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writers—which is like them, and ar- So much for his taste. gues something of truth. But what A vast deal of noise has been made Homer, we marvel much, did these respecting the mal-treatment of Nagentlemen read ? Not the Greek, we poleon. The Quarterly has given its may be sworn; a language, of which opinion on the subject ; now it is ours, the most learned of their nation are in that a great deal of needless annoyance general ignorant. French translation was heaped upon Napoleon. The order there is none at all tolerable, at least from the Home Department to take none calculated to call forth the enco- away his sword, was ungenerous; and miums of these gentlemen—they pa- it would, no doubt, have been put in, tronize Homer, as some one said Lord to strict execution had Sir Hudson Bolingbroke patronized Providence. Lowe then been in command. 'Twas Perhaps they read him in the version doubly wrong to place the Emperor of Cesarotti, in whose Ossian Napoleon first in the hands of so amiable and had been once so wrapt; but Cesarot- deferent a gentleman as the Admiral, ti's Homer is as bad as his Ossian is and then transfer him into the hands good ; he translated the former to de- of Sir Hudson: it was the change, the preciate him, so that, even in this best continual changes and increase of petof accessible Homers, they could have ty vexations, that embittered his existbut a poor taste of the great original. ence. If the utmost severity had been Mind Las Cases, however-he never adopted at first, and adhered to, it once mentions a translation-he would would have been something. No afhave us suppose that he and the Em- fair could have been worse managed, peror amused themselves in the even- with due deference to Lord Bathurst; ings reading Greek. What a quiz! the instructions were mean and uncerWe verily believe, even the translation, tain, changing by every dispatch-all prose for verse, was brought forward those employed 'were unfit, from the but to look learned in a paragraph of fine, blunt seaman, first employed, to Las Cases' Journal, and to astonish the sensitive, nervous, irresolute, and the old grognards with the deep learn- ill-looking gentleman last in command. ing they little suspected in their old Every military man in the island murgeneral. His studies on board the fri- mured at the treatment of Napoleon ; gate which conveyed him clandestine- and the Quarterly Review knows well ly from Egypt, were more characteris- they did. As to O'Meara, the unprintic. He spent the greater part of cipled blockhead is not worth attendthe day," says Ganthaume, “ shut up ing to-read but his letter to Lord in his chamber, reading one time the Keith, refusing to serve as surgeon to Bible, at another the Alcoran.” The Napoleon, unless as a British officer, Emperor's dictatorial criticisms on under British control, and to be conCorneille, Racine, and the poets of his sidered in nowise belonging to Napo. own country, are in the true common- leon; and then read his answer to Naplace style of the French, and worthy poleon, on being asked whose servant of that most common-place of our cri- he thought himself. The man who tics, whom the French admire so much, could publish such a book must have Dr Blair. Of his general taste, too, deemed the people of England strangethere are samples in this work. Hear ly inapprehensive of truth and false, him, after declaring that his soul was hood. But put O'Meara out of the oriental, that he loved the desert, and question; the undenied facts are enough gloried that his name signified the -it was beneath the dignity of the Lion of the Desert- listen to this hero British nation to tell Napoleon she lis of the oriental soul describing the im- mited him to a bottle of wine per day, pression made upon him by those thus denying him in exile even the sograndest objects in the range of anti- lace of intoxication. His extravagant quity and man's creation :

wearing of one shirt a-day was also a " At dinner, the Emperor said many Joseph Ilume, than by a general offi

subject more worthy to be handled by curious things respecting Egypt. He found, he said, that all which he had seen in Egypt,

cer of his Majesty's forces. And we especially those so celebrated and so vaunt:

must say, that Sir Hudson's late step ed ruins, could never stand in comparison of transmitting to Las Cases extracts with Paris and the Thuilleries, or give an from O'Meara's letters, in which he idea of them.” Journal, Tome 3. Sisicme happened to speak ill of Las Cases, for Partie. P. 235.

