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like to know, that she's to toss her airs in that way! I'd have her to know that my lady rode in her coach while hers was going in clogs.”

“ I'm sure my lady's as good as hers any day," pouted Catherine Spark, who wore a most improbable bustle under a fly-away blue gauze, trimmed with cherry-coloured satin riband. And so they sneered, and scoffed, and turned their

noses, mented on the saucy girl's coming dressed in such a way, with the most marked disgust and reprobation.

Their looks did not leave much doubt on the fair Lucy's mind as to what their feelings were ; accordingly, she determined to make the most of her triumph, and to dance to the utmost of her ability. She therefore ducked, and bounced, and stotted and floated, and twirled about the room, now spreading out her clothes with both hands, as if she was airing them ; now whisking them round with a velocity that brought certain under garments in painful contrast with the white upper one. Monsieur, too, aided her endeavour by placing and showing her off to the greatest advantage, and though dearly fond of dancing himself, he seemed to have as much pleasure in leading his fair partner forth to the envy, if not the admiration of the room, as he had in pirouetting and skipping himself. So they bounded and bounced through the old first set of quadrilles.

Though Miss Lucy could not but feel that the way in which Monsieur conducted her into the quadrille was both elegant and respectful, still she would have preferred a little more familiarity; accordingly, having lurched out behind again at the conclusion of the quadrille, instead of presenting him with the tips of her fingers to be conducted to her chaperone, Mrs. Toddey, Lucy thrust her well-shaped arm into his and said " Let's have a glass of negus.

Now the negus always stood on the table by the door, and as we have before observed the elegant couple had occupied the place of honour at the top of the room, consequently this trajet for the refreshment included the promenade of the whole room, and most haughtily condescending was the style in which she swept past the envious and exasperated observers, her swan-like neck making gentle ovations to such of them as came more immediately in her way.

When they accomplished the door the negus hadn't come, and seeing Mrs. Toddey elbowing her way on the left, the Dame Blanche having wheeled her swain to the right, timidly requested him that he would have the kindness to conduct her to her chaperone.

De la Tour, like all the “grande nation,” was a man of gallantry, and having satisfied himself, as well during the dance as in his subsequent inspection, that there was nothing more attractive, and at all events more distingué in the room, he begged for the honour of a second dance, and that being accorded and the negus having come, the two were presently seen sitting under the orchestra, sipping and chatting away as familiarly as possible.

We are quite sure that no one at all acquainted with the French nation and with English servants will doubt for a moment that the conversation very soon turned on their masters and mistresses. There is nothing can compare with the garrulity of a Frenchman save the loquacity of English servants. Meet a Frenchman in a diligence, and ere you have travelled a post you are into the secrets of his whole family, and menage-English

servants are ashamed not to be able to tell all the “ins and outs” of the family in which they live.

The superior dress and pretension of Miss Lucy caused a doubt in Monsieur's mind whether she was in service or belonging to the more exalted region of commerce—a Miss Cheesemonger--a Miss Greengrocer—a Miss Poulterer, or something of that sort; accordingly, having expatiated on the delights of Paris, and the mountains of money possessed by his “me Lor," he hazarded the inquiry " who her governor voz ?"

This procured the desired information, and he followed up the announcement of the name Dooey, by observing, “Sans doubte, he shall be a me lor.”

“No, not a miller," laughed Lucy, “ a hop merchant."

“Ah! op merchant, op merchant, op merchant,” repeated the little man, “ah, yes !" continued he, “je comprende, I understand, vot ve call 'maitre de danse' in I'rance,” continued he, shuffling about his feet as he spoke,“ vare good-vare nice—love de maitre de danse.”

“No! no!" laughed Lucy, "not a dancing-master-a great dealer in hops-hops what they make beer of, you know,” thinking to advance her own importance with her master's.

“o quelle horreur!” exclaimed the Frenchman, shrugging up his shoulders and throwing out his hands, “quelle horreur!" repeated he, as if he was thoroughly disgusted,“ op merchant! 0! de dem shopkeeper! 0, de dem base mechanic !"



Cling to those who cling to you ;

More than half our sorrow's made
When we are ourselves untrue

To the light of friendship's aid;
But how sweet it is to own

Some kind heart to thine beat true,
After many years have flown :-

Cling to those who cling to you!
Cling to those who cling to you ;

Think how those who live apart,
That sweet solace never knew

Friendship sheds around the heart;
Who is there that hath not long'd

Once to find some friend prove true?
That your friendships be prolong’d-

Cling to those who cling to you !
Cling to those who cling to you!

