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TO

FORMERLY RESORTED
BIA,

IN SOME

INSTANCES

AMOUNTING

TO

After having been purchased from tribute to an UNDUE INFLUENCE gainthe native Princes, this timber is puted by the merchants of the former on board the ships, principally by the place, through the medium of the labour of Kroomen. Of these un- presents dispensed from Sierra Leone happy people, who yet remain, without by the Colonial Government. Those a single exception, in their native dark presents, they say, though designed to and barbarous state, the Commission- induce the Chiefs of the golden districts ers, p. 17, state—“ It has not been the

to favour commerce generally, have had fate of the Kroomen to have much in- practically the effect of turning to tercourse with the individuals who Sierra Leone the gold traders who were likely to bestow much pains upon

THE GAMtheir moral and religious improvement; No presents being made from ON THE CONTRARY, they have been this place, it becomes the interest of employed chiefly by Those to whom the Chiefs to use THEIR AUTHORITY they have been recommended by their in promoting the trade of the other PHYSICAL CAPACITIES AND DISPOSI- settlement, from which they derive TION FOR LABOUR. It could not, the greatest advantage ; this authority, therefore, be expected that much time or attention would be bestowed upon FORCE, has, according to the statethe improvement of their mind by such ment of the Gambia merchants, been persons, who, although they find it exerted greatly to their prejudice !” profitable to employ them in preference The sums charged against, and to others, acknowledge their UTTER drawn from, the British Treasury, and WANT of morality and religion !!” expended in these presents, are, we

How often, I am here compelled learn from the Commissioners, p. 86, to remark, have the West Indian Co- between the years 1814 and 1825, lonists been reproached, unjustly re- L.9,945, 15s. 10d. sterling, while the proached, and by Mr Z. Macaulay, vouchers that were produced could with considering and estimating their only show L.6,928, 6s. 8d.!! Those slaves only according to "their phy. large sums were expended in presents sical capacities and disposition to la- to the native Chiefs in the interior, bour," while his agents and his house as the Commissioners and merchants are really pursuing the same system of St Mary's very pointedly state, by with the Kroomen !!

the Colonial Government, as directed The Gold Trade of Sierra Leone is by Mr Kenneth Macaulay ; and who, next in importance to the timber trade. by this “ undue influence," drew, not Let us see in whose hands it is, and only the gold trade, but the most vahow those hands came to obtain the luable branches of every other trade, whole of it.

to his house ; for, say the Commission“ The trade in this article," say ers, p. 83, the merchants there “ the Commissioners, p. 79, “is of re- cribe the superior success of what they cent origin, having commenced in term THEIR FIRST HOUSE, to the pos1822 ; and if the opinion generally en- session of more extensive means, as tertained by the OTHER MERCHANTS well as to what they consider an unbe correct, it is chiefly possessed at

derived by THE THE FIRM OF MESSRS AGENT of this house from his seat in MACAULAY AND BABBINGTON ; that the Council. The feeling of jealousy house must, therefore, be considered entertained on this account by the most capable of estimating the quan- other merchants, appears to be not tity exported. Mr K. Macaulay com- ILL FOUNDED.” putes it to have been to the value of Thus, sir, we have seen developed between L.20,000 and L.30,000 dur- the secret of the increase of the Sierra ing the year 1825," &c. How that Leone trade so loudly and so often house come to be masters of the gold bruited abroad in this country from trade, let the merchants of St Mary's, certain sources—a trade which, while Gambia, through the Commissioners, one concern obtains L.100,000 in gold

“ The merchants of St at the expense of the profits and the Mary's” assert, “ that in proportion exertions of less favoured merchants, as the gold trade of Sierra Leone has that honest, simple, plodding ass, Joan increased, that of Bathurst has DIMI- BULL, pays L.10,000 out of his pocket

This circumstance they at- to enable them to obtain it!!

as

DUE

ADVANTAGE

PRESENT

BY

p. 79, tell.