the mere and mean end of creating a

quarrel between these par nobile fra- Ninth, and Charles the Third of Engtrum, was also a revenge unlike that land-he, thus generous to the Stuarts, taken generally by British officers. the unfortunate rivals of his house,

To conclude, we think the empty would havegranted the consoling name title of Emperor ought to have been of Emperor, if such be a consolation, allowed to Napoleon. The denial of to the exiled, the captive Napoleon. it has caused one-half of the shameful We are Tories, but we have feelings. turmoil of St Helena. We are certain, The Quarterly is ever unjust when the that had the noble and liberal-minded name of Napoleon is mentioned, and George the Fourth been consulted on sure this war of hate may cease, “when the occasion-he, who, so much above all its political ends have been acprejudice, gave, upon a public monu- complished.” ment, the titles of King to Henry the

E.

NAPOLEON.*

The French Revolution is now a Ottoman empire. It was contrary to her dream, and its leaders are like the inclination that Maria Theresa entered rambling and shadowy hopes with into the conspiracy against Poland, a na· which dreams are filled. The true tion placed at the entrance of Europe to bearing of its day of blood and turnult defend it from the irruptions of the northhas been discovered, and Napoleon ern nations. The disadvantages attendand his instruments are now judged ing the aggrandizement of Russia, were in the same balance that weighs the feared at Vienna, but great satisfaction ashes of the Neros and Borgias of the was nevertheless felt at the acquisition of world.

several millions of souls, and the influx of A new volume of Napoleon's Recol- many millions of money into the treasury. lections has been lately published, and The House of Austria would, in the same it contains some speculations sufficient- manner, feel averse, at the present day, to ly suitable to the vivid and stern sa

the partition of Turkey, but would never

theless consent to it. Austria would be gacity of a soldier, undoubtedly entitled to rank among the most daring dominions, by the addition of Servia, Bor

much gratified at the increase of her rast and brilliant military minds of his- nia, and the ancient Illyrian provinces, of tory. Those fragments are valuable, which Vienna was formerly the capital. as supplying the key to his policy, as

What will England and France do ? One the grounds on which he would pro- of them will take Egypt--a poor combably be acting, if he were still upon pensation. A statesman of the first orthe French throne; and, at all events, der used to say— Whenever I hear of the thoughts of one of the most pene- fleets sailing under the Greek cross, casttrating intellects, that ever looked up- ing anchor under the walls of the Seragon the map of European power. His lio, I seem to hear a cry proplietic of the conceptions of the result of a Turkish fall of the empire of the Crescent.'" and Russian war, may yet be quoted His remarks on Massena's Portuas oracles.

guese campaign, are probably tinged “A modern Turkish army is a thing by its ill success, but they form the of very little importance. The Ottomans reluctant panegyric of the British Gewill not be able to maintain their ground, neral.either in Asia Minor, Syria, or Egypt, “ Another offensive campaign, which when once the Russians shall, in addi- was equally contrary to the most importtion to the Crimea, the Phasis, and the ant rules of the art of war, was that of shores of the Caspian, become possessed Portugal. The Anglo-Portuguese army of Constantinople. Neither the patriots consisted of 80,000 men, of which numism of the people, nor the policy of the ber 15,000 were militia, who were in obcourts of Europe, prevented the partition servation at Coimbra, and supported upof Poland, or the spoliation of several na- on Oporto. The Freneh army, after tations, nor will they prevent the fall of the king Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida, enter

* Napoleon's Memoirs of the History of France during his Reign. 8vo. Colburn. 1823.