Every link of friendship's chain,
If the heart be only true,

Will for ever bright remain ;
Never be the first to break

In the chain the link that's true,
Never trust and truth forsake

Cling to those who cling to you!



The Antagonism of the Strong to the Weak-March of the Turks against the

Cha'b Arabs-Anxiety concerning an English Man-of-War lying off Mohammerah-Proceedings of the French Consul at Bassora-Capture and Sack of the Port-A Pacific Tailor-Remonstrances of the Persians-An Ambassador cudgelled-Sheikh of the Bawis shot,The Cha'b Country invaded by the Persians—The Persians repulsed on the Hedyphon-Are more successful on the Eulæus-Capture of Mohammerah and of Fellahiyah-Flight and Death of Sheikh Thamar-Mixed Political Commission at Erzrum.

The fact that no little state can exist for any length of time in contact with a more powerful neighbour, attests more plainly than any exposition of the possible tendencies of a more liberal commercial system, or even of a more refined civilisation, the proneness of human nature to dominion and of nations to war. Of the desirableness, the importance, the duty of peace there cannot be a moment's doubt. Christianity enjoins it, selfinterest and national prosperity are alike concerned in it; literature, the arts and sciences can alone flourish under its protection, but such a thing is not.

From the time that the Israelites annexed upon their first rise, the dominions of the Jebusites and the Philistines, that Assyria, Greece, and Rome exhibited the same principles, which, occasionally dormant, ever and anon awake only with the more fearful energy, to our own times, in which we have witnessed the annexations of Poland, of Algeria, of Scind, and of Texas, which also as certainly involve those of Turkey, of Morocco, of the Punjaub, and of Mexico, there has ever been a repetition of the same thing over and over again. The parties alone change. The Saracens once waved the banner of the prophet in the heart of Spain. Now France can cage the “ Desert Hawk.” The Spaniards once over-ran the New World, now the Anglo-Saxon race tramples upon their lethargy and corruption. History attests, in fact, in the most distinct manner, that no nation can exist long, but when its power is adequate to uphold its independence. This not only applies itself to little states, which may sometimes, as in Germany, be upheld by the bond of a political confederation, but also to nations at large. Good men may argue the necessity or the probability of peace upon a variety of just and honourable grounds. Experience of the past, and events still buried in the womb of time will be always against them. It is in vain that economists and merchants, and pious men alike condemn the expenses, or the absurdity, or the wrongfulness of war ; whenever one nation becomes weaker than another, the more powerful will find an occasion for rupture and invasion. The same nation that has witnessed the onslaught of the Saxon, the Roman, and the Norman, may, in the hey-day of its prosperity, if lulled by a philosophy which is not based upon the experience of the past, witness the triumph of the Frank.

It is humiliating to turn from such contemplations forced upon us by the voluntary blindness of the few, who imagine the perfection that they wish, and who obscure by the lustre of their own purity the latent wicked

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ness of man, to facts of a very insignificant order, as far as power or numbers are concerned, but in which the same universal principle is as clearly manifested as in cases of greater magnitude and importance. The lesson taught us is, indeed, every where the same. I gave, in a previous paper, the history of a race of Arabs, long time independent, who although several times invaded from without, had still managed to keep up for nigh five centuries, a position of more or less varying and uncertain vassalage, on a tract of land, isolated by the great rivers Euphrates and Eulous, and by certain of their tributaries and outlets.

I also described how, in company with others, a visit was effected to the sheikh, or chieftain, of the tribe, who resided in a small town, with citadel and palace that was perfectly marsh environed, and which was further indebted for its prosperity to a very remarkable system of irrigation, such, as in the present day, has, perhaps, scarcely a parallel.

The French consul at Bassora, alarmed at this visit paid to the sheikh of the Cha’bs by a party of English officers, concocted a note pregnant with mischief and wicked import, in which he argued and pretended to

stablish to over-willing minds, the indisputable rights of the Turks over this unfortunate little state. M. Raymond, the dragoman of the French consulate, and Ibrahim Agha, the janissary, were at once despatched from Bassora to Baghdad, with the important mission of delivering this despatch into the hands of a sensual and ambitious satrap of the East.