NISHED

IN SOME INSTANCES IT
INEXCUSABLY TO HAVE

APPEARS

Let all these facts be considered, Macaulay, page 59, “I have myself and say wherein I have misrepresent- seen a Maroon, a Nova Scotia settler, ed the situation, or brought one false the son of a native chief, a Grumetaccusation, or one erroneous charge, tu,* a Krooman, and a liberated Afriagainst Sierra Leone, or those who as- can, working in the same GANG. They sume the control of it. To Blacken are confined by a chain passing round it is impossible.

the MIDDLE ; and generally two, someThat the liberated Africans in the times three, but I believe seldom or place are compelled to work by the never more, are fastened to the same application of the whip, has been sta- chain !" ted. I am ready, and offer, to prove This country has been surfeited the fact. The Commissioners indi- with the boasts about the advantages rectly admit this, when, in page 55,

which the liberated and other Afrithey state, that to make them work, cans enjoy under the blessings of

some mild coercive power seemis English law in Sierra Leone. The necessary. But this power should whole is a farce. The Commissioners not be, as

draw aside the veil of delusion. At

page 91, they state, “when it is asBEEN, LEFT IN THE HANDS OF PER- serted that 'the English laws are uniSOXS LIKELY TO ABUSE IT." I hold versally in practice,' it is to be underin my hands a communication from stood that they are in practice, but the place, dated the 28th May last, modified by the dispensers of them, which runs thus : “ Those liberated so as to meet the general circumstances Africans that are obliged to work for of the colony, and THEIR OWN VIEW the public good, are employed in car- of the merits of each particular case!!” rying stones, or bricks, for public That is, men who are totally ignorant buildings ; or learning some trade, as of what law is, make it what, and apmasonry, and shingling house-tops, ply it just as they please ! Under such or the like, and require to be kept a state of things, the Commissioners to their labour, by the dread of the justly and forcibly observe, “the law uhip ; even under this discipline I must, for a long time, be so only IN HAVE SEEN THEM idling when the NAME!!"__"A certain control is reeye of the whipper-in was turned in quisite to prevent their" (the libeanother direction. This man of the rated Africans) return to their forcord is a black invariably. I have mer habits. This control is, in fact, at often seen one in the wharf when a PRESENT EXERCISED ; and, although vessel was unloading, with THE CAT tending eventually to their good, must IN HIS HAND, and I have asked him be quite AT VARIANCE with the spirit what use he made of it. I received for of the English law,” &c. Thus the reply-Suppose THE SLAVE no work Sierra Leone bubble is burst, and good, you know, I can flog him.' This thus the truth concerning it comes, he said with a savage pleasure, and piecemeal, as it were, to light ! accompanied the words with a smile, That such a place could ever do any and flourish of his whip! What is good, even to degraded Africa, is a this better than slavery ? or is it as dream ; and that it has been a fatal good treatment as the slaves in the one to the interests of Africa we learn West Indies receive under the present from one decided and incontrovertible administration ! !"

fact mentioned by the Commissioners, The whip and chain, it is clear, are p. 19, namely, that though their tercommon in Sierra Leone.

ritory almost lines with the gardens of nishment for minor crimes,” say the Freetown, still " no instance could be Commissioners, in page 58, is “hard traced of a Timmanee having been labour in chains. It is by no means CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY. This, uncommon at Freetown to see thirty however, cannot be attributed to any or forty culprits CHAINED IN PAIRS, invincible attachment to their present and employed in a desultory kind of superstitions, as many are said to have labour," &c.; and, says Mr Kenneth become converts to the Mahommedan

1 The pu

A GRUMETTA is the African name for a household slave, or a slave born in the family. How come such to be found at Sierra Leone?

faith, which is supposed to be igaking and, secondly, the sums of money considerable progress among them.' which have been paid for the value, These poor people are to this day the for the bounty, and for the maintemost ignorant and rude of all the nance of captured negroes. It is netribes of Western Africa, although cessary, however, to remark, that the they have been near 40 years in sight sums paid for the maintenance of of the light established in Sierra Leone! these idlers in the West Indies, can