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ed Portugal 72,000 strong. It attacked tered thoughts are highly characteris-
the enemy in position on the heights of tic of the man.
Busaco. The two armies were of equal “After the re-embarkation of the Eng-
force, but the position of Busaco was lish army (at Corunna), the King of Spain
very strong. The attack failed, and the (Joseph) remained inactive. He ought to
next morning the army turned those lines have marched on Cadiz, Valencia, and
by proceeding on Coimbra. The enemy Lisbon. Political means would then have
then effected his retreat on Lisbon, burn. done the rest. No one can deny, that
ing and laying waste the country. The if the court of Austria, instead of decla-
French general pursued him closely, left ring war, had allowed Napoleon to re-
no corps of observation to restrain the main four months longer in Spain, all
division of 15,000 militia at Oporto, aban- would have been over. The presence of
doned his rear, and Coimbra, his place of a general is indispensable. He is the
depot, where he left 5000 sick and wound- head, the whole of an army. It was not
ed. Before he had arrived at Lisbon, the the Roman army that subdued Gaul-it
Portuguese division had already occupied was Caesar himself; nor was it the Car-
Coimbra, and cut him off from all means thaginian army that made the Republic
of retreat. He ought to have left a corps tremble, but Hannibal himself; nor was
of 6000 men to occupy Coimbra, and it the Macedonian army which reached
keep the Portuguese division in awe. the Indus, but Alexander. It was not

“It is true, that he would in that case the French army which carried the war have arrived at Lisbon with only 60,000 to the Weser and the Inn, but Turenne; men, but that number was sufficient, if it nor was it the Prussian army which, for was the English General's intention to

seven years, defended Prussia against the embark; if, on the contrary, le intended three greatest powers of Europe--it was to maintain himself in Portugal, as there Frederick the Great." was every reason to believe, the French ought not to have passed Coimbra, but to The motive of the Russian war was have taken up a good position before that undoubtedly Napoleon's ambition of city, even at several marches distance, for being a universal conqueror, urged tified themselves tbere, subjected Oporto

on by his personal hatred of England. by means of a detachment, organized their

The conquest of Russia was contemrear and their communications with Al- plated as completing the European meida, and waited till Badajoz was taken, barrier against English commerce and and the army of Andalusia arrived on the

continental alliance. The alleged moTagus. When arrived at the foot of the

tives, however, are curious, and not intrenchments of Lisbon, the French ge

inconsistent with the true. neral failed in resolution ; yet he was aware of the existence of those lines,

" It was considered that the French since the enemy had been labouring on empire, which Napoleon had created by them for three months. The prevalent

so many victories, would infallibly be opinion is, that if he had attacked them dismembered at his death; and the scepon the day of his arrival, he would have

tre of Europe would pass into the hands carried them, but two days after it was of a Czar, unless Napoleon drove back no longer possible. The Anglo-Portuguese the Russians beyond the Borysthenes, army was there reinforced by a great

and raised up the throne of Poland, the number of battalions of militia ; so that, natural barrier of the empire. In 1812, without gaining any advantage, the French

Austria, Prussia, Germany, Swisserland, general lost 5000 sick and wounded, and

and Italy, marched under the French his communications with his rear. When eagles—was it not natural that Napoleon before Lisbon, he discovered that he had

should think the moment was arrived for not sufficient ammunition, he had made

consolidating theimmense edifice which he no calculation previously to his opera- had raised; but on the summit of which tion."

Russia would lean with the whole weight Napoleon here labours to shift the of her power, as long as she should be

able to send her armies at pleasure on defeat on the shoulders of his old ri

the Oder ? val, the Enfant gaté de la Victoire.

Alexander was young and That an old soldier like Massena

vigorous, like his empire. It was to be should have forgotten to calculate his

presumed that he would survive Napo

leon. Such was the whole secret of the cartridges, is absurd ; the true miscal

war." culation was on the bravery of the British, and the ability of their gene- The invasion of Russia, as it was the ral. Some of his desultory and scat- last, was the mightiest effort of the

French imperial power. It gives the of compensation, to obtain from England strongest illustration of the colossal the restoration of the French colonies. means of France and Napoleon. It When Count Bubna arrived at Prague, was made with 400,000 men.

