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tered Damascus, passed the Euphrates and the deserts in his rear, without furtand Tigris, and defeated Darius in the resses, and at a distance of nine hundred plains of Arbella, as that prince was ad. leagues from Macedon! Or suppose he vancing against him at the head of a still had been vanquished by Porus when more numerous army than that of the driven from the Indus !" Issus. Babylon opened itsgates to him. In It will be observed, that, mingled 330, he forced the pass of Suza, took that with the general lesson of those daztown, Persepolis, and Pasagarda, where zling and romantic triumphs, there is was the tomb of Cyrus. In 329 he turn

the particular defence

of the commened towards the North, and entered Ec- tator. Napoleon had been charged batana, extended his conquests to the Caspian Sea, punished Bessus, the vile labours to prove that this rashness is

with rashness as a principle. He here assassin of Darius, penetrated into Scy. but another name for rapidity, for the thia, and defeated the Scythians. It was

command of circumstances, for the in this campaign that he disgraced so

sure seizure of that success which almany trophies by the murder of Parmenio. In 328 he forced the passage of the

ways escapes the tardy, the timid, and Oxus, received 16,000 recruits from Ma

the cold.—His review of Hannibal's cedon, and subjected the neighbouring na

career is urged by the same intention. tions. It was in this year that he killed “ In the year 218, before the Christian Clitus with his own hand, and required era, Hannibal left Carthage, passed the the Macedonians to worship him, which Ebro and the Pyrenees, which mountains they refused to do. In 327 he passed the were previously unknown to the CarthaIndus, defeated Porus in a pitched battle, ginian arms; crossed the Rhone and the took him prisoner, and treated him as a farther Alps, and, in his first campaign, king. He intended to pass the Ganges, established himself in the midst of the but his army refused. He sailed on the Cisalpine Gauls, who, constantly hostile Indus in 326, with 800 ships. On reach- to the Roman people, sometimes victors ing the ocean, he sent Nearchus, with a over them, but more frequently vanquishfleet, to coast the Indian Sea as far as the ed, had never been subjected to their Euphrates. In 325 he spent sixty days sway. In this march of four hundred in crossing the Desert of Gedrosia, enter- leagues he spent five months; he left no ed Kermann, returned to Pasagarda, Per- garrison nor depots in his rear; kept up sepolis, and Suza, and married Statira, no communication with Spain or Carthe daughter of Darius. In 324 he again thage, with which latter place he had no marched towards the north, passed to intercourse until after the battle of Thra. Ecbatana, and ended his career at Baby- symene, when he communicated by the lon, where he was poisoned.

Adriatic. A more vast, comprehensive “His mode of warfare was methodical; scheme, was never executed by man. it merits the highest praise ; none of his Alexander's expedition was much less daconvoys were intercepted; his armies con- ring and difficult, and had a much greater stantly kept increasing ; the moment chance of success. This offensive war when they were weakest, was when he was nevertheless methodical—the Ciscommenced operations at the Granicus. alpine people of Milan and Boulogne beBy the time he arrived at the Indus, his came Carthaginians to Hannibal. Had numbers were tripled, without reckoning he left fortresses or depôts in his rear, he the corps commanded by the governors of must have weakened his army, and hathe conquered provinces, which were com- Žarded the success of his operations; he posed of invalided or wearied Macedo- would have been vulnerable at all points. nians, recruits sent from Greece, or drawn In 217 he passed the Appenines, beat from the Greek troops in the service of the Roman army in the plains of Thrasythe Satraps, or, finally, of foreigners raised mene, converged about Rome, and occuamong the natives in the country. Alex- pied the lower coasts of the Adriatic, ander merits the glory he has enjoyed for whence he communicated with Carthage. so many ages among all nations. But In the year 216, eighty thousand Romans suppose he had been defeated on the Issus, attacked him, and he defeated them at where the army of Darius was drawn up the field of Cannæ. Had he marched six in order of battle on his line of retreat,with days afterwards, he would have entered its left to the mountains, and its right to the Rome, and Carthage would have been the sea; whilst the Macedonians had their right mistress of the world! The effect of this towards the mountains, their left towards great victory was, however, immense. the sea, and the pass of Cilicia behind Capua opened its gates; all the Greek cothem. Or suppose he had been beaten lonies, and a great number of towns of at Arbella, with the Tigris, the Euphrates, Lower Italy, espoused the victorious side, Vol. XIV.