The ignorarce of the liberated Afri- not be accurately ascertained from can is extreme. “His age, the length any returns which have yet been proof time he has resided in the colony or duced ; and therefore the undivided the village, the quantity of land be estimates, or sums drawn, are taken as has in cultivation, of seed which he the data to bring out the total amount. sows, of produce which he reaps, or Moreover, the details under the heads, the number of months and weeks which the Army, the Ordnance, and the Barhe is employed in its cultivation,” are rack Department, do not particularize all, say the Commissioners, equally Sierra Leone; consequently under these unknown to him. Time he only com- heads, the expenditure is incomplete. putes by accidents or particular erents, What are produced, however, with such as when he built his house, or he official and particular references, will, gan the cultivation of a certain piece I doubt not, astonish you and the of land, hy stating who was his super- country in general. intendent at the time. Few of them, The forts on the Gold Coast were, says Vr Gerber, page 43, “ will la- by the advice of the Sierra Leone adbour upon their farins, unless they vocates, made dependencies upon that were by some means FORCED TO DO fatal place in 1821. From that year, so!" To reclaim them, we send a set therefore, let us trace the expenditure, of men about as ignorant of human civil, military, and naval, of the princenature, and as deficient in common ly place. The Quarterly Review (good sense, as themselves ; in consequence authority) states the expenditure unof which we have laboured, and still der the naval head to be HALF A MILlabour, in vain.

Lion annually! The whole of this Were it possible to bring together expenditure is properly charged against the enormous sums of money which Sierra Leone, because the navy staSierra Leone and its miserable depen- tioned on the coast of Africa is altodencies, together with those which li- gether employed in capturing slave berated Africans, in various places, and ships, and bringing these into that in various ways, have cost this coun- settlement, in order to people and to try, the sum total would fill it with enrich it. But for this, it is clear astonishment and indignation. But that Sierra Leone had long since been this can only be done by those who abandoned, as the few whites, Mahave access to all the details of every roons, and Kroomen, who remain there, public account which has been liqui- remain only to make money by their dated by the British Treasury during dealings with and for the captured the last thirty-five years :-—nay, so negroes. Besides the expensive Slave numerous are the charges for these Commissions in different places, we purposes, and so much are they inter- have had Commissions of Inquiry, woven with the accounts of every de- such as that to the West Indies, to partment, in every year during the inquire into the state of the Africans period mentioned, that I doubt if all liberated there. Each of these comthe clerks in the employ of Govern- missions cost this country many thoument could now draw them forth. sands annually — the latter above Special funds have even been created L.3000, and the former upwards of for this and similar purposes, where L.18,000. With these observations I the amount, without the details, are proceed to the details of the expenonly given. Referring to my first diture, &c., for the period alluded to; letter for a general view of this expen- remarking, that brevity compels me diture, I shall bring before you and to omit the full particulars of the first the public, from a more narrow re- four years; but they are drawn up search into public records ; first, the from the same careful reference to the expenditure of Sierra Leone and its Parliamentary Papers for each year, dependencies for the last seven years ; as is done with the three last years :

Expenditure, 1821.

Expenditure, 1823. Naval, L.500,000 0 0

Naval, L.500,000 0 0 Sundries, 184,521 16 14

Sundries,

180,794 5 41 Total, L.684,521 16 17

Total,

L.680,794 5 41
Expenditure, 1822.

Expenditure, 1824.
Naval, L.500,0000 0

Naval,

L.500,000 00
Sundries, 176,126 14 8}

Sundries, 197,980 16 41
Total, L.676,126 14 81

Total, L.697,980 16 43
1825.--From Parliamentary Papers, 1825.
Naval Expenditure, Quart. Rev.

L.500,000 0 0 Army Estimates, Pap. No. 31 of 1825, p. 20. Pay Staff and Medical Officers,

2,868 14 7 Army Extraordinaries, Pap. 61 of 1826, pp. 3, 4, 9, 11, and 13, sundries,

87,319 16 11 Commissariat Estimates, Pap. 23 of 1825, p. Pay Officers, 2,669 1 3 Commissaries' Accounts, Pap. 62 of 1825, p. 61, Sierra Leone, &c.

L.28,736 0 21 P. 61. Provided in England,

16,419 2 7 16,419 2 77

L.45,155 2 10 Ordnance Estimates, Pap. 35 of 1825, pp. 13 and 21, sundries,

303 0 0 P. 36, supplies to Liberated Africans, Sierra Leone,

10,000 0 0 Miscellaneous Estimates, Pap. 29, No. 4 of 1825, p. 6, Captured Negroes, free Americans,

46,000 0 0 P.7, Slave Commissions, L.17,425,

7,200 0 0 Miscellaneous Estimates, Pap. 30, No. 5 of 1825, pp. 5 and 7, Civil Establishments,

29,162 2 0 Page 8, Military, ditto, provided in England,

33,781 2 5 Expenditure, 1825, · L.735,722 1994

1826.-From Parliamentary Papers, 1826. Naval Expenditure, Quart. Rev.