the term limited for the armistice had ex“ The space of four bundred leagues pired several hours before. On this between the Rhine and the Borysthenes ground Austria declared her adhesion to was occupied by friends and allies. From to the coalition, and the war recomthe Rhine to the Elbe by the Saxons; menced.” thence to the Niemen by the Poles ; thence to the Borysthenes by the Lithuanians. The army had four lines of The military maxims of this prefortresses; those of the Rhine, the Elbe, eminent master of his art are worth the Vistula, and the Niemen. From Smo- remarking. lensko to Moscow, there were a hundred leagues of hostile country, Muscovy. Be- “ The front of a battalion in line should tween the Vistula and the Borysthenes, be sixty toises, which requires 800 men 240,000 men were left; 160,000 only under arms; 160 more are to be allowpassed the bridge of Smolensko. Ofed for drivers--fourth rank,” &c. those, 40,000 remained to guard depots “ There never can be more than one on the way; 100,000 entered Moscow, kind of infantry, because the firelock is the 20,000 had been killed in the march and best weapon for war, that ever was inventthe battle of Borodino. The march from ed by man. Smolensko to Moscow was founded on “ In an army in Flanders or Germany, the idea, that, in order to save that capi. the cavalry ought to be equal to a fourth tal, the enemy would fight a battle; that of the infantry; on the Pyrenees or the he would be defeated; that Moscow Alps, to a twentieth ; in Italy or Spain, would be taken ; that Alexander, to pre. to a sixth." serve or deliver his capital, would make Four pieces of artillery to every thoupeace; or that, if he should refuse it, the sand of infantry and cavalry. The better immense stores of that great city, and the infantry, the more care ought to be the 40,000 free and wealthy burghers taken of it by supporting it with good who inhabited it, would furnish the means batteries." of forming a national Noyau, for raising “ Armies of 120,000 men have somean insurrection of all the slaves in Rus- times marched in a single column, and sia, and striking a fatal blow to the em- been drawn up in line in the course of pire. The idea of burning a city almost six hours." as extensive as Paris, containing 300,000 “ The only fire practicable before the souls, was not regarded as a possibility." enemy, is that at discretion, commencing

by the right and left of each company.

“ The art of tixing a camp in a posiTreaties.

tion, is merely the art of taking up a line “ Austria was to have declared herself of battle on that position.” against France in May 1813. The vic- “ Field fortifications are never injutories of Lutzen and Wurtzen on the 2d rious, but always useful, when skilfully and 21st of May made her proceed more planned. This part of the art of war is circumspectly. Metternich demanded the susceptible of great improvement.” Illyrian provinces, and a frontier on the “ Discipline fixes the troops to their kingdoin of Italy, the Grand Duchy of colours. They are not to be rendered Warsaw, and Napoleon's renunciation of brave by harangues, when the firing bethe Protectorate of the Confederation of gins. The old soldiers scarely listen to the Rhine, of the Mediatorship of the them; the young forget them on the first Swiss Confederacy, of the Thirty-second discharge of cannon. A gesture by a be. Military Division, (Hamburgh, &c.) and loved general is as good as the finest baHolland. An armistice had been agreed rangue in the world.” on. The Duke of Vicenza was sent to “ When the Emperor Napeleon used Prague. Napoleon then sent Count Bub- to say, as he rode through the ranks ana to the Emperor of Austria at Dres- midst the fire, . Unfurl those colours, the den, to offer the Illyrian provinces, di- moment is at length arrived,his gesture vided from Italy by the Isonzo, the Grand and manner filled the French soldiers Duchy of Warsaw, the Protectorate of with ardour and impatience.” the Confederation of the Rhine, and the “ There should be only one army, for Mediatorship of the Swiss Confederacy. unity of command is of the first necessity Holland and the Hanse Towns were to in war. The army must be kept in juncbe retained till peace; and as a means tion, The greatest possible number of

forces must be concentrated on the field and he distinctly gives us to underof battle.”

stand, that, upon the system of the “ Make offensive war like Alexander, great captains of antiquity, he formed Hannibal, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne, that new and brilliant tactique which Prince Eugene, and Frederic. Read overwhelmed Europe. His coup-d'-wil again and again the history of their 88 of the campaigns of Alexander, Cæsar, campaigns; model yourself upon them. &c. is rapid, but striking, and might That is the only way to become a great com- form, in the hands of some of our mimander, and to obtain the secrets of the litary scholars, the nucleus of a work of art.”

remarkable interest and instruction. “The garrisons of fortified places ought to be drawn from the population, and not

“ Alexander crossed the Dardanelles from the active army. Provincial regi- in the year 334 before the Christian era, ments of militia were intended for this with an army of 40,000 men, of which an service."

eighth part was cavalry. He forced the

passage of the Granicus, which was deThe Great Captains.

fended by an army under Memnon, a “ Alexander conducted eight cam

Greek, who commanded on the coast of paigns in Asia and India ; Hannibal,

Asia for Darius; after which he employseventeen-one in Spain, fifteen in Italy, ed the whole of the year 333 in establishand one in Africa; Csesar, thirteen-eight ing his power in Asia Minor. He was against the Gauls, and five against Pom- supported by the Greek colonies on the pey's legions ; Gustavus Adolphus, three

shores of the Black Sea and Mediterra-one in Livonia against the Russians, nean-Sardis, Ephesus, Tarsus, Miletus, and two in Germany against the House &c. The Kings of Persia allowed the of Austria ; Turenne, eighteen-nine in provinces and cities to govern themselves France, and nine in Germany; Prince by their peculiar laws. Their empire was Eugene, thirteen-two against the Turks, an union of confederate states; it did not five in Italy against France, and six on the form a single nation; and this circumRhine, or in Flanders; Frederic, eleven stance facilitated its conquest. As Alex-in Silesia, Bohemia, and on the Elbe. ander aimed only at the throne of the The history of these 88 campaigns would Persian monarch, he easily appropriated be a complete treatise on the art of war." the rights of sovereignty to himself, be

In this enumeration of the “ thun- cause he respected the usages, manners, derbolts of the field,” he omits Mith- and laws of the people, who suffered no ridates, Pompey, and Sylla, among change of condition. the Ancients. Among the great names

“In the year 332 he encountered Daof later times, Marlborough is omit- rius, who, at the head of 600,000 men, ted, probably from pique, though his occupied a position near Tarsus, on the campaigns were made a text-book in the banks of the Issus, in the straits of CiliEcole Militaire. Wellington it would cia; defeated him, entered Syria, took of course be vain to look for in Napo- Damascus, where the great King's trea·leon's enumeration. Napoleon him

sures were deposited, and laid siege to self made fourteen campaigns--two in Tyre. That proud metropolis of the conItaly, five in Germany, two in Africa months. He took Gaza, after a two

merce of the world stopped him for nine and Asia, two in Poland and Russia, months' siege, crossed the desert in seven one in Spain, and two in France. His days, entered Pelusium and Memphis, first was in 1796, when he crossed the and founded Alexandria. He met with Alps from Savona.

no obstacle, because Syria and Egypt were The study of the “88 campaigns” always connected by interest with the was not gratuitously advised by Na

Greeks; because the Arabian nations depoleon. French education is not deep- tested the Persians, and their hatred was ly classic, and Turenne, and the war

founded on religion; and, finally, because minister of the day, occupy a larger the Grecian troops of the Satraps joined space in the French military mind than the Macedonians. In less than two years, the whole stately genius of antiquity. after two battles, and four or five sieges, But Napoleon's soul was war, and all the coasts of the Black Sea, from the the traces that survive of his thoughts Phasis to Byzantium, and those of the and studies, give the impression of a Mediterranean as far as Alexandria, all vivid and absorbing passion for all that Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, were submade the art of supreme soldiership. dued by his arms. Arrian, Cæsar, and Polybius, were “ In 331 he repassed the desert, enamong his perpetual investigations; camped at Tyre, crossed Cælesyria, en

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