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and abandoned the cause of Rome. Han- like Hannibal, he kept his hostages, ma-
nibal's principle was to keep all his troops gazines, and hospitals. On the same
in junction; to have no garrison but in a principles, he conducted his seven other
single place, which he reserved to him- campaigns in Gaul.
self; to hold his hostages, his great ma- “ During the winter of 57, the Bel-
chines, his prisoners of distinction, and gians raised an army of 300,000 men,
his sick, depending on the fidelity of his which they placed under the command of
allies for his communications. He main- Galba, King of Soissons. Cæsar, having re-
tained himself sixteen years in Italy, with- ceived intelligence of this event from the
out receiving any succours from Carthage; Rhemi, his allies, hastened to encamp on
and he only evacuated Italy by order of the Aisnė. Galba, having no hopes of
his government, to fly to the defence of forcing his camp, passed the Aisne to ad-
his country. Fortune betrayed him at vance on Rheims; but Cæsar frustrated
Zama, and Carthage ceased to exist. But this manæuvre, and the Belgians dis-
had he been vanquished at Trebbia, Thra- banded; all the towns of this line sub
symene, or Cannæ, what greater disasters mitted in succession. The people of Hai-
could have happened than those which nault surprised him on the Sombre, in
followed the battle of Zama? Although the vicinity of Mauberge, before he had
defeated at the gates of his capital, he time to draw up in line ; out of eight le-
could not save his army from utter de- gions which he then had, six were enga-

ged in raising the intrenchments of the Napoleon's avowed tactique was to camp, and two were still in the rear with rush forwards; to take the enemy in the baggage. Fortune was so adverse to the moment of hesitation ; to overawe him on this day, that a body of cavalry the heavy armies chained to their lines from Treves deserted him, and spread * and fortresses, by the impetuous pre- report of the destruction of the Roman sence of a force that fell upon them like army wherever they went; he was, howthe whirlwind or the thunder, unex

ever, victorious. pected and irresistible. The Toujours “ In the year 56, he advanced, at one en avant was his motto ; and he shews push, on Nantes and Vannes, detaching that it was the motto of all the masters corps of considerable strength into Norof war. He defends himself and them mandy and Acquitain. The nearest point from the charge of fool-hardiness; he of his depots at that time was Toulouse, proves that they risked much, but it from which place he was distant 130 was to gain all.

leagues, and separated by mountains, “Cæsar was forty-one years of age when great rivers, and forests. he commanded in his first campaign, in

“ In the year 55, be carried the war to the year 58, before the Christian era, 140 Zutphen, in the interior of Holland, years after Hannibal. The people of Hel

where 400,000 barbarians were passing vetia had left their country to settle on

the Rhine to take possession of the lands the shores of the ocean, to the number of of the Gauls; he defeated them, killing 300,000; they had ninety thousand men the greater part, and driving the others to in arms, and were crossing Burgundy.

a considerable distance. He then repassThe people of Autun called Cæsar to ed the Rhine at Cologne, crossed Gaul, their assistance. He left Vienne, a fort