L.500,000 0 0 Army Estimates, Pap. 43 of 1826, p. 17, Staff and Medical Officers,

4,008 18 4 Commissariat Estimate, Pap. 57 of 1826, p. 3, Officers' Store Branch,

2,750 3 9 Ordnance Estimates, Pap. 25 of 1826, pp. 11, 20, 37, 42, and 47, sundries,

28,760 00 Commissaries' Accounts, Pap. 60 of 1826, p. 61, Sierra Leone, &c.,

L.43,302 5 11 Provided in England,

19,180 16 84 19,180 1681

L.62,483 2 73 P. 71, Gold Coast sundries,

L.45,896 15 9 Provided in England,

3,745 19 7

L.49,642 15 44 49,642 15 41
Accounts Commissariat, Pap. 60 of 1826, p. 65, Gold
Coast, 1823,

L.8,109 15 5}
Provided in England,

532 2 8

L.8,641 18 11 8,641 18 14
Commissaries' Accounts, Pap. 65, of 1826, p. 67, Gold
Coast, 1823,

L.10,602 7 8
Provided in England,

1,737 17 8
L.12,340 5 4 12,310 5 45

Army Extraordinaries, Pap. 59 of 1826, pp. 3, 4, 14, 13, 16, and 16, sundries,

120,515 6 1 Miscellaneous Estimates, Pap. 86 of 1826, p. 6, liberated Africans, free Americans,

35,000 0 0 P. 7, Slave Commissions, L.18,000,

7,000 0 0 Miscellaneous Estimates, Pap. 156 of 1826, pp. 6 and 7, Civil Establishments,

27,420 19 10 Pp. 6 and 7, Military do. do. (Army Account)

33,161 15 5 P. 9, Clothing, tools, &c. liberated Africans,

12,168 00 Civil Contingencies, Pap. 123 of 1826, pp. 11 and 15, sundries,

1,450 0 0

[blocks in formation]

1827.-From Parliamentary Papers, 1827. Naval Expenditure, Quart. Rev.

L.500,000 0 0 Army Estimates, Pap. 58 of 1827, p. 17, Staff and Medical Officers,

4,008 18

4 Commissariat Estimate, Pap. 58 of 1827, p. 3, Sundries,

2,751 39 Ordnance Estimates, Pap. 59 of 1827, pp. 11, 20, 42, 44, and 47, Sundries,

4,773 00 Civil Contingencies, Pap. 151 of 1827, pps. 10 and 12, Sundries,

2,101 12 8 Commissaries' Accounts, Pap. 87 of 1827, p. 55, Sierra Leone,

L.50,983 5 9
Provided in England,

19,546 13 11 19,546 13 15

&c.

L.70,529 18 101

P. 59, Gold Coast,

Provided in England,

L.8,335 2 54
5,424 17

41

13,759 19 10

64,343 10 54

L.13,759 19 10 Army Extraordinaries, Pap. 261 of 1827, pp. 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9,

and 12, Sundries, Miscellaneous Estimates, Pap. 161 of 1827, pp. 5 and 6, No.

5, Civil Establishments,

Military do. (Army account),
P. 7, Tools, Clothing, &c. for Lib. Africans and Convicts

N. S. Wales, L.49,000, say Miscellaneous Estates, Pap. 160 of 1827, p. 5, Captured Negroes, Bills drawn,

6 Slave Commissions, L.18,000,

19,609 16 0 32,065 1

13,000 0 0

30,000 0 0 8,000 0

0

Expenditure, 1827,

L.713,959 15

6

Abstract. 1821

L.684,521 16 11 the expenditure from 1791 till 1808 to 1822

684,768 12 9 make the annual expense from 1808 1823

693,134 10 83 till 1821 equal to the expense from 1824

697,980 16 41 1820 to 1828) as follows, viz. :1825 735,722 19 99

L.14,429,278 2 0 1826

841,158 15 61 To which add re1827 713,959 15 6 cruiting, fitting

out, and transL.5,050,247 18 1} porting of Eu

ropean troops, Yearly average, L.721,463 18 15 7000,

700,000 0 0 and which multiplied by 20 gives the expenditure for British Africa, or Si- Total, L.15,129,278 2 0 ERRA LEONE, since 1807, allowing

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