The manner in which this mission, of a delicate and refined diplomacy, was performed, is so illustrative of the character of the parties concerned, that I cannot refuse myself the pleasure of placing it on record in the consul's own words.

“M. Raymond had taken care to include a few bottles of brandy among the ostensible presents destined for his excellency. his quarters with Soliman Effendi, the pasha's secretary, whom he had known at Baghdad. In the evening, he plied his host with drink till he was tipsy, and made him divulge all his master's affairs ; next day, he sent him to announce his arrival to the pasha, and instructed him to drop a hint that his stock of spirits was not exhausted, as this was likely to ensure him a gracious reception. Nor was he mistaken. Ali Pasha sent for him immediately, treated him with attention, and, at last, honoured him with the calvet, or a private audience. The other persons present withdrew, and my note was then communicated. Its contents seemed to please him.

“On the re-admission of the public, Ibrahim Agha caused my presents of sweetmeats and confectionery to be brought. The pasha directed his attendants to give my janissary a robe of honour. Ibrahim expostulated, and expressed his surprise at the pasha's seeking to overload him with clothes, in such hot weather. He reminded his excellency that he had previously received a similar robe at Kornah, and that it was not worth much ; that he did not want another, but that money would be more acceptable. His wishes were complied with, but as the coffers of the pasha were empty, M. Raymond had to lend his excellency's secretary about forty francs to complete the present to Ibrahim Agha, who received in all about a hundred francs (41.)”

But this was not all that the janissary of the French consulate was capable of performing for his master. He had an eye to the empty condition of the consulate kitchen, where, when not acting as janissary,

He took up

Ibrahim Agha was often cook. For the French are at once proud and economical in their consular establishments. Plurality of offices does not signify there monopoly so much as retrenchment.

“ These political occupations did not by any means divert the attention of the worthy Ibrahim from other matters. As a Turk, he paid visits to many of the Aïtas, and congratulated them on the rich harvest which they had reaped. It was not right, in his opinion, that a brother in arms who chanced to meet them, after such a wind-fall, should leave them emptyhanded. By appeals of this sort, he contrived to collect kettles, saucepans, coffee-pots, and other copper utensils, which, he said, were wanting in his own kitchen. He honoured Sarkosh Pasha with a visit, and observing a quantity of corn heaped up in the court, begged of his excellency to allow him to take some of it for his domestic use. His request was granted. Thereupon, he hired a boat, and waiting for an opportunity when the pasha was from home, carried off the entire stock.”

Thus prompted and abetted, Ali Pasha started on his expedition, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Colonel Taylor, the British resident at Baghdad, and who is reported by the French consul to have backed his exhortations by an offer of 24,0001. to the pasha to induce him to forego his intentions !

The strength of the army was estimated somewhat as follows :--the regular troops, under the command of Sarkosh Pasha (the drunken pasha), amounted to about 2000 men ; the regular cavalry to about 1500; and this, with mounted Arabs, and the pasha's immediate attendants and body guard, made altogether a force of from 4500 to 6000 men of all arms, and which also included the service of six field pieces.

All the boats on the river were taken forcible possession of for the transport of the heavy weights and commissariat ; the inhabitants were hunted down to be made sailors of ; a supply of provisions was obtained by the pillage of warehouses ; and thus provided, the army advanced along the left bank of the river by easy marches, while the flotilla dropped down under its protection.

Some delay occurred at Kornah in transporting the troops across the River Tigris, and the army next encamped for a short time at no great distance from Bassora, at a spot where three Arabs, brothers and merchants, had built an edifice, which served at once as a country house and a fortress. One of the Honourable East India Company's cruisers happened at this time to be lying at Mohammerah, the healthiest, safest, and most commodious port in the Euphrates, the presence of this vessel gave the pasha so much uneasiness, that he sent for the instigator of the invasion—the French Consul at Bassora–to consult with hiin as to the possible interference of the English, and what he should do under the circumstances. The advice given by the French Consul is best conveyed in his own words, more especially as illustrative of that kindly, honourable feeling which some would insist upon as being entertained by the French towards the English.

“ I gave him my opinion in the most unreserved manner, although I knew

very well that it would be repeated elsewhere. The conduct of the English Resident had offended me, and, moreover, I was extremely dissatisfied to see the English treat this country as if it really were a dependency of the East India Company's. I assured his excellency aloud, and in full divan, that he, having been intrusted with the government of the

March.-VOL. LXXXII. NO. cccxxvII.


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