene from La Plata was changed, as if by magic, from comparative desolation to the most beautiful, fairy-like prospect it is possible to conceive. The first entrance of the river, Captain Mackinnon says, had a most wonderful effect upon the imagination. The water was smooth as a sylvan lake, while the fragrance of the air, the exquisite verdure of the trees, and the half-submerged jungle, formed a captivating contrast to the wide Atlantic. These islands are very low, covered almost entirely with fruit trees, among which peach and apricot, and in the shade of which grows a very thick and entangled jungle, with here and there large masses covered by long reeds or sedge, and filled with strange aquatic birds.

As the river increased in width, except a beautiful fringe of trees on each bank, beyond was a boundless plain of vivid green, upon every

little plot of ground rising from which a clump of trees shot up. As they emerged into these vast savannahs, the feature that most struck the imagination was the awful, almost speaking solitude. This, however, was soon

broke upon by the Pamparos, which resembled, in their intensity, their brief duration, and other phenomena, the hurricanes of the West Indies. Captain Mackinnon says he held out a new silk kerchief to the storm, which was torn to shreds in a moment.

Large flocks of paroquets and other small birds were feeding upon the abundant fruit of the passion-flower. A party having landed to procure some of these, they were severely stung by large flying ants, which flew at them from nests hanging from the branches of the trees.

At nighttimes lizards and insects made the most varied and extraordinary noises. Mosquitoes were most annoying; at times so much so, as to be quite insufferable, and to produce serious illness and inconvenience among the ship’s crew.

Before reaching San Pedro, the Alecto was joined by the Firebrand. The latter town was seen about three miles' distance on the savannahs. The enemy's cavalry was likewise seen with the glasses, appearing to be quite astonished to see two great, black, smoking machines, going swiftly up their river and against the current. The steamers arrived the same evening at the dismantled batteries of Obligado. It must be a matter of regret to learn that these batteries were served chiefly by Englishmen. The appearance of the enemy in the distance was very picturesque, as they were continually galloping about in their red ponchos and caps. Immense troops of horses and cattle were feeding in the immediate vicinity, but, alas ! out of reach of the hungry sailors. The moment an attempt was made to cut out any of these animals, hordes of wild cavalry immediately sprang up in all directions and drove them inland.

As the Alecto proceeded on her way up the river, the same countless herds of cattle and horses were everywhere seen grazing upon

the boundless savannahs. Occasionally an estancia, or farm-house, generally a miserable hovel, was passed. The ground was beautifully diversified by clumps of trees. Carpinchos, or river-hogs, abounded; and wild turkeys and other birds were seen close at hand. It is needless to describe the slaughter made from the paddle-boxes and gang-ways by the officers' rifles and guns. The game thus procured was a very welcome addition to the daily fare.

The beauty of the scenery was rendered more engaging by the novelty and constant changes which the rapid progress of steam continually brought before them. At length they descried a body of the enemy's cavalry taking guns down to a low, sandy cliff, which they would have to pass within 400 or 500 yards, and a white puff of smoke from the mouth of the first gun visible, announced the commencement of an action. The shot had not reached the ship before it was returned by the Alecto's thirty-twos, and the firing became general. The Alecto ultimately passed out of shot, having been twenty-five minutes under fire, and not without receiving some severe injuries and having several men wounded, in return for which, so advantageous was the enemy's position, that they appear to have punished them little if at all ; the batteries having given a similar reception to the Firebrand as it came up in the wake of the Alecto.

A vidette, or patrol, of the enemy's cavalry, kept company with the steamer from General Moncillia's encampment, which they passed about six miles from the batteries, and which the Firebrand afterwards dispersed by throwing a few of her large shells into it, to Rosario, where it was relieved. The greatest forbearance was shown to these horsemen, who might have been easily put to flight, but with whom, on the contrary, a kind of intimacy was established. As they advanced, the islands became more elevated, and the channel approached the cliffs, which terminated in the formidable battery, called that of San Lorenzo, the last point in the Argentine dominions. San Rosas' preparations were not, however, yet completed, and the Alecto passed with a mere exchange of musketry, the firing of a few guns, and the very successful discharge of a rocket, which alone dispersed a body of cavalry, and set a farm-house in a blaze. A hurricane that came on immediately after this skirmish, was preceded by an extraordinary flight of locusts, which came upon them like a cloud.

The next day the Alecto arrived at Parana, speaking the French corvette Coquette on the way, and casting anchor close to H.M. ships Philomel and Dolphin. Parana is the capital of Entre Rios, and on the left bank about three or four leagues up a creek, is the city of Santa Fé, capital of the province of that name. Sir Charles Hotham had gone up as far as he could in the Gorgon, and had then proceeded in the prize schooner Obligado to Corrientes. General Paz was also retreating before Urquieza, so that poor Alecto had to go up with the cliffs again in possession of an enemy:

On the first day's journey the Alecto reached the spoś where the Gorgon and the Fanny, tender, were lying. The tender was made fast to the Alecto, to be towed up the river at a reduced speed. Captain Sulivan, of the Philomel, had charge of the pilotage. This was now the twelfth day of steaming to the utmost of the Alecto's power and speed. The country began to assume a more tropical character, and the heat likewise to increase. The vegetation also became darker and more luxuriant, and the river alternated between a clear channel with elevated banks and most perplexing labyrinths of islands. At times, again, the river expanded into open shallow lakes of several miles in width. At night time the seine or net was hauled with immense success, as the river swarmed with the finny tribe, and fresh water gulls were bagged by the men by hundreds. Stately palms were now becoming plentiful, and wherever á landing was effected the sand was found completely covered by foot-prints of tigers, some of enormous size. Clumps of bamboos also now adorned the river's edge, monkeys were seen in the forests, and the Guarani Indians lit their fires where the latter was partly cleared.

As the Alecto proceeded upwards it passed a number of the merchantmen who had come up under convoy, and who were suffering much for want of fresh meat. The steamer took some of their boats in tow, up to a large estancia well stocked with cattle, where plenty of provisions were obtained. They were now in the friendly province of Corrientes. Large clusters or clumps of orange-trees were frequent. On the 18th of February, the Alecto having struck upon a shoal, Captain Mackinnon landed, and with difficulty discovered a village, whence horses were obtained to carry on the mail to Corrientes, a distance of thirty-two leagues.

The gallant captain had a long and a rough ride before him. He was accompanied only by two men as an escort and a guide. The horses were at first but wretched animals. Occasional troops of banditti diversified the scene, which otherwise appears to have been made up of

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