embarked at Boulogne, and made a deress of the Roman province, marched up scent in England. the Rhone, passed the Saone at Chalons, “ In the year 54, he once more crossed came up with the army of the Helvetians the Channel, with five legions, conquered a day's march from Autun, and defeated the banks of the Thames, took hostages, them in a long disputed battle. After for- and returned into Gaul before the equi. cing them to return to their mountains, nox. In autumn, having received intelli. he repassed the Saone, took possession of gence that his lieutenant Sabinus liad Besancon, and crossed the Jura to fight been slaughtered near Treves, with fifteen the army of Ariovistus, which he met a cohorts, and that Quintus Cicero was befew marches from the Rhine, defeated it, sieged in his camp at Tongres, he assemand forced it to re-enter Germany. At bled 8000 or 9000 men, commenced his this battle he was ninety leagues from march, defeated Ambiorix, who advanced Vienne; at the battle with the Helves to meet him, and relieved Cicero. tians, seventy leagues. In this campaign “ In the year 53, he suppressed the he constantly kept the six legions which revolt of the people of Sens, Chartres, composed his army joined in a single Treves, and Liege, and passed the Rhine corps. He left the care of his communi- a second time. cations to his allies, having always a “ The Gauls were already in agitation; month's provisions in a fortress, where, the insurrection burst forth on every side.

During the winter of 52, the whole po- the space between the Ebro and the pulation rose ; even the faithful people of Sierra Morena, established peace in AnAatun took part in the wars. The Ro- dalusia, and returned to make his entry man yoke was odious to the people of into Marseilles, which city his troops had Gaul. Cæsar was advised to return in- just taken ; he then proceeded to Rome, to the Roman province, or to repass the exercised the dictatorship there for ten Alps; he adopted neither of these plans. days, and departed once more to put himHe then had ten legions; he passed the self at the head of twelve legions, which Loire and besieged Bourges, in the depth Antony had assembled at Brindisi. of winter, took that city, in the sight of In the year 48, he crossed the Adrithe army of Vercingetorix, and laid siege atic with 25,000 men, held all Pompey's to Clermont; he failed, lost his hostages, forces in check for several months, until, magazines, and horses; these were at being joined by Antony, who had crossNevers, the place of his depot, of which ed the sea in defiance of the fleets of the the people of Autun took possession. enemy, they marched in junction on Nothing could appear more critical than Dyrrachium, Pompey's place of depot, his situation. Labienus, his lieutenant, which they invested. Pompey encampwas kept in alarm by the people of Paris; ed a few miles from that place, near the Cæsar ordered him to join him, and, with sea. Upon this, Cæsar, not content with his whole army in junction, laid siege to having invested Dyracchium, invested Alesia, in which town the Gallic army the enemy's camp also. He availed himhad enclosed itself. He occupied fifty self of the summits of the surrounding days in fortifying his lines of counterval. hills, occupied them with twenty-four lation and circumvallation. Gaul raised a forts, which he raised, and thus establishnew army, more numerous than that ed a countervallation of six leagues. Pomwhich she had just lost; the people of pey, hemmed in on the shore, received Rheims alone remained faithful to Rome. provisions and reinforcements by sea, by The Gauls arrived to compel him to raise means of his fleet, which commanded the the siege; the garrison united its efforts Adriatic. He took advantage of his cenwith theirs, during three days, in order tral position, attacked and defeated Cæto destroy the Romans in their lines. sar, who lost thirty standards, and thirty Cæsar triumphed over all obstacles; Aie- thousand soldiers, the best of his veteran sia fell, and the Gauls were subdued. troops. His fortunes appeared to totter ;

“ During this great contest, the whole he could expect no reinforcements; the of Cæsar's army was in his camp ; he left sea was closed against him; Pompey no point vulnerable. He availed himself had every advantage. But Cæsar made a of his victory to regain the affections of march of fifty leagues, carried the war inthe people of Autun, amongst whom he to Thessaly, and defeated Pompey's arpassed the winter, although he made suc- my in the plains of Pharsalia. Pompey, cessive expeditions, at a hundred leagues almost alone, though master of the sea, distant from each other, with different fled, and presented himself as a suppliant troops. At length, in the year 51, he on the coast of Egypt, where he fell by laid siege to Cahors, where the last of the the hand of a base assassin. Gallic army perished. The Gauls became “ A few days after, Caesar went in purRoman provinces, the tribute from which suit of him to Alexandria, where he was added to the wealth of Rome eight mil. besieged in the palace and amphịtheatre lions of money annually:

