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wach disease, it is equally impossiblo thereby to determine their specification.
Nor if such trials in disease were possible, could they kave any more instructive effect than it would have to try the odors or sapid qualities of bodies by applying them to the organs of smell or taste, when similarly deranged. Moreover, by trying medicines in disease, not only is the immediate susceptibility, but the consequent sympathy of the organs infinitely varied, even in relation to the same substance. Accordingly, says Hahnemann, the re-action of the diseased frame generally induces such complicated phenomena, that it is almost impossible to unravel them, for either there is no change, or there follows deterioratioủ, variation, improvement, recovery or death, without the greatest practical genius being able to discover the preciso part which the disease or the remedy may havo had in the result. If to this, too, is added the incongruous and often conflicting nature of the ingredients of which remedies are generally composed, the difficulty would appear altogether insurmountable.
There is, he says, no other infallible or natural way of discovering the proper effects of medicaments on the human constitution, than trying them on healthy persons, and observing what changes result from these experiments in the state of the body and mind, or what artificial disease the medicaments are capable of producing.
Mode of experiment to determine these powers. . Hahnemann, accordingly, and his friends, Stapf, Hart. mann, Gross, Hornburg, Wahle, Muller, etc., submitted themselves to a course of experiments, continued during above twenty years; and this method, with little alteration, may here be given, as at once showing the great care they bestowed, and serving as an example for all who are resolved experimentally to determine the truths of homeopathy.
In such experiments, as the action of each and every substance varies according to sex, age, and constitution, it is expedient to experiment on as many persons as possible, and to try each substance in various doses, and under various conditions. The essential conditions of these experiments are, that the experimentors be in perfect health;. that they scrupulously adhere to diet which is merely nutritious, and no way pathogenetic; that they carefully avoid the use of fermented liquors, wine, spirits, spices of every kind, coffee, strong tea, acids, fruits, and all vegetables possessing medicinal qualities, except those of a farinaceous and mild description; that they shun all fatigue, bodily and mental, all excess and even excitement; and that they proviously note overy habitual symptom by which they are affected.
As to medicines, those only must be used which are genuine, pure, and of well marked action. Each must be given in a perfectly simple form: nor during the experiment must any thing else of a medical kind bo used.
It must be borne in mind, that some medicines act powerfully, even in small doses, and others only in large ones; as well as that the torpidity and dullness, or the delicacy and susceptibility of the constitution of the person experimented upon (both, generally, and as to the particular modicines,) must be duly considered in estimating the result in relation to medical practice. As, however, it is impossible previous to experiment, to know the susceptibility or torpidity of the person experimented upon, it is right always to begin with a small dose. This may be' taken every night, three hours after the last meal, or every morning, three hours before the first meal, and gradually increased till its action is determined. To increase such action, the dose must be more rapidly increased.
All this being done, overy modification of health may fairly be noted down as resulting from the pathogenetic action of the drug employed.
It is nocessary to note the time of taking the drug, upon what texture or organ it acts, at what hour the symptom shows itself, what altercations it induces, what modifications its action suffers from waking, sleeping, moving, resting, eating, drinking, moral emotions, intelleclual aetivity, confined or open air, atmospheric changes, the different times of day, and the changes of seasons, what influ. ence sex, temperament, moral and intellectual character, age, and constitution has over it, and how long it lasts.
Thoroughly to know the medicine, it should be tried both in large and small doses; the degree of re-action it causes in each should be noticed; the relation which subsists between the action of various substances, should be observed; and their consequent power of diminishing or neutralizing each other should be investigatod.
If, before the termination of any experiment, thero occurs any circumstance modifying the result, it must be broke off, and begun anow. It will easily be understood, that, in making experiments on a hoalthy person, there are limits which cannot be passed without endangering life.
The value of a materia medica thus constructed, is evi; dent.
Conclusions drawn from these experiments., The conclusions have been,
1. That all medicinal substances, administered in adequate doses to healthy. individuals, disturb the functions more or less, in proportion to their power.
2. That this action produces two series of symptomsprimary or direct, appearing soon after taking the substance, and secondary or indirect,
In the primary symptoms, each group, modified by idiosyncrasy, forms a peculiar medicinal disease.
Among these symptoms, some are peculiarly characteristic of the medicament. Their duration depends on The latter; and, in employing them, care is to be taken that they correspond to the characteristic of the disease. To the primary or direct action of the medicine, the secondary indirect action succeeds, or when the former has been strong or feeble, the latter corresponds.
3. The consequence of the direct action of some other substances, is an alternation of symptoms of opposite character, apparently indicating oscillatory movements, between the primary, direct, or pathogenetic, and the secondary, indirect, or curative effects; and this oscillation is, perhaps, only legs apparent in some cases than in others.
4. Substances differ as to the time of producing symptoms in the morning, in the evening, or at night.
5. In proportion to the similarity of organization, is the similarity of pathogenetic, and consequently of the curative effects of similar doses.
6. Those effects are accidental which are not found to be constant in the greater number of persons: those are certain which are few, and nearly the same in all; and to determine this, an analysis of many cases is necessary.
7. Medicaments, in their pathogenetic effects, follow fixed and eternal laws, produce certain and positive symptoms, and when well applied, afford infallible remedial means.
Consistently with all this, Hahnemann says each medicament changes health, in a particular manner; and we are not permitted to confound one with the other. For that