by the populace of that great city, and “ In Cæsar's campaigns of the civil the army of Achillas. At length, after war, he conquered, by following the same nine months of danger and continual method and the same principles, but he battles, the loss of any one of which ran much greater risks. He passed the would liave been fatal to him, he triumphRubicon with a single legion; at Corfi- ed over the Egyptians. nium, he took thirty cohorts; and, in “ In the neantime, Scipio, Labienus, three months, drove Pompey out of Italy. and King Juba, ruled in Africa, with fourWhat rapidity! what promptitude! what teen legions, the remains of Pompey's boldness! Whilst the ships necessary for party; they had numerous squadrons, and passing the Adriatic, and following his scoured the sea. At Utica, Cato breathed rival into Greece, were preparing, he the hatred he felt into every bosom. passed the Alps and Pyrenees, crossed Cæsar embarked with a few troops, reachCatalonia at the head of 900 horse-a ed Adrumetum, sustained reverses in seforce scarcely sufficient for his escort- veral engagements, but being at length arrived before Lerida, and, in forty days, joined by his whole army, defeated Scisubdued Pompey's legions commanded pio, Labienus, and King Juba on the by Afranius. He then rapidly traversed plains of Thapsus. Cato, Scipio, and Juba killed themselves. Neither fortresses, fought two battles; was victorious both numerous squadrons, nor the oaths and at Leipzig and Lutzen, but met his death duties of states, could save the vanquish in the latter field. In this short career, ed from the ascendancy and activity of the however, he established a great reputavictor. In the year 45, the sons of Pom- tion, by his boldness, the rapidity of his pey having assembled in Spain the rem- movements, the discipline and intrepidity nants of the armies of Pharsalia and of his troops. Gustavus Adolphus was Thapsus, found themselves at the head of actuated by the principles of Alexander, a more numerous force than that of their Hannibal, and Cæsar.” father. Caesar set out from Rome, reach- He pursues this review through the ed the Guadalquivir in twenty-three days, campaigns of Turenne-whom he conand defeated Sextus Pompey at Munda. siders as altogether superior to his riIt was there that, being on the point of val Montecuculi—and those of Fredelosing the battle, and perceiving that his old ric and Eugene. His own campaigns, legions seemed shaken, it is said he had the most triumphant and celebrated of thoughts of killing himself. Labienus fell them all, are rapidly traversed, and in the battle. The head of Sextus Pom- his military similitude to the race of pey was laid at the victor's feet. Six months after, in the Ides of March, Caesar profound theory and fierce and resist

conquerors sustained in every shape of was assassinated in the midst of the Ro

less execution. It is here that we see man Senate. Had he been defeated at Pharsalia, Thapsus, or Munda, he would Napoleon in his true point of distinchave suffered the fate of the great Pom- pulsive or contemptible. As a politi

tion. In all other aspects he was repey, Metellus, Scipio, and Sextus Pompey. Pompey, to whom the Romans cian, ignorant, narrow, and tyrannical; were so much attached; whom they sur

as an individual, vicious, mean, and named the Great, when he was but cruel ; but, as a soldier, exhibiting the

first rank of genius; bold, compretwenty-four years of age; who, after conquering in eighteen campaigns, triumphed hensive, indefatigable, and original. over three parts of the world, and carried Englishmen are not likely to be the the Roman name to such an elevation of adulators of this scourge of the human glory; Pompey, defeated at Pharsalia, race; but it is impossible to look upon there closed his career. Yet he was mas

his rise and his career, the sudden ter of the sea, while his rival had no splendour in which he shot above the fleet.

clouds of that stormy and sullen Re“ Cæsar's principles were the same as

volution; the mighty mastery with those of Alexander and Hannibal; to keep which he wielded the national strength, his forces in junction; not to be vulne- broken and dismayed as it had been; rable in any direction; to advance rapid- the appalling rapidity with which he ly on important points; to calculate on crushed all that Europe had been buildmoral means, the reputation of his arms, ing up of sovereignty for ages, without and the fear he inspired ; and also on po- acknowledging that Napoleon was litical means, for the preservation of the among the most powerful and most fidelity of his allies, and the obedience of formidable spirits that ever influenced the conquered nations.

society. Mankind may well rejoice that “ Gustavus Adolphus crossed the Bal- he is in his grave. Of what other man tic, took possession of the isle of Rugen for these thousand years can it be said, and Pomerania, and led his forces to the that his life was a terror, and his death Vistula, the Rhine, and the Danube. He a relief to the world?



marches to bed with a cocked hat, Your anger with me for not writing booted and spurred, with a huge sword articles for your Magazine, is most un carried in state before him, and his reasonable. You know that the mo- bride bringing up the rear in her bedment I turn my back on Edinburgh, gown? you and all your concerns are forgot

Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindten, or, if remembered, heartily wish

less villain." ed at the devil. Then come your infernal letters, week after week, with “ Besides, the jingle of lecherous that huge head on the wax, the look and treacherous, the first is become of which makes me break out into almost obsolete, and, in compliance a cold sweat. Oh, that the Magazine with modern manners, should be had never existed ! Then might I omitted, or exchanged for a word less have had some comfort in this life. offensive." Well done, Tom, again. How the devil can I write articles, What think ye of that, Mr Bowdler without books, pen, ink, and paper ? of Bath ? Oh, Lord! that the Magazine would

The play's the thing, but stop for a few months now and

Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king." then, like My Grandmother. With what a venerable grace does that old “That the representation of murder, lady re-appear on her crutch! and how before the murder, will not always complacently does the public welcome produce the desired effect, (who the the bed-ridden! So would it be with devil supposes it would?) we have a Maga. Let her pretend to be dead till remarkable instance in the story of Christmas, and all her sins will be for. Derby and Fisher. gotten. But, oh! my dear sir, these They were two gentlemen, very eternal torments are more than flesh intimately acquainted. The latter was and blood can endure ; and, good a dependent on the former, who geepiscopal as I am, you have sickened nerously supplied him with the means me indeed with the THIRTY-NINE AR- of living as became a man of birth TICLES.

and education. But no benefits are Well-well-what is to be done? sufficient to bind the base and the unHere is a book in three volumes. What grateful. After partingoneevening with is it? Dramatic Miscellanies, by Mr Derby, at his chambers in the Thomas Davies, 1784.” Perhaps he Temple, with all the usual marks of is a blockhead. But, blockhead or not, friendship, Fisher contrived to get into he shall be made to contribute, and be his apartments, with an intent to rob hanged to him, like his betters. Now and murder his friend. This he up. for his Notes on Hamlet,

happily accomplished. For some time

no suspicion fell on the murderer. He That thou, dead corse, again in complete appeared as usual in all public places. steel.

He was in a side-box at the play of “Mr Stevens, from Olaus Wormius, Hamlet; and when Wilkes uttered that proves it to be a custom of the Danish part of the soliloquy, which spoke of a kings to be buried in their armour. Guilty creature's sitting at a play,' a Seward, Earl of Northumberland, who lady turned about, and, looking at him, lived in the days of Edward the Con- said, “I wish the villain who murderfessor, was, by his desire, buried, arm- ed Mr Derby were here.' The lady ed at all points. But what is more and Fisher were strangers to each strange, Fuller, in his Worthies, re- other. It was afterwards known, that lates, that one of our old savage war

this was the man who had killed his riors would go to bed dressed in his ar- friend. The persons present in the mour to his new-married bride." Well box declared, that neither the speech done, Tom Davies ! Thou art the first from the actor, nor the exclamation man that ever indulged in such a fancy from the lady, made the least exteron beholding the buried Majesty of nal impression on the murderer. Fisher Denmark. Is it the King of Portugal, soon escaped to Rome, where he proor who is it, that on his marriage night, fessed himself a Roman Catholic